Prostate adenoma – symptoms in men, the firstsigns, causes, treatment and complications of adenoma

Prostate adenoma is a benign tumor,
which develops from the stroma or glandular epithelium of the prostate.
By itself, the adenoma does not metastasize; however, over time
time to be reborn in adenocarcinoma (prostatic cancer).

30-40% of men are over 50 and 75-90% are over 65
there are changes in the form of growth of glandular tissue in the area
bladder neck.

What is this disease, why does it occur in men over 40,
What are the first symptoms and what is prescribed as a treatment?
consider further.

What is prostate adenoma?

Аденома простаты

Prostate adenoma is a benign neoplasm
paraurethral glands located around the urethra in her
prostatic department. The main symptom of prostate adenoma is
violation of urination due to gradual compression of the urethra
one or more growing nodules.

With аденоме происходит увеличение органа, что провоцирует
squeezing of the bladder and urethra. it
disrupts the current of urine and leads to accumulation of residual urine.
Additionally, a man may develop an infection of the genital tract,
urolithiasis and cancer. The increase is painless,
which is dangerous for the rapid diagnosis of the disease.

The prostate gland: what is it?

предстательная железа

The prostate gland, also known as the prostate,
is an organ located slightly below the urinary
a bubble. The main purpose of the prostate – the development of specific
secret, which is part of the sperm. Secret prostate
glands, determining the consistency of the ejaculate (in particular, contributing to
its dilution), contains vitamins, enzymes,
immunoglobulin, zinc ions, etc.

Предстательная железа для мужчин —  это «второе сердце»,
which is responsible for sexual function, psycho-emotional state and
general health.

The main functions of the prostate include:

  • sperm liquefaction – thanks to this sperm become
    active mobility and generally become viable;
  • secretion – in its composition it has enzymes, proteins,
    fats and hormones, without which the reproductive system will not be normal
  • seed ejection – smooth muscles of the prostate gland are capable of
    reduction, which ensures the flow of semen into the urethra, and
    this is how ejaculation occurs.

Withчины возникновения

Prostate adenoma develops and grows gradually. Even that
the disease occurs predominantly among elderly men
age, the initial symptoms can be identified as early as 30-40 years.
Interestingly, first, the nodules of cells are massively formed and only
after a long time begin to grow in size.

Withчины развития:

  1. The first group includes lifestyle reasons.
    people who increase the likelihood of prostate growth. TO
    примеру, это может быть сидячая работа или активные умственные
    load in the absence of physical. That is why the role of regular
    exercise is hard to overestimate.
  2. The second group includes objective reasons that do not depend on
    human lifestyle. Proved that prostate adenoma occurs
    due to changes in the hormonal background of men. If we consider that
    these changes inevitably occur in old age, you can come
    conclude that only some men are lucky to avoid
    prostate problems.

There are a number of related factors that can
promote the development of adenoma. TO ним относят:

  • Overweight (the accumulation of adipose tissue contributes to
    female hormones);
  • Hereditary factor;
  • Atherosclerosis;
  • Abuse of smoking and alcohol;
  • Inflammatory processes in the kidneys and urethra
  • Hypodynamia and unhealthy diet;
  • High blood pressure.

Виды аденомы предстательной железы

According to the structure and location, there are three types of adenoma:

  1. The tumor penetrates the urethra.
    bladder, deforming the internal sphincter and breaking it
  2. The tumor increases towards the rectum, urination
    insignificantly disturbed, but loss of contractility
    prostatic part of the urethra does not completely release
  3. With равномерном уплотнении простаты под давлением аденомы без
    its increase is not observed nor the retention of urine in the bladder, nor
    нарушения urination. it наиболее благоприятный вид

Symptoms of prostate adenoma in men

There are two groups of symptoms of prostate adenoma: irritative and

TO первой группе симптомов при аденоме простаты относится:

  • increased urination,
  • persistent (imperative) urge to urinate,
  • nocturia
  • urinary incontinence.

To the group of obstructive symptoms characteristic of adenoma
prostates include:

  • difficulty urinating,
  • delayed onset and increased urination,
  • feeling of incomplete emptying
  • urinating intermittently sluggish stream,
  • the need for straining

Первые признаки на которые нужно обратить внимание:

  • First signs prostate adenomas – sluggish urine stream, increased
    urination that does not always end
    опорожнением мочевого a bubble.
  • As the tumor becomes serious,
    the patient has no desire to find out what causes prostate adenoma,
    he is more concerned with how to get rid of disturbing symptoms.
    Urination becomes difficult, you need to strain to
    urinate, connect the abdominal muscles.

With the complication of prostate adenoma and its transition to a severe stage
all symptoms will increase, which will adversely affect life
the patient. In burdened cases, only surgery can help
this is why it is so important to pay attention to the symptoms. Even
they repeated 1-2 times, you need to go full

Аденома предстательной железы у мужчин проходит несколько
stages, each of which is accompanied by increasing signs and

TOомпенсированная форма

The most characteristic changes in urination of this stage are:

  • more frequent
  • less free
  • not as intense as before (the urine stream no longer looks
    characteristic parabola, and falls almost vertically).

With further growth of the prostate and increased compression
The following symptoms appear in the urethra:

  • increased urge to urinate during the day
  • decrease in urine output,
  • increased incidences of irrepressible desire to urinate (so
    called imperative urges),
  • participation of auxiliary muscles: patient for better emptying
    occasionally straining the belly at the beginning or at the end

Subcompensated stage

Субкомпенсированная – увеличение простаты достигло уровней,
when it began to strongly affect the function of the bladder
remove urine from the body. Violations occur:

  • Bladder discharge occurs in portions
  • the walls of the bubble increase in thickness
  • part of the urine is retained,
  • involuntary bladder overflow can occur
    urine excretion
  • urine may be cloudy and contain blood impurities.

3 стадия аденомы простаты — декомпенсированная


There is a drop in the contractility of the bladder to
minimum limits, an increase in residual urine may be
about two liters. Also актуально резкое растягивание мочевого
a bubble in which its contours are visible in the form of an oval
either in a spherical shape, reaching the navel, and in some cases
and rising significantly higher.

Meanwhile, at night, and after and in the daytime, urine
systematically or constantly standing out, this happens
involuntarily due to overflowing urinary drops
a bubble.

Related adenoma symptoms:

  • weakness,
  • тошнота и отсутствие аппетита,
  • constipation
  • thirst and dry mouth.

Последствия для мужчины

Complications of prostate adenoma:

  • Acute urinary retention. Complication appears in 2 or 3 stages
    diseases due to compression of the urethra
    hypertrophied prostate gland.
  • Inflammation of the urinary tract. Urinary congestion
    the bubble leads to the proliferation of bacteria. They provoke development
    cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
  • Urolithiasis disease. Incomplete bladder emptying
    leads to the appearance of microliths, stones, or minerals in it
    sediments. They can cause a bladder blockage,
    urine retention.
  • Hematuria. The appearance in the urine of erythrocytes, the cause of which
    становится варикоз вен bladder neck.


It is no exaggeration if we say that successful
диагностика аденомы простаты напрямую зависит от самого the patient.
At the earliest stages, it is the survey that can give those indicators that
which the specialist will be able to suspect the presence of the disease.

Diagnostics состоит из:

  1. The doctor is conducting a digital prostate exam.
  2. In order to assess the severity of symptoms of adenoma
    prostate, the patient is offered to fill out a diary
  3. Perform a study of prostate secretions and smears from the urethra for
    exclusion of infectious complications.
  4. Prostate ultrasound is performed, during which the volume is determined
    prostate gland, reveal stones and areas with stagnant
    phenomena, assess the amount of residual urine, the condition of the kidneys and
    urinary tract.

PSA analysis for prostate adenoma is an important indicator for
determining the extent of the disease and prescribing treatment. Such a
each man over 40 is recommended to study
annually, because it diagnoses any abnormalities in the prostate and
can help identify even prostate cancer.

PSA level for men
Age PSA level
up to 50 years
  • < 2,5 нг/ml.
50-60 years
  • < 3,5 нг/ml.
60-70 years old
  • < 4,5 нг/ml.
over 70 years old
  • 6.5 ng / ml

TOаждый грамм доброкачественной аденомы предстательной железы
increases PSA levels by 0.3 ng / l, and each gram of malignant
опухоли – на 3,5 нг/ml. With аденоме простаты уровень
prostate-specific antigen almost never rises
выше 10 нг/ml. If this happens, then there is a suspicion of

Prostate adenoma treatment

Standard treatment for prostate adenoma in men can be performed.
drug, prompt and minimally invasive. The main technique –
surgery, which is assigned to all patients in
which bladder obstruction.

Treatment of prostate adenoma depending on the stage:

  1. The first stage can often do with conservative treatment,
    which, however, does not exclude manifestations in the form of acute and frequent
    urinary retention, increased urination (about 10 times),
    the formation of bleeding in the stagnant veins of the bladder or
    the appearance of large stones in it. All this, in turn, leads to
    forced measure in the form of surgery, and even with
    subject to the absence of residual urine.
  2. Second stage Gold standard of care at this stage
    – removal of adenoma using surgery using various
    minimally invasive and classical techniques.
  3. The third stage. Here the main tasks are to ensure good
    urine outflow to relieve azotemic intoxication. In this case
    Percutaneous puncture nephrostomy, cystostomy, etc. are used.
    Next, normalize the condition of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular
    systems, and then decide on the possible future operational


Reception of medications during the elimination of symptoms and manifestations
Disease is a gentle therapy that makes it possible
avoid surgical intervention. How effective
medicines depends on the severity of the adenoma.

Despite the fact that many patients help drugs and noticeably
improve the quality of life, in almost 100% of cases, unpleasant symptoms
return some time after the cancellation of drugs.


  1. Alpha blockers relax the muscles of the bladder and
    prostate, normalize the process of urination: Silodozin, Dalfaz,
    Omnik, Setegis, Kornam, Adenorm, Flosin, Doksazozin, Lokren.
  2. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are needed to reduce
    the amount of glandular tissue of the prostate tumor,
    control and correct hormonal levels: Dutasterid,
  3. Antibiotics are necessary to reduce the activity of pathogenic
    flora, if the cause of adenoma is a disease
    infection and e rapid reproduction: Cephalosporins,
  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs are necessary for a man to quickly
    elimination of inflammation of the prostate gland, reducing acute
    pain syndrome in prostate adenoma: Voltaren, Dikloberl,
  5. Male antispasmodics are necessary if pain syndrome even with
    following a strict diet does not recede, does not weaken. Preparations:
    Papaverine, ibuprofen, Buscopan.

Before using any drugs, be sure to
consult with your doctor, because there are contraindications
to use.


Surgical measures are applied in case of inefficiency.
conservative therapy or when the disease is neglected. With
prostate adenoma surgery is prescribed for absolute

  • Inability to urinate;
  • Massive hematuria;
  • Stones in the bladder;
  • Pathological processes in the prostate gland;
  • An increase in the average proportion of the prostate;
  • Renal failure;
  • Large accumulation of residual urine.

Unscheduled (emergency) operation is carried out during the day
after establishing the development of complications: with severe bleeding,
threatening the life of the patient, and when urinating in acute

Preparation for surgery:

  1. Complete blood count is performed to determine anemia (reduced
    hemoglobin and red blood cell count), leukocytosis (which
    or inflammatory process).
  2. Before surgery, it is necessary to check the function of the kidneys with
    biochemical analysis of blood. In the presence of a violation
    renal function will increase creatinine and blood urea.
  3. Blood clotting studies are necessary to exclude
    risk of thromboembolism or bleeding, both during and after
  4. ECG (electrocardiogram) – in order to exclude possible
    осложнения со стороны сердца вовремя operations.

There are different methods of surgical treatment of adenoma.
prostate gland:

  • Transurethral resection or TUR – widespread
    method, because such an operation is performed through the urethra
    channel without cuts. However, it can only be used for mass
    adenomas up to 60 g and up to 150 mg of residual urine in the bladder. Also
    this method is not permitted for renal failure.
    the patient.
  • Adenomectomy (open prostatectomy) is a popular method.
    surgical treatment of prostate adenoma due to
    least number of contraindications. It is relevant to use
    with a prostate mass of more than 40 g and the amount of residual urine from 150
    ml. Do not interfere with the operation and various complications

Probability of relapse

After surgery for prostate adenoma possible
inflammatory relapses. In this regard, in
the postoperative period must be respected
precautions that the doctor designates:

  • do not overwork
  • do not supercool
  • follow a diet
  • be supervised by a specialist.

Minimally invasive treatment of prostate adenoma.

  1. Термальный метод – размер предстательной железы
    decreases under exposure to high temperatures. For heating
    organ tissue uses radiofrequency and microwave
    radiation, at least – ultrasound.
  2. TOриодеструкция – патологические клетки ткани разрушаются
    by exposure to extremely cold temperatures.
  3. Лазерная методика – лазерное излучение воздействует на
    water in the tissues of the prostate gland, heats it. Going on
    folding (coagulation) of organ tissue.
  4. Баллонная дилатация уретры – в мочеиспускательный канал
    a catheter is inserted with an inflating balloon at the end, using
    which expands the lumen of the urethra.
  5. Стентирование простатической уретры – стент (каркас в виде
    cylinder) is introduced into the urethra, which facilitates the patient’s process

Diet for adenoma

Diet is selected for each patient individually, with
considering the degree of neglect of the pathology, the general condition of the patient and
его анамнеза, а так же вкусовых пристрастий the patient. But how
practice shows, without changing the mode and balance
food is indispensable.

Particular attention is paid to foods rich in selenium (Se) and
zinc (Zn), which favorably affect the tumor, reducing
its dimensions. During illness, a man should receive for
days 25 mg of zinc, and not less than 5 µg of selenium.

Products useful in prostate adenoma
Zinc Selenium
  • Seafood: mussels, oysters, shrimp.
  • Red meat,
  • lamb and lean beef.
  • Wheatgrass bran.
  • Buckwheat.
  • Nuts
  • Dried watermelon and pumpkin seeds.
  • Cocoa – powder and chocolate.
  • Sesame.
  • Calf liver.
  • Peas.
  • Herring.
  • Egg yolk.
  • Mushrooms.
  • Pork and beef liver.
  • Corn.
  • Rice, buckwheat,
  • barley and oatmeal.
  • Octopus meat
  • Egg.
  • Beans and lentils.
  • Pistachios.
  • Sea Kale
  • Peas.
  • Shrimps and scallops.
  • Olive oil.

Withблизительное меню:

  • Meat: lean young lamb, rabbit, beef, turkey,
  • Fish: all non-fatty species.
  • Soups: milk, beetroot, vegetable and broth vegetables,
    vegetarian soup, fruit, soup
  • Vegetables: except sorrel, radish, spinach, garlic, mushrooms, onions and
    pickled. If sauerkraut is not sour.
  • Bread: preferably wheat, not fresh, but yesterday’s
  • Dairy: sour milk, milk, kefir, cottage cheese and cheese (low-fat),
    a little sour cream.
  • Groats: different.
  • Also можно готовить белковый омлет, разрешены молочные
    sausages, various fruits in fresh and dried form. Drinks like
    compote, infusion, juice, jelly. Sweets can be mousses and jelly,
    sweets made from non-chocolate. Remove the cream, ice cream and

Diet after removal of prostate adenoma will be similar. I.e
it is also important to eat more fresh food, no harmful
dishes. The advantage of taking proteins and vegetable fats.


It is important to follow the following medical recommendations:

  • completely give up bad habits;
  • increase physical activity;
  • visit a urologist once a year;
  • follow a therapeutic diet;
  • control your own weight.

Prostate adenoma is a serious disease that requires
timely treatment, but only under the supervision of a specialist.
No self-medication is allowed here. All the best to you and
Take care of your health!

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