Pulse rate in a person: women, children,men

Update: December 2018 Pulse research has become routine.
research, which is often neglected in medical practice.
Most people consider it unnecessary and uninformative. it
big mistake. Properly executed technique can indicate
for the presence / absence of heart disease, inflammatory processes
in the body, problems with blood pressure and many others
pathologies.

Of course, the method is not specific enough to
determine the specific diagnosis. But in order to navigate
in a state of health, it fits optimally.

What is pulse

it передаточные колебания сосудов, которые возникают под
the action of blood flow. Let’s look at an example. A heart
constantly “pumps” blood. Walking through arteries and veins, it’s like
hits against their wall, encountering a certain resistance.
Withложив руку на любую поверхностную артерию, мы ощущаем эти
�“Blows” and we can evaluate their characteristics:

  • Frequency How many oscillations per minute does the wall
    specific vessel?
  • Synchronicity. Is pulsation the same on symmetrical areas?
    (wrists, hips, etc.)?
  • Regularity. Whether rhythm jumps or beats are made
    evenly?
  • Voltage. Is the artery easily compressed? Does it feel like
    resistance of its walls?

Experienced doctors can figure out a number of additional qualities such
like filling, form, presence of deficiency / surplus, etc. However for
primary diagnosis is quite enough of the above
signs.

Pulse rate

For each of the listed signs there are own
normal values. Only one of them depends on age – it is
frequency. The rest are universal for all people.
To determine them, it is not necessary to contact a specialist – o
how to measure the pulse yourself will be covered in detail
below.

Frequency

One of the most informative and simplest characteristics,
which is easy to learn at home. Measure heart rate
in two ways:

Classical

норма пульса у человека– finger pressing of the artery on the arm.
To do this, the subject must stretch his arms and slightly bend them into
elbow, completely relax and not talk. To obtain
correct result, you must exclude before measuring
active movement, eating and caffeine. Left limb follows
clasp right wrist in the wrist. On the opposite
the side of the algorithm is similar. Thanks to this simple movement
fingers will be directly on the vessel and feel its pulsation.
Counting beats is 60 seconds.

You can estimate the frequency on different parts of the body: on the neck, hips,
foot, etc. But traditionally it is believed that on the upper limb
it is most convenient to do it. Research is being conducted in other areas
only if artery obstruction is suspected;

Auto

Exist
special devices that can determine the frequency:
pulse oximeters (put on a finger); pulse bracelets;
electronic blood pressure monitors; smart watch with the corresponding function and
others. Their accuracy is somewhat lower than with the classical method,
but sufficient for research.

After counting the number of strokes by any of the methods, it is necessary
evaluate the result. For this it is necessary to relate it to
mean values ​​recommended by doctors.

Pulse rate по возрастам представлена в таблице:

Human age Normal value (beats / min)
Newborn (up to 28 days of life) 110-160
Baby (up to a year) 100-150
1-2 years 90-145
3-8 years 75-125
9-11 years old 65-100
Over 12 years old 60-90

A one-time study is not enough to assess the condition.
health It is important to evaluate this indicator over time, since
a single deviation from the norm may occur due to the large
the number of causes not related to disease. If a же у человека
constant or frequent pulse persists – this is the reason
reflect on the cause of this condition.

Other characteristics

Investigating pulse waves, one should not only take into account which
frequency they follow each other, but also how they do it.
Additional information about the state of a person and his
cardiovascular system can be obtained by assessing:

Characteristic Norm
Regularity The pulsation of blood vessels, which can be felt by the fingers, should be
constant – the intervals between oscillations should be the same
lengths The presence of sharp jumps, episodes of cuts or lack of
пульсовой волны – all these изменения являются косвенными признаками
наличия pathology.
Synchronicity To check this feature, you need the help of another.
a person who must pin down the arteries on both wrists. AT
norm, strikes against the vessel wall should occur simultaneously with
two sides.
Voltage A person should not apply force to squeeze the vessel. If a
he feels resistance under his finger – it can be a sign
pathological changes in the artery wall.

To suspect a disease, it is enough to reveal once
changes in the listed indicators. They rarely deviate from
human pulse rate under physiological conditions, in Unlike
frequencies. Therefore it is very important to pay attention to all signs in
complex

Withчины отклонения от нормы

Depending on the state of human health, there are 2 groups
factors that can change the nature of the pulse waves. The first –
physiological, in which there are no pathologies in the body that affect
blood flow. If a же нарушения возникли вследствие болезни, речь уже
It is about the action of a pathological cause.

Physiological causes

These factors may cause frequency deviations.
pulse, both in the direction of decrease, and a significant increase. how
typically, these symptoms only occur during
certain provoking agent. After stopping it
impact, the bloodstream must gradually return to the limits
normal performance. Average normalization time – 15-40
minutes

howие причины повышенного пульса? it любые процессы, которые
require additional energy from the body or stimulate
the work of the circulatory system. These should include:

  • Any physical / mental stress. Stress, lifting heavy
    items, brisk walking, climbing stairs, etc. – all these
    states are accompanied by increased nutrient consumption and
    the acceleration of blood flow;
  • Digestion of food – at this time a large
    the number of internal organs (digestive glands, stomach,
    liver, pancreas, etc.). In order to provide them
    energy, the body creates enhanced blood flow to the tissues;
  • Drinking some drinks (coffee, Coca-Cola, energy drinks)
    – these liquids incorporate caffeine, activating the work
    hearts, vessels and parts of smooth muscle cells;
  • Withем алкоголя – расширяя сосуды, спиртные напитки вынуждают
    work the heart more intense increasing the number of beats in
    a minute;
  • Smoking – nicotine is a kind of stimulator for the walls
    arteries / veins, which causes them to contract. it приводит к
    a temporary increase in the intensity of blood flow and pressure (by 20-30
    minutes)

Slow heartbeat, and accordingly the pulsation of the arteries,
can with states of complete relaxation: during sleep
(natural and induced), relaxation procedures,
physiotherapy, prolonged static posture (lying or sitting), with
performing monotonous work. To speed it up
a little physical activity or “switching” activity.
ATосстановление происходит сразу или спустя несколько minutes

Pathological causes

Diseases affect not only blood flow, but also
on the condition of the wall of the arteries, veins, heart muscle work. All this
can lead not only to acceleration / deceleration of frequency, but also
complete lack of blood flow in the arteries of the limb, his
irregularity or strong tension.

Withчины повышенного пульса

Pathology Development mechanism Distinctive features and principles of diagnosis
Any infectious diseases with fever Fever is almost always a sign of poisoning.
organism toxins, microbes or fungal flora. It is they
affect the work of the heart, causing it to beat more often.
how правило, у больных наблюдается повышенный пульс при
normal pressure. Наличие дополнительных симптомов  со
side of other organs (diarrhea, runny nose, sore throat, discomfort in
abdominal area) along with fever – the most
typical sign of infection.
Withступ стенокардии (ИБС) With этом состоянии, сердечная мышца испытывает недостаток
blood flow. It increases blood flow velocity, trying to achieve
restore the power of your own tissue.
The main manifestation of coronary artery disease – pain in the middle of the chest,
pressure character, passing after taking Nitroglycerin for
несколько minutes
Hyperthyroidism In Russia, thyroid pathologies are not uncommon.
Among them is a group of diseases in which it increases
the size and amount of hormones entering the blood. Exactly these
вещества являются причиной изменения frequencies.
Characterized by the appearance of the patient and his behavior:

  • Thin build;
  • Tendency to mood swings;
  • Increased fatigue;
  • �”Bulging” eyes;
  • Constantly persisting appetite.

You can confirm / deny the presence of hyperthyroidism by ordinary
Ultrasound.

Hypertensive crisis A sharp jump in pressure arises due to the contraction of vessels by
the whole body. It is much harder for the heart to “pump” blood in such
conditions, so it puts more effort. it проявляется
accelerating the pace of his work and strengthening the cuts.
The rapid increase in pressure, more than 160/90 mm Hg, which
accompanied by a strong deterioration of health (headaches,
general weakness, dizziness at rest, etc.)
Cushing’s disease / syndrome Relatively rare condition in which is thrown into
blood is a huge amount of adrenal hormones: aldosterone,
cortisol, ethinyl estradiol and others. Their effect is indirect
It increases blood flow and disrupts metabolism.
The prolonged course of the disease leads to the formation of
typical obesity picture:

  • The face is a regular round shape (doctors compare it to
    the moon);
  • Large amount of fat tissues on the body;
  • Thin legs and arms, without an excess of subcutaneous tissue.

Confirm the diagnosis by measuring the level of hormones (ACTH,
Cortisol) and the presence of a pathological formation in
adrenal / pituitary gland.

Pheochromocytoma This is a tumor of adrenal tissue that produces norepinephrine.
and adrenaline. Due to their excessive growth, the level increases.
listed substances in the blood. The result is persistent hypertension and
constantly accelerated heartbeat.

Very characteristic persistent hypertension, which can not be removed and not
reduced by potent drugs.

Optimal diagnostic methods – ultrasound and MRI.

Pre-eclampsia /

Eclampsia

The presence of a pregnant woman high blood pressure (more than 139/89
mm.rt.st.) and pulse (above 90 beats / min) – reason to apply for urgent
medical assistance.
The main criterion for this disease is the presence of protein in the urine.
It can be detected using clinical analysis.
Diseases with bronchopulmonary insufficiency (COPD, asthma,
tuberculosis, etc.)

The blood every minute takes oxygen from the lung and gives
carbon dioxide. This cycle is strictly adjusted, which allows
absorb the required amount of gas for certain needs
organism.

If the respiratory system is malfunctioning, blood flow
accelerates to get more respiratory
the cloth.

Typically, this symptom is observed in chronic patients,
who know their disease, and for a long time it is treated.

If there is a “debut” of pathology, it helps to suspect
respiratory disorders such as shortness of breath, choking attacks, obsessive
cough.

Blood loss The less fluid flows in the vessels, the harder the body
maintain the desired pressure (about 120/80 mm Hg). If arteries
and veins do not cope with this task, the heart muscle begins
shrink faster and more intense. This condition may occur.
with significant blood loss (on average, more than 600 ml).

If there is a wound, determine the cause of the increased pulse
represents labor. But what if the internal bleed
organs or tissues?

In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the general condition.
the patient. Pallor, the presence of cold sweat, a decrease in pressure –
the most typical signs of blood loss.

Causes of low heart rate

Pathology Development mechanism Distinctive features and principles of diagnosis
Heart attack This is the death of a part of the heart muscle that occurs when
insufficient arterial inflow to the tissues. Due to damage,
the body’s ability to perform its functions is reduced, so the blood
�”Swinging” with less intensity.

Almost always accompanied by severe chest pain,
which is enhanced at any load and not removed
nitroglycerin.

For reliable confirmation is enough
ECG study.

Changes in the heart wall (cardiomyopathy and hypertrophy) This term hides a whole group of diseases that violate
normal structure of the heart muscle. The result is a decrease in it.
contractility, decrease in heart rate and blood flow insufficiency in others
tissues.

These diseases can take a long time without any signs.
As a rule, the first symptoms are shortness of breath, increased
fatigue

The most affordable pathology detection method is ultrasound.

Violations of the conduction of nerve impulses to the heart (blockade,
sinus bradycardia)
This body works as a single system, thanks to the complex
nerve fibers. If one of them / several are interrupted, can
there is a decrease in the number of heartbeats. Violation of –
the most common cause of low heart rate.
Often, the disease does not bother the patient and is accidentally detected.
during an ECG during routine checkups.
Side effects of drugs Some medicines are aimed at reducing the activity of the heart.
and relaxation of blood vessels. These include:

  • Beta-blockers (Propranolol, Bisoprolol, Atenolol, etc.);
  • Calcium antagonists (Amlodipine, Nifedipine and others).
Given the mechanism of action of drugs, poisoning them
accompanied by a drop in pressure (less than 100/70 mm Hg) and near
common symptoms (dizziness, nausea, weakness).

No pulse on the limbs

Withчина этого состояния –  непроходимость артерии на руке
or foot. Most often, they are clogged with a blood clot (thrombus)
or “fatty” plaque, which can be formed with the following
states:

  • Atherosclerotic disease;
  • Thromboangiitis;
  • Endarteritis;
  • Traumatic thrombosis.

Lack of vessel pulsation is a dangerous symptom when detected
who should contact the doctor as soon as possible. If a
do not do this, the progression of pathology will lead to
gradual extinction of the limb, violation of its function and even
amputation.

Irregularity

If a сердце работает правильно, кровь пульсирует по артериям в
a certain orderly rhythm, albeit at a different pace. With
changes in his function, and there is a change in blood flow – he
becomes irregular, galloping, chaotic. After a little
delays can be determined by a series of fast waves, then repeated
calm and so on The presence of such changes is reliable.
a sign of arrhythmias. it a whole group of diseases associated with
lesion of the nervous apparatus of the heart muscle.

Only a doctor can detect and distinguish them from each other.
conducting additional survey methods such as
auscultation, ECG, ultrasound. The treatment is carried out antiarrhythmic
drugs that are selected, depending on the form
pathology.

Pulse detection is an important diagnostic event,
помогающее оценить работу organism. To change it can
cause a large number of reasons from various tissues and
systems (endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, etc.). Surveying
patient, they can be “filtered” and determine a significant factor, and
accordingly, the correct diagnosis.

FAQ

ATопрос: Пульс и частота сердечных сокращений (ЧСС)
It is the same?

Not really. The first term refers to how a particular pulse is pulsed.
vessel, and the second – the rate of contraction of the heart. In a healthy person
these values ​​are the same, but with full / partial “blockage”
arteries they can be very different.

ATопрос: Разная ли норма пульса у женщин и men?

No, doctors do not distinguish significant differences.

ATопрос: Изменяется ли частота сердцебиения у
athletes?

With занятиях определенными видами спорта, тренирующими
endurance (running, walking, football, etc.) human tissue
begin to “get used” to the lack of oxygen. Therefore frequency
pulse waves can be 10-15 below the average. If a
the patient practices strength training (weightlifting),
slow heartbeat may be due to hypertrophy of the walls
myocardium. In any case, it is recommended to undergo prophylactic
examination by a cardiologist.

ATопрос: Насколько индивидуален этот показатель?

Deviations of 10-20 beats / min from average values ​​can be
variant of the norm. However, before this is stated, it is necessary
full examination by a specialist.

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