Protein in urine, mucus in children and adults, the reasons

Для многих заболеваний urineвыделительной системы характерно
появление в urine патологических примесей, как свидетельство
воспалительных изменений urineвыводящих путей или почек. Most
характерными составляющими urineвого осадка являются слизь,
white blood cells, red blood cells and protein. Consider the situations for which
характерны два из них: слизь и белок в urine.

High protein concentration

Normally, there should be no protein in the urine analysis. After all, protein
в urine – это, чаще всего, слепки с почечных канальцев. If not
воспалительных изменений в почках или urineвыводящих путях – то
обычно нет и белка в urine. That is, most often the protein is lost.
при патологиях urineвыделительной system. it, так называемая,
pathological proteinuria.

But, there are also such states when protein with urine loses
healthy organism, for example:

  • athletes experiencing heavy physical exertion
    which in the body for energy decay not only
    sugars and fats but also protein
  • A similar situation happens with long fasting, when
    энергетических ресурсов организму не хватает and aboutн утилизирует свои
  • прand aboutбезвоживании, нахождении в жарком помещении или повышенной
    body temperature protein can also penetrate the renal
    membrane and excreted in the urine.
  • physiological protein loss in men with urine, in which
    prostatic secret falls, make up about one hundred and fifty
    milligrams per day.

Normally, in urine analysis it can be up to 0.033 g / l of protein. Daily
loss normally does not exceed 30-50 milligrams. В зависимостand aboutт
of the amount of protein excreted in the urine, proteinuria is divided into
three subspecies.

  • Microproteinuria is considered a daily loss of 150 to 500
    milligrams per day.
  • Умеренной потерей белка считается объем от 500 до 2000 mg в
  • Макропротеинурия (хлопья белка видны в urine глазом) – это
    потеря свыше 2 грамм белка за day.

Causes of increased protein in the urine

Патологическое состояние, когда обнаружен белок в urine,
associated with various diseases. Протеинурия может быть
prerenal, renal and postrenal.

Prerenal is associated with pathological changes outside
urineвыделительной системы

  • Burns
  • Tumors
  • Strokes

cause massive protein breakdown in the body that gets into
blood flow and excreted by the kidneys.

Renal (renal) is associated with pathologies of the renal glomerulus
or tubular apparatus

Glomerular pathologies
Acute glomerulonephritis it аутоиммунное поражение клубочка после перенесенной
streptococcal infection (sore throats). This increases
membrane permeability to protein molecules. It is celebrated
повторный подъем температуры, в urine появляется кровь и белок,
which are often determined only by laboratory. Most
характерна микропротеинурия and aboutтеки в сочетании с повышениями
blood pressure.
Chronic glomerulonephritis Chronic autoimmune glomerular inflammation with their gradual
death and manifestations of chronic renal failure.
There are several variants of this pathology: hypertensive with
predominant arterial hypertension, nephrotic with
макропротеинурией и массивнымand aboutтеками вплоть до анасарки,
mixed, combining the features of hypertension and nephrotic syndrome.
There is also a hematuric variant, known as Berger disease with
hematuria, edema and hypertension. Латентный или urineвой вариант –
this is glomerulonephritis with minimal changes in the form
microhematuria and moderate proteinuria.
Туберкулез почек and aboutпухоли Нередкие the reasons белка в urine.
Nephrotic syndrome it сочетание макропротеинурии (свыше 3, 5 грамм в сутки,
massive total edema, decreased protein in the blood with a fall
albumin fraction less than 20 g / l, increase in blood lipids
(cholesterol over 6.5 mmol / l). In addition to edema, pallor is characteristic.
and flaccidity of the skin, fragility and dullness of the hair. Patient worried
shortness of breath, palpitations, cracks in the skin. Extreme manifestation
nephrotic syndrome – liver enlargement, fluid in
pericardial bag and pleural cavity, ascites.
Mesangial proliferative focal sclerosis it сморщивание клубочков на фоне отложения в них иммунных
complexes with the development of renal failure.
Drug disease it нефрит, развивающийся на прием какого-либо медикамента.
Причина появления белка в urine при этом – аллергическая
Diabetic Nephropathy Combines sclerosis of the glomeruli and the defeat of the tubules
which proceed as an angiopathy. Refers to complications
diabetes mellitus.
Kidney amyloidosis Accumulation in the kidneys of the pathological protein (amyloid),
replacing renal tissue and provoking the appearance
Tubular hereditary pathologies
Konovalov-Wilson disease Hereditary copper metabolism, transmitted by
autosomal recessive type. In this case, the central nervous
system and internal organs. Characterized by a brown ring on the periphery
iris, liver, kidney damage, muscle stiffness,
trembling disorders and disorders psyche. Observed
Yellowness of the skin, increased bleeding, joint pain.
Renal lesions are manifested by the appearance in the urine of protein, glucose,
phosphates, urats and aciduria.
Galactosemia Impaired conversion of galactose into glucose, manifested in
the first weeks of life jaundice, liver enlargement, involuntary
eye movements, head and limb trembling, muscular
weakness, frequent vomiting. Galactose, coming with milk,
toxic to the central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Kidney
manifestations are nephrotic syndrome.
Cystinosis The accumulation in the tissues of cystine, which leads to an increase
temperature, an increase in urination and protein in the urine.
Low syndrome It is manifested by glaucoma, cataract, decreased muscle tone,
weakening of reflexes, mental retardation, renal
tubular acidosis.
Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rachitis-like disease with acidification of the blood. In the clinic
the curvature and fragility of bones, thirst, polyuria,
nephrocalcinosis, pyelonephritis.
Acquired canalicular pathologies
Interstitial nephritis This is acute renal failure, in which
the amount of urine discharge decreases (up to the full
absence) and swelling appear. Microproteinuria is detected in the urine.
The most common cause of interstitial nephritis is taking
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Polycystic kidney disease Renewal of multiple cysts in the renal tissue
kidney tissue.
Intoxication Intoxication наркотиками, тяжелыми металлами, пенициллинами
renal tubules also damaged
Renal sarcoidosis A rare disease that affects the kidneys directly or causes
renal failure due to nephrocalcinosis.
Low potassium Critical decrease in blood potassium level changes gradient
osmolar pressure and contributes to urine protein loss.

Postrenal proteinuria

It is associated with diseases of the urinary tract and is manifested
with pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis of different origin,
supplementing the clinic of these diseases.

Pyelonephritis (acute or chronic) – infectious inflammation
renal tissue characterized by fever pulling
pain in the projection of the kidneys (lower back and abdomen), frequent desires on
urination or urinary retention. On the face in the morning appear
swelling. A large number of white blood cells appears in urine tests,
bacteria, red blood cells and protein in the form of cylinders.

Causes of the child

Protein in urine, mucus in children and adults, the reasonsChildren, like adults, lose protein in urine when
physiological proteinuria or urinary disease
system. Normal protein in one portion of children’s urine is not or is not
more than 0.033 g / l. Daily allocation in children up to a month of life –
about 200 mg, older – about 60 mg.

Pathological causes of detection of urine protein in children
ages coincide with those of adults. Functional types

  • With fever
  • Proteinuria of newborns, which is observed up to 10 days from
    moment of birth, and in prematurity can hold up to three
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn can also give protein in
  • Orthostatic in children 6-16 years old when standing
  • When overloading protein food
  • With severe anemia
  • With fasting or very cold
  • When hypervitaminosis D

Protein in urine of pregnant

A condition such as pregnancy can also give protein in
urine. Поскольку у беременных часты инфекции urineвыводящих путей, а
protein can also enter the urine from the genital tract if not
test analysis rules (thorough hygiene of the external genital organs and
cotton swab in the vagina).

Белок в urine the reasons

Indicator test strips are sold in pharmacies most often in
canisters or tubes from 5 to 100 pcs.

Causes of proteinuria in pregnant women lie in increasing permeability
glomerular membranes for the albumin fraction of proteins.
Albumins have rather small molecules that easily penetrate.
through the membrane pores.

  • The daily loss of protein up to 30 is considered the norm during this period.
  • От 30 mg до 300 – микроальбуминурия
  • Over – Macroalbuminuria

With macroalbuminuria, as a rule, are available:

  • pronounced hidden edema (large weight gain) and external
    swelling of the face, limbs and anterior abdominal wall
  • This indicates preeclampsia and oxygen risks.
    starvation of the fetus and miscarriage (see preeclampsia with
  • this is the so-called nephropathy of pregnant women, combining protein in
    urine, отеки и повышенное артериальное давление.

При первой степени ее белок в urine не превышает 1г/л. At the second
it ranges from 1 to 3 g / l. The third degree is characterized by losses
over 3g / l. При уровне потерь белка порядка 500 mg за сутки высок
the risk of developing such a terrible complication, such as eclampsia, with a jump
blood pressure, convulsions and possible development of coma in
pregnant and fetal death.

Laboratory protein detection

Обычно белок в urine определяют с помощью:

  • turbodimetric titration or colorimetry. it
    quantitative tests that give an idea of ​​the amount of protein
    per unit volume of urine or in its daily amount.
  • There are also semi-quantitative methods with using
    test strips that may be false positive when taken
    penicillin antibiotics, sulfonamides,
    chlorhexidine, butamide, after the introduction of X-ray contrasts.Protein in urine, mucus in children and adults, the reasons

    Результаты определения белка в urine производятся сравнением
    the colored part of the test strip with a color scale on the surface

Often protein in a urine test is described as cylinders, that is,
casts of the renal tubules. There are several of them.

  • Hyaline cylinders (normally there can be 1-2), this is pure
    protein that is found in physiological and pathological
    renal and extrarenal proteinuria.
  • Granular cylinders are a protein with adherent epithelium.
    Characterized by glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy.
  • Waxy are formed from granular after their delay in
    renal tubules and partial dilution until homogeneous
  • Erythrocyte, respectively, is a protein and red blood cells
    (for example, with Berger’s disease).
  • Leukocyte characteristic of pyelonephritis and, in addition to protein,
    contain white blood cells.

Таким образом, обнаружение в urine белка – это настораживающий
a symptom that makes start a more detailed diagnostic
search to rule out serious kidney damage.

What does urine mucus mean?

Вся протяженность urineвыводящего тракта (urineточники, urineвой
the bladder and urethra are lined with epithelium, among which cells are
and goblets that produce mucus. The main function of mucus is
защита внутренней выстилки urineвых путей от раздражающего действия
urineвины и кислой реакции мочи.

Normally, mucus is excreted just enough to neutralize
aggressive effects. С мочой при urineиспускании ее выделяется
a very small amount that cannot be seen with the eye, but
can be determined by laboratory examination of urine.

Normally, when describing a urine test, a note will be made: ”mucus
in insignificant quantities ”, which means that worrying about
this is not necessary.

If urine has increased mucus

При воспалительных изменениях, возникающих в urineвыводящих
their mucous membrane becomes full-blooded, swells, and
goblet cells begin to actively produce increased
количество слизистого секрета, как бы пытаясь защитить urineточники,
urineвой пузырь и уретру от агрессии бактерий, грибов или вирусов.
A lot of mucus in the urine appears in urethritis, cystitis or
инфекции urineвыводящих путей.

  • Urethritis

it воспалительное заболевание уретры, которое может протекать
as an acute or chronic process. Most common urethritis
provoked by saprophytic bacterial infection (intestinal
bacilli, staphylococci) or a specific flora of infections,
sexually transmitted (gonococci, mycoplasma,
trichomonads, gardnerella).

Так слизь в urine у мужчин, в сочетании с лейкоцитозом и
the appearance of blood usually appears with specific acute
urethritis (see urethritis in men). Less common cause of inflammation
the urethra are fungi of the genus Kandida albicans or viruses. Clinic
уретрита сводится к резям в начале urineиспускания, зуду и жжению в
urineиспускательном канале, частым позывам на urineиспускание.

  • Cystitis or inflammation of the urine bladder

it более полиморфное острое или хроническое заболевание,
the main cause of which today is generally recognized as intestinal
wand (see cystitis in women). For hemorrhagic forms of the disease
more characteristic viral origin. Clinical manifestations
cystitis are reduced to severity and pain in the nadlonnoy area, increasing
urineиспусканий, ложным позывам на urineиспускание, болям в середине
и конце urineиспускания и патологическим изменениям в анализе мочи в
the appearance of abundant mucus, bacteria, white blood cells and red blood cells
(with hemorrhagic cystitis).

  • Infection of urinary tract infections

it транзиторное состояние, связанное с воспалением urineвых
pathways on the background of increasing aggressiveness of saprophytic microflora. It
may occur with a clinic of urethritis or cystitis, but at the same time
instrumental research time is not morphological
перестроек слизистой оболочки urineвыводящих путей.

The infection is quickly stopped by antibacterial
treatment. Women are most susceptible to this pathology
reproductive age. On the one hand, the structural features
perineum and the proximity of the external mouth of the urethra to the genital tract
обуславливает ассоциацию инфекции urineвыводящих путей с половой
жизнью, когда помимо своей микрофлоры в urineвыводящий тракт женщины
saprophytic microbes of the partner may also occur.

On the other hand, women are at increased risk of entering the intestinal urethra
sticks from the anal area. Highest peak infection risk
reach during periods when women have lowered immune response: during
menopause or during pregnancy. Небольшое количество слизи в urine
during pregnancy is regarded as a variant of the norm.

А вот слизь и бактерии в urine в сочетании с лейкоцитозом,
erythrocytes or protein is a reason to conduct a more thorough
обследование urineвых путей.

A large amount of mucus in the urine in women can indicate and control the urologist when changes in urine tests are required.

Mucus in urine in a child

Alertness should be present whenever a child has
urine обнаружена слизь. Особенности строения urineвыделительной
системы у children:

  • imperfection of innervation
  • weaker muscle layer
  • incomplete development of the kidneys to the age of three, their increased
  • более широкие urineточники с меньшей, чем у взрослых,
  • thinner and more vulnerable mucous urethra predispose to
    легкому развитию инфицирования urineвых путей

At the same time, girls get sick more often than boys because of shorter
and the wide urethra and the proximity of its external opening to the anus that
creates more favorable preconditions for the ascending
infection. Когда у ребенка в urine повышена слизь, the reasons надо
look for the same principle as adults, excluding inflammation
уретры, urineвого пузыря, urineточников и почек.

  • As a rule, a general urinalysis is reappointed (his
    replace with analysis by Nechiporenko, if they want to clarify the nature
    urineвого осадка), кроме того, смотрится клиническая кровь и
    renal tests in biochemistry.
  • According to the testimony prescribed sample Zimnitsky, urine crops,
    cystoscopy, kidney ultrasound or excretory urography.

Mild mucus in combination with leukocytes, bacteria and protein –
это всегда бесспорное свидетельство неполадок в urineвой системе

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