Pulmonary pleurisy – what it is, causes, types,symptoms and treatment in adults

The main respiratory organ in the human body are
lungs. The unique anatomical structure of the human lung is completely
corresponds to the function they perform, which is difficult to overestimate.
Pulmonary pleurisy is caused by inflammation of the pleural sheets.
infectious and non-infectious causes. The disease does not belong to
a number of independent nosological forms, as is
a complication of many pathological processes.

What is pulmonary pleurisy

Что называет плевритом

Pulmonary pleurisy is one of the most complex inflammatory diseases.
diseases that are most severe in children and the elderly
people. The pleura is the serous membrane of the lung. She is
divided into visceral (pulmonary) and parietal
(wall).

Each lung is covered with a pulmonary pleura, which is on the surface
the root passes into the parietal pleura lining the adjacent
lung chest wall and separating the lung from
mediastinum. The pleura covering the lungs allows them
touching the chest without pain during breathing.

The lungs are a paired organ. Each person has two lungs –
right and left. The lungs are located in the chest and occupy 4/5
its volume. Each lung is covered with pleura, the outer edge of which
tightly adhered to the rib cage. Lung tissue resembles
fine sponge pink. With age, as well as
pathological processes of the respiratory system, long-term smoking
the color of the lung parenchyma changes and becomes darker.

Breathing is basically an uncontrollable process,
carried out at the reflex level. A certain responsibility is responsible for this.
zone – the medulla. It regulates the pace and degree of depth.
breathing, focusing on the percentage of blood carbonate concentration
gas. The respiratory rhythm is affected by the work of the whole organism. Depending
heart rate slows down or speeds up.

Disease classification

Depending от причины возникновения diseases, формы проявления
diseases can also vary and are divided into:

  • Purulent плеврит – это заболевание, возникновение которого
    provokes accumulation in the pleural cavity effusion purulent
    character At the same time, inflammatory damage occurs.
    the process of parietal and pulmonary membrane.
  • Exudative плеврит характеризуется поражением плевры
    infectious, tumor or other nature.
  • Dry плеврит обычно является осложнением болезненных процессов
    in the lungs or other organs located near the pleural
    cavity, or serves as a symptom of common (systemic) diseases.
  • Tuberculous pleurisy affects the serous membranes that form
    pleural cavity and covering lungs. The main symptom of the disease
    is an increased release of fluid or falling out to the surface
    fibrin pleura.

By distribution area:

  • Diffuse pleurisy (the exudate moves along the pleural
    cavities).
  • Sacculated pleurisy (fluid accumulates in one of the areas
    cavities of the pleura). It can be apical, parietal, basal,
    interlobar.

By the nature of the lesion, pleurisy is divided into:

  • esudative – between the layers of the pleura is formed and maintained
    liquid;
  • fibrous – fluid release is scanty, but the surface itself
    pleural walls are covered with a layer of fibrin (protein).

Pleurisy is divided by the nature of the distribution:

  • only one lung can be affected
  • both shares (one-way and two-way).

The reasons

I must say that the disease in its pure form is rare.
For example, the cause of development can be injury to the chest.
cells, its hypothermia. In most cases, she
accompanies any disease or occurs as his
complications.

Pulmonary pleurisy is characterized by formation on the surface.
pleural leaves of fibrinous overlays and / or accumulation in
pleural cavity exudate. Symptoms depend on the form
diseases.

The most common infectious pleurisy. Big role in
the mechanism of development of pathology plays and sensitization of the organism.
Microbes and their toxins cause a change in the body’s reactivity and
allergization of the pleura. The immune system begins to “send” to the hearth
inflammations are antibodies that, when combined with
antigens, affect the production of histamines.

About 70% of pathological forms are caused by bacterial
agents:

  • Streptococci;
  • Pneumococci;
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  • Anaerobes;
  • Mushrooms;
  • Legionella;
  • Tuberculosis.

The reasons неинфекционного плеврита легких следующие:

  • malignant tumors of the pleural sheets,
  • metastasis to the pleura (in breast, lung and
    others),
  • lesions of the connective tissue of diffuse nature (systemic
    vasculitis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus),
  • pulmonary infarction.

Is pleurisy contagious? To answer unequivocally this question
need to know the cause of the pleurisy. If suffering
associated with a chest injury, then, of course, such pleurisy
not contagious. In viral etiology, it can be completely infectious,
although the degree of contagiousness is low.

Symptoms of pulmonary pleurisy

Patients often miss the onset of pleurisy, since his
symptoms are similar to the common cold. However, the signs of this pathology
still different from other respiratory diseases. Should
Be aware that the symptoms of different types of pleurisy are also different.

The very first and most obvious sign of pulmonary pleurisy is:

  • Тяжелая, мимолетная, острая боль в груди, часто только
    на одной стороне, при глубоком дыхании, кашле, перемещении,
    sneezing or even talking.
  • Когда плеврит появляется в определенных местах
    на легких, боль можно чувствовать в других частях тела,
    such as neck, shoulder or abdomen.
  • Painful breathing often provokes a dry cough, which, in
    turn intensifies the pain.

The rate of increase in symptoms also plays a big role:

  • for acute periods of pleural lesion, rapid
    clinical takeoff;
  • for tumor and chronic forms – more relaxed
    diseases

How does lung pleurisy occur in older people? В пожилом
the age is marked by a sluggish course and slow absorption of the hearth.
inflammation.

Types of pleurisy Description and Symptoms
Dry Dry плеврит развивается на начальной стадии воспалительного
lesions of the pleura. Often at this stage of pathology in the cavity
lungs are not yet infectious agents, and the resulting changes
caused by reactive involvement of the blood and lymph
vessels, as well as an allergic component.

  • clear connection of chest pain with the act of breathing
    patient: pain suddenly arises or significantly
    intensified at the height of a deep breath. When the inflammatory process
    becomes less pronounced, pain also decreases.
  • dry cough that occurs due to irritation of fibrin
    cough pleural nerve endings, as well as increasing
    body temperature.
Purulent Purulent плеврит может образовываться как при непосредственном
lesion of the pleura with infectious agents, and with independent
opening an abscess (or other pus accumulation) of the lung in
pleural cavity. Patients with purulent pleurisy complain of:

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  • боли, чувство тяжести или полноты в боку,
  • cough,
  • difficulty breathing, inability to take a deep breath,
    shortness of breath
  • fever, weakness.
Exudative In the period of accumulation of exudate worry intense pain in
rib cage. Symptoms are aggravated by deep breathing,
coughing, motions. Increasing respiratory failure
manifested by pallor of the skin, mucosal cyanosis
shells, acrocyanosis. Development of compensatory tachycardia is typical,
lowering blood pressure.
Tuberculosis The clinical picture of tuberculous pleurisy is diverse and
closely related to the characteristics of tuberculous inflammation in
pleural cavity and lungs. In some patients, simultaneously with
other manifestations of tuberculosis are noted with pleurisy, especially
primary (paraspecific reactions, specific damage
bronchi).

Stages

Inflammation of the pleura develops in response to the introduction
germs and consists of 3 stages: exudation,
formation of purulent discharge and recovery.

An exudate is a fluid exiting from microvessels.
 containing a large amount of protein and usually shaped
blood elements. Accumulates in tissues and / or body cavities during
inflammation.

Stage 1

На первом этапе под влиянием возбудителя diseases расширяются
blood vessels, their permeability increases,
enhanced fluid production.

Stage 2

The stage of exudation gradually passes into the stage of formation
purulent discharge. This happens in the process of further
developmental pathology. On the pleural sheets appear fibrinous
deposits that create friction between them when breathing. it
leads to the formation of adhesions and pockets in the pleural cavity,
impeding the normal outflow of exudate, which acquires
purulent temper. Purulent discharge consists of bacteria and
products of their life.

Stage 3 pleurisy

In the third stage, the symptoms gradually subside, the patient either
recovers, or the disease becomes chronic. Not
смотря на то, что внешние симптомы diseases утихают и перестают
annoy the patient, inside the pathological processes gradually
develop further.

Complications

What is dangerous pulmonary pleurisy? As a result of scarring
(mooring lines) separate blocks of the lung are blocked, which contributes to
to a smaller intake of air at a breath, in a consequence – to the accelerated
breathing.

Running forms of pleurisy can lead to the development of dangerous for
health and life complications – pleural adhesions, local disorders
blood circulation due to squeezing of the vessels with exudate,
bronchopleural fistula.

The main complications of pleurisy:

  • Purulent fusion of the pleura (empyema);
  • Adhesions of the pleural cavity – a consequence of exudative
    pleurisy;
  • Thickening of leaflets, fibrosis;
  • Reduced respiratory excursion of the lungs;
  • Respiratory, cardiovascular failure.

The prognosis for such complications is very serious: mortality
reaches 50%. An even higher percentage of perishing patients is among the elderly and
weakened people, small children.

Diagnostics

If symptoms are found, you should immediately consult a doctor:
in the absence of temperature – appeal to Precinct
general practitioner; in case of unstable state of health or passing
infectious disease – to the emergency room

On examination, the diseased half of the chest lags behind in the act
breathing, this can be seen from the movement of the blades. When listening
the lung is determined by the very characteristic sound of pleural friction.
Radiography in acute dry pleurisy does not provide sufficient
information. Laboratory tests will characterize the main
disease.

After the patient has been diagnosed,
intake of fluid in the pleura to establish what kind of fluid is in it
accumulates. Most often it is exudate or pus, in rare cases –
blood. It is noteworthy that purulent form is more common in children.
diseases.

For the diagnosis of pleurisy are used the following
surveys:

  • examination and questioning of the patient;
  • clinical examination of the patient;
  • x-ray examination;
  • blood test;
  • analysis of pleural effusion;
  • microbiological examination.

Lung pleurisy treatment

If you are diagnosed with lung pleurisy, what is it like
to treat the disease – explains the attending physician. При подозрение на
pleurisy, symptoms, and all the treatments previously performed are analyzed, and
the patient is hospitalized.

Looking at the type of disease, certain
medical preparations that help to remove inflammation,
reduce symptoms But it is necessary not only to drink pills:
need proper nutrition, exercise, to
restore organs completely.

Drug treatment depends on the cause of
pleurisy, namely:

  • If the disease is caused by pneumonia or acute bronchitis, then treat
    it is needed antibiotics;
  • Tuberculosis requires special treatment.
  • Anti-pleurisy pain medications
    с ацетаминофеном или противовоспалительными средствами, такими
    like ibuprofen.

Type of drug depends on the cause of the disease. If it wears
contagious – antibiotics are used if
allergic – antiallergic drugs.

In the early stage of pulmonary fibrinous pleurisy is recommended
half-alcohol warming compresses, chloride electrophoresis
calcium.

In the treatment of pulmonary exudative pleurisy, physiotherapy is performed
in the resolution phase (exudation resorption) in order to accelerate
the disappearance of exudate, reduce pleural adhesions.

During exacerbation of dry pleurisy, warming is prescribed to patients.
chest infrared, ultraviolet radiation chest
cells, daily paraffin applications. After remitting acute
inflammation – electrophoresis of calcium and iodine. One month after
recovery shows water treatments, exercise therapy, manual and vibratory
massage.

Patients need to take a balanced diet and
the use of large amounts of fluid. Also patient
prescribe a special diet, based on a lot
vitamins, proteins.

After discharge from the hospital, patients need to perform
breathing exercises prescribed by a doctor for recovery
full-fledged lung activity. Moderate physical shown
loads, long walks in the fresh air, very useful
yoga. Especially helpful for recovering coniferous
the forest.

How to treat pleurisy folk remedies

It is important to understand that treating pleurisy with folk only
funds can not, because the disease can progress rapidly
and lead to respiratory failure and suppuration effusion.

Lung pleurisy treatment народными средствами заключается в
the use of compresses and the use of infusions, decoctions, tinctures.

  1. From pleurisy helps beet juice. It is squeezed out of fresh
    root vegetables, mixed with honey. Per 100 g of juice requires 2 tablespoons
    spoons of honey. Take the drug 2 times a day after meals. Everytime
    you need to prepare a fresh portion, the composition does not need to be stored.
  2. Try to treat pleurisy infusion of herbs such as: mint,
    Sushenitsa, coltsfoot take a glass three times a day.
  3. Roots (0.5 tsp.) And rhizomes (0.5 tsp.) Caucasian freezer.
    boil in 0.5 l of water to form a glass after evaporation
    fluid. Take 0.5 tsp. three times a day. The decoction is useful for
    treatment of pleurisy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cardiac
    failure.
  4. Honey and onion juice mixed in equal portions (instead of onions you can
    take black radish juice) – one tablespoon twice a day for
    treatment of pleurisy.
  5. The infusion of the leaf of the plantain large or ordinary. On the floor
    liter of boiling water is added 2 tbsp. l dried plant. Liquid
    filtered and drunk warm at 100-120 ml 4 times a day. Drink
    harmless, has a healing and antibacterial character.

Prevention

Very simple: it is necessary to adequately treat the primary
infectious diseases, monitor nutrition, alternate
exercise with quality rest, do not overheat and do not
succumb to excessive cooling.

Remember that pleurisy is a consequence of another disease. Never
interrupt treatment halfway due to trivial laziness or lack
time and always try to avoid situations that may
provoke an infection.

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