Pregnancy with low hemoglobin causes,effects

Update: October 2018

Quite frequent pathology, which happens during pregnancy –
low hemoglobin. Many women hear this diagnosis while carrying.
baby But not everyone understands what is dangerous and what can be
effects этого состояния.

Many ignore the instructions of the doctor. Therefore very useful
familiarize yourself with why hemoglobin decreases in pregnant women than
dangerous pregnancy with low hemoglobin for the fetus and mother, and
as well as the most effective treatment of this pathology. Anemia is
a condition in which there is a decrease in hemoglobin
and (or) the number of red blood cells.

Hemoglobin is a protein structure that has an ion in its composition
iron, performs a transport function, carries oxygen.
It is contained only in red blood cells.

Classification of anemia

There are several types of anemia:

  • Железодефицитная анемия — развивается
    due to a decrease in the level of iron in the blood. Maybe with
    chronic bleeding (gastric or duodenal ulcer
    intestines, hemorrhoids, uterine bleeding) and during pregnancy.
  • Гемолитическая анемия — происходит разрушение
    red blood cells. It happens when poisoning with poisons, heavy metals,
    some genetic diseases and cold
    impact.
  • В12-дефицитная анемия — возникает при
    lack of vitamin B12. It may be in the elderly, with
    lack of this vitamin in food or in violation of absorption in
    small intestine, as well as parasitic infections.
  • Анемия беременных — ее выделяют отдельно. how
    typically, pregnant women are diagnosed with iron deficiency
    anemia.
  • Постгеморрагическая анемия — возникает после
    significant blood loss.

howовы причины снижения уровня гемоглобина при
pregnancy?

Low hemoglobin in pregnancy arises due to
following factors:

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  • Increased circulating blood volume. The fruit is formed its own
    circulatory system communicating with the mother’s circulatory system.
    Also, the fetus has organs of blood formation and blood volume in
    pregnant woman’s body is much more than
    of pregnancy. This leads to a relative decrease in the content.
    hemoglobin in the blood. This happens after the 20th week.
    of pregnancy.
  • Needs of the fetus. The fruit is actively growing and developing, for this
    it needs a lot of trace elements, macronutrients and vitamins, in
    including iron. The level of iron in the blood decreases, which means
    hemoglobin level drops.
  • Multiple pregnancy. In the presence of several fruits
    �”Consumption” of iron increases several times.
  • Deficiency of other trace elements (copper, zinc, vitamin B12) also
    may cause anemia in a pregnant woman, including
    B12-deficiency anemia.
  • A small gap between pregnancies. If a woman was
    pregnant less than 3 years ago, the risk of anemia during follow-up
    pregnancy increases dramatically as iron stores and other
    essential trace elements and macronutrients is not replenished before
    than three years after delivery.
  • Taking certain medicines may affect the level
    hemoglobin.
  • A history of bleeding can cause post-hemorrhagic
    anemia. It can be at the begun miscarriage, detachment of the fetal
    eggs or placenta, with retrochorial hematoma.
  • Intestinal dysbiosis (symptoms) – deterioration of absorption and
    assimilation of trace elements.
  • Chronic stress, nervous tension.
  • Hormonal changes in the body of a pregnant woman
    estrogen levels increase, leading to poor absorption
    iron in the intestines.
  • According to some reports, the presence of toxicosis increases the risk of developing
    reduce hemoglobin in consequence. Most likely, this is due to
    often vomiting with toxicosis, which leads to a decrease in admission to
    the body of iron and other macronutrients and trace elements.
  • Exacerbation of chronic diseases during pregnancy leads
    to increase the cost of iron reserves in the body.

Low hemoglobin during pregnancy is usually diagnosed
после 20-й недели of pregnancy. Maximum level reduction
гемоглобина наблюдается на 32-33 неделе of pregnancy. To the birth of him
the level of self-rising.

  • 1 trimester – The need for iron ions in the first trimester
    практически не отличается от потребности до of pregnancy.
  • 2 trimester – Need for the second trimester of pregnancy
    increases by 2 times
  • 3 trimester – In the third – 5 times.

Therefore, anemia in pregnant women is diagnosed after 20 weeks in
dozens of times more often than in the first half of pregnancy (see
calculator for calculating the period of pregnancy and childbirth).

Чем может проявляться анемия во время pregnancy?

Pregnancy with low hemoglobin can proceed without any
symptoms but so It does not always happen. More often low level symptoms
hemoglobin in pregnancy appear almost immediately after
drops in his blood level. These include:Беременность при низком гемоглобине

  • Dizziness, pallor
  • Weakness, decreased performance, increased
    fatigue
  • Syncope
  • Shortness of breath with the slightest exertion
  • Increased heart rate
  • Fragility of nails
  • Loss of hair in large quantities, significantly exceeding
    rate
  • The appearance of cracks or painful sores in the corners of the mouth
  • �”Strange” taste and olfactory addictions – desire
    try chalk, sniff sharp or unpleasant for the average person
    smells

It is not always the presence of one or two of the symptoms mentioned above,
speaks of anemia in a pregnant woman, but if they are necessary
consult a doctor for reasons.

There are 3 degrees of hemoglobin reduction in pregnant women.

Grade 1 – mild anemia Blood hemoglobin level is within 90-110 g / l. May be not
have clinical manifestations.
Grade 2 – moderate anemia The level of blood hemoglobin in the range of 70-90 g / l. Appear
first symptoms of anemia that a woman does not always draw
due attention.
Grade 3 – severe anemia  Blood hemoglobin level is less than 70 g / l. there are all or
almost all clinical manifestations. The condition is very health threatening.
fetus and mother.

Consequences of low hemoglobin in pregnancy

Unfortunately, many are very frivolous about this.
the diagnosis. Can not always understand that to certain pathologies
приводит именно anemia. If a patient has a pregnancy
низкий гемоглобин, effects не заставят себя долго ждать. To them
relate:

  • Gestosis

Complication of pregnancy, which is manifested by edema,
protein in urine and elevated blood pressure. With anemia it
connected directly. Iron deficiency leads to dysfunction
liver, reduce protein production, impaired water metabolism. With
severe brain hypoxia occurs, headaches appear,
preeclampsia and eclampsia occur, which is urgent
indications for termination of pregnancy regardless of the period.

  • Intrauterine growth retardation

With недостаточности кислорода у плода замедляются синтетические
processes, growth and development are slowing. Oxygen starvation
adversely affects the fetal brain.

  • Increased risk of preterm birth
  • Increased risk of premature placental abruption, that without
    Providing timely care leads to the death of the fetus and, possibly,
    mothers.
  • With анемии тяжелой степени в 12% случаев наблюдается
    stillbirth (fetal death).
  • Complications in childbirth are much more common – generic weakness
    activity bleeding).
  • Increased risk of infectious complications in the postpartum
    period.
  • Often, these women do not have breast milk and
    its quantity is small.

According to a recent study by American scientists,
the consequence of anemia in the mother during pregnancy is
increased risk of developing senile dementia in the elderly
age Studies over 11 years have shown that
with anemia in older people the risk of developing dementia
increased by 41%, according to Californian scientists with anemia
oxygen supply to the brain is significantly reduced, which
causes damage to the neurons. Therefore, anemia during pregnancy
negatively affects the health of women and health
baby

Treatment of anemia in pregnant women

  • Nutrition

This method is not very effective and can only be used.
together with taking special drugs.

The need of a pregnant woman in the gland is 3-4 mg per
day in the middle of pregnancy and up to 10 mg per day – in the third
триместре of pregnancy. Many people mistakenly believe that for treatment
low hemoglobin in a pregnant woman is enough to eat right, but
it’s a delusion. From food per day you can not get
more than 1 mg of iron, which is a negligible amount for
pregnant woman. Naturally, some time lack of iron
will be compensated from the internal depot of the body. But they are not
велики и к 20 неделе у многих уже развивается anemia.

There are two types of iron – heme and non-heme. In products
power is contained in 99% non-heme iron, it does not affect the
количество hemoglobin. Therefore, for the treatment of anemia food
virtually useless. Products with the highest content
gland: Низкий гемоглобин при беременности

  • meat, liver
  • fish, eggs
  • grenades
  • apricots
  • spinach
  • peaches
  • beet
  • oatmeal

From animal products 6% of iron is absorbed, and from vegetable
no more than 0.2% of the total iron in the product.

  • Medical methods

The most effective is the reception of special drugs,
containing heme iron. It is absorbed much better than non-heme
железа и позволяет эффективно повысить уровень hemoglobin in the blood.
These drugs are prescribed by the doctor, selects the dose, selects the drug
(Ferrum Lek, Totem, Sorbifer, Tardiferon, Maltofer), most
suitable for you, takes into account individual intolerance and
severity of anemia (see list of all iron preparations with
anemia with classification, general principles of treatment and adverse
actions).

Prevention of hemoglobin reduction in pregnant women

The methods of prevention include taking vitamin and mineral
complexes for pregnant women from the first days of pregnancy, walks on
fresh air, folic acid intake, balanced nutrition,
treatment of intestinal dysbiosis and stress avoidance
situations.

Автор: Ревус Олеся Григорьевна врач-невролог

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