Polyps in the intestines symptoms, treatment,diagnostics

Update: December 2018

Polyps in the intestines, as in any other sex organ in
the human body is a very common pathology. it
benign lesions that are on the walls
intestine, attaching to it a wide base or leg and
выпячиваются в просвет intestine. it патологическое опухолевидное
Education is found in both children and adults.

In hereditary polyposis, often
malignancy of the neoplasm is therefore considered precancerous
disease and such formations should be promptly removed. With
polyps in the intestines, the symptoms are not always pronounced,
usually the process is asymptomatic, with polyps in the rectum
sometimes erosion forms, causing bleeding as well as discomfort
and itching in the anus, constipation, bloating, flatulence. With
infection of polyps may occur paraproctitis or anal
cracks. According to statistics, 10% of the population over 40 years old have polyps in
large intestine, in the rectum, and in men this pathology
occurs 1.5 times more often than women. Insofar as
озлокачествление проявляется bleedingми, если регулярно сдавать
fecal occult blood and timely consult a specialist when
early diagnosis of the disease in 85-90% of cases early surgery and
treatment leads to complete cure and long-term survival.

Polyps in the intestines are soft and have a different shape:
branchy, mushroom or spherical, the color can also be
various – reddish gray, yellowish or dark red, soft
consistency with mucus on the surface. In count
neoplasms polyps can be multiple (in 30% of cases),
located in different areas of the intestine in groups that may be
single or family (diffuse).

Withчины возникновения полипов

Today in medicine there is no consensus about
causes of polyps in the intestine, since the etiology
polyposis has not been thoroughly studied. There are only some
assumptions of the mechanism of formation and origin of polyps in
digestive organs:

Chronic inflammation in the intestinal walls

it самая очевидная и самая распространенная теория
происхождения полипов intestine. Insofar as в здоровых тканях полипы
do not develop, the main pathogenetic factor of occurrence
polyps are considered inflammatory diseases of the mucous membranes, which
lead to more rapid atrophy, aging of the mucosal epithelium.
The proliferation of benign tumors contribute to such
diseases like typhoid fever, enteritis, ulcerative colitis and
proctosigmoiditis, dysentery. Proof of this can serve
facts that after a clinical cure for ulcerative colitis
or dysentery, in patients disappear and polypous growths.
It is also believed that the beginning of the development of intestinal polyposis
intestinal dyskinesia and persistent constipation. Have большинства пациентов с
inflammatory bowel disease in history, localization
polyps were precisely in the places most susceptible to irritation
from stagnation of feces, in places of increased trauma.

General deterioration of public health due to environmental
setting

Most of us now notice a deterioration in health
the country’s population, especially by the number of unhealthy,
sometimes severely ill children. Today, children suffer from diseases
which only older people have suffered, are practically younger
all diseases. To additional factors provoking the occurrence
polyps, doctors carry unbalanced nutrition, abundantly
equipped with chemically irritating products
action on the mucous membranes of the entire digestive tract,
unfavorable ecological situation in general, sedentary
lifestyle aggravated by finding a person in the stuffy
gassy cities, alcohol abuse and
nicotine, irregular meals.

Полипы в кишечнике симптомы

Pathological condition of the vessels and digestive organs

Any pathological conditions of blood vessels – varicose
veins of internal organs, ischemic intestinal lesions on the background
atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and its branches, mesenteric thrombosis
vessels, as well as diverticular disease and any other diseases
organs of the digestive system affect and condition
слизистой intestine.

Fetal theory

There is also such a theory of the occurrence of polyps in the intestines,
symptoms that appear with age, and the onset and prerequisites
for the emergence of tumors are laid still in utero,
when a formation disorder occurs in the antenatal period
gastrointestinal mucosa, in particular the intestinal walls.

Genetic predisposition

It is believed that the development of intestinal polyps has a genetic
predisposition. Sometimes in children, polyps can develop on
background seemingly complete health when some areas
the intestines are genetically programmed differently and form
polyps.

Hypersensitivity to gluten and other food
allergic reactions

More recently, people with food allergies have been
extremely few, but today celiac disease (intolerance
gluten) is quite common, especially among toddlers. Have
people with this feature when eating foods with
gluten develops an immune response as foreign
intrusion into the body that causes mucosal damage to the thin
guts. If a person with food allergies does not exclude allergenic
products from the diet, then ultimately this can lead to
serious diseases caused by reduced nutrient absorption
substances – to osteoporosis, intestinal cancer.

What is the likelihood of polyp degeneration into intestinal cancer?

What polyps can develop into malignant? To these types
neoplasms accounts for almost 75% of all polyps in the intestines, their
called adenomas or adenomatous polyps. According to the behavior of cells
polyps under the microscope, in medicine, it is customary to divide the adenomas into
subtypes are glandular, villous and ferruginous
(tubular). Tubular least prone to malignancy,
when villous adenomas very often lead to
oncological rebirth.

Also contributing factors to polyp degeneration in
a malignant tumor is the size, as a rule, the larger
the size of the polyp, the higher the risk of it being malignant. If a
neoplasm reaches 2 cm, the risk increases by 20%, therefore
even the smallest polyps must be removed when they are found.
In addition to adenomas, there are other types of polyps. Hamartomatic,
inflammatory and hyperplastic polyps are those that are not
have oncological potential.

  • The most dangerous types of intestinal polyps that are reborn into
    рак  — аденоматозные
  • The larger the polyp, the higher the risk of it becoming malignant.
  • After 50 years each person is recommended to undergo flexible
    sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy for confirmation or
    exclude the presence of polyps. If a при колоноскопии полипы не
    found, the following diagnostics can be performed after 5 years
  • If a у пациента обнаружен и удален аденоматозный полип, он
    needs to be examined regularly in order to identify
    and removal of new polyps
  • Today there is genetic testing that can
    determine the syndrome of hereditary predisposition to cancer
    intestinal disease (Lynch syndrome, Turkot syndrome, Gardner syndrome,
    familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome) so that as soon as possible
    start screening with colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy and
    promptly stop the development of bowel cancer.

Symptoms of polyps in the intestines

In most cases, if there are polyps in the intestines, symptoms
no case. Unfortunately, polyps have virtually no
specific clinical signs, symptoms, manifestations, to
time to recognize the beginning of the pathological process and accurately
know that it is polyposis. Severity and the presence of any
symptoms directly depends on the quantity, size, location
polyps, as well as the presence or absence of cancer
process.

1. When villous adenomas in feces can be quite a lot
mucus as well as bleeding. 2. Sometimes large polyps lead to
colic pains, frequent constipation, and symptoms
intestinal obstruction, accompanied by blood and mucous membranes
secretions, foreign body sensation in the anus, pains in
iliac region and lower abdomen. 3. Often availability
Other associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are accompanied by mixed
symptoms that can be with polyps, therefore, it is not rare
neoplasms are discovered by chance during examination for
other pathologies. 4. Almost in 90% of cases within 5-15 years against the background
villous, adenomatous polyps develop colorectal cancer.
5. Symptoms such as constipation and diarrhea are among the signs.
polyps as they cause impaired peristalsis
intestine. Especially often large polyps lead to constipation,
as they decrease intestinal lumen and lead to stagnant
phenomena, forming a partial intestinal obstruction. 6. If a
there is pain in the intestines, stomach, it may indicate
joined inflammatory process. 7. The most dangerous symptom
a polyp in the intestine is bleeding from the anus, with
This should immediately consult a doctor, as this may
point to malignant pathology. The earlier will be installed
diagnosis, the greater the chance of successful treatment.

Diagnosis of the disease

Since there is a high risk of degeneration into cancer in intestinal polyps, and
symptoms can not appear in the early stages of growth
neoplasms in most developed countries after 40 years each
a person annually feces for the determination of hidden blood. This
laboratory method can help identify blood when it is not visible
visually, as the blood particles, mixing with feces
not noticeable. However, this is not the primary method, but an additional method.
surveys because the negative feces for hidden
the blood does not exclude the presence of a polyp, and a positive one does not
confirms.

Among all modern methods of diagnosing the state of internal
organs, of course, can use MRI and CT, which contribute
detection of polyps in the intestines. To diagnose sigmoid and
rectum use sigmoidoscopy, which allows with
помощью ректоскопа визуально осмотреть стенки intestine. Proctologists
strongly recommend after 50 years to pass every 3-5 years
flexible sigmoidoscopy procedure.

Sometimes a digital rectal examination can detect
polyps of the terminal region of the rectum or anal canal, and
also diagnose anal fissures, hemorrhoids, tumors and cysts
adrectal fiber.

Irrigoscopy – a study of the colon
radiographic with a contrast agent that can
identify polyps over 1 cm in the colon.

The most informative study of the large intestine allows
make a colonoscopy. This is the most optimal technique that
allows and identify polyps, and help in the study of the mucous
intestinal wall shells and can also identify other
diseases. If a при эндоскопическом обследовании был обнаружен
a polyp, during the procedure, the doctor takes a biopsy sample to
produce histological and cytological examination.

Polyps should be differentiated from other pathologies such
as:

  • Tumors of non-epithelial etiology, usually without a leg and large
    sizes
  • Lipoma – often occurs in the colon to the right and often
    достигает больших sizes
  • Angiomas – Vascular etiology tumors that give strengths
    bleeding
  • Myoma or muscle tumor, which is extremely rare and
    leads to disruption of the bowel
  • Actinomycosis of the colon, most often affects the blind
    bowel
  • Болезнь Крона иногда проявляется псевдополипозом и
    localized in the large intestine in the upper sections.

Histological examination is of primary importance in
determining the nature of any neoplasm in the intestine.

Treatment of intestinal polyps

No conservative, drug treatment for polyps in
intestine does not exist. Sometimes during endoscopy of the rectum
manage to remove polyps in the intestines if they are small
sizes и удачно расположены. In other cases, required
surgical intervention. If a полип расположен низко в прямой
gut, it can be removed transanally.

When small polyps are detected during colonoscopy, during
endoscopic procedures they can be removed using a loopback
electrode, by electroscission, when the leg of a neoplasm
pinch the electrode. In some cases, polypectomy may cause
perforation of the intestinal wall and complicated by bleeding. In all
cases, removed intestinal polyps are examined histologically. If a
histology results give a positive conclusion about the presence of
раковых клеток, прибегают к резекции этого участка intestine.

In diffuse, familial polyposis, especially in combination with
Gardner syndrome (osteomas of the bones), with tumors of other tissues,
treatment of polyps in the intestines is performed by resection of the thick
intestine, connecting the anus with the free end of the ileum
guts.

After the removal of large polyps, recurrences often occur through
1-3 years, so after the operation a colonoscopy is repeated a year later,
and every 5 years endoscopic diagnosis. Familial polyposis, and
also multiple polyps, large formations have the greatest
risk of malignancy.

No prevention of the development of polyps in the intestines yet
there is only timely annual diagnosis after 40
years, especially with relatives with intestinal cancer, may
early stages determine the presence of oncogenic polyps. Earlier
identification of cancer cells and their removal in 90% of cases leads to
recovery.

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