Polycystic ovaries – what is it, the first reasonssigns, symptoms, polycystosis treatment and diet

Polycystic is a hormonal pathology resulting from
impaired hypothalamic regulation of ovarian function. Disease
entails an imbalance of the menstrual cycle, obesity,
excessive hairiness (hirsutism) can also cause
infertility Among the causes of female infertility polycystic ovary
(PKI) takes the lead.

For more information about what the disease is, what causes it
cause and what symptoms and treatment are most effective for
women – we will consider further in this material.

Polycystic ovary: what is it?

Поликистоз яичников

Polycystic ovary is a change in the anatomy and function of the ovaries.
against a background of impaired ovarian metabolism
(steroidogenesis). The disease is associated with impaired synthesis
estrogen and folliculogenesis and increased formation of androgens,
which leads to the formation of multiple on the surface of the ovaries
small cysts (the result of the inability of the egg to exit the follicle)
and infertility.

The disease can be found under a different name – syndrome
polycystic ovarian – a more capacious definition, as it unites
несколько симптомов, формирующих данную pathology.

Female ovaries perform two important functions, without which
normal functioning of the reproductive system is impossible:

  • Endocrine function is responsible for the normal production
    progesterone and estrogen, which in turn prepare
    the inner layer of the uterus to the attachment of the ovum in case
    the onset of pregnancy.
  • The degenerative function is responsible for the growth and development of follicles,
    from which the egg cell subsequently leaves.

The size of the ovary depends on the age and phase of the menstrual cycle.
The right one is usually bigger and heavier than the left one. Normal ovaries
during the inspection, it is usually possible to palpate only the thin
women.

What happens during the illness?

  1. During the menstrual cycle in the healthy gonads
    many follicles are formed.
  2. In the middle of a normal cycle, a mature break occurs.
    follicle from which the egg leaves the fallopian tube
    (ovulation), while other follicles dissolve.
  3. But ovulation does not occur with polycystic because the egg
    inside the dominant follicle does not mature, and all follicles
    filled with fluid, transforming into small cysts.

Classification

The disease is conventionally divided into two forms, depending on
primary pathology:

  • primary PCO, or true polycystic, with others
    названия — «Disease поликистозных яичников» (БПКЯ)», 
    �“Sclerocystic ovaries”, “Stein-Leventhal syndrome”;
  • secondary polycystic disease resulting from different
    original mechanism of violations.

There are three types of polycystic:

In ovarian clinical form
  • phenomena of ovarian dysfunction prevail, i.e. the ovaries themselves
    �”Do not respond” to hormonal stimulation on the background of relatively
    normal level and ratio of sex hormones in the blood.
With adrenal form
  • the symptoms come to the fore
    о нарушении нормального соотношения андрогенов и эстрогенов в
    blood. This is accompanied by the appearance of hirsutism, acne, often –
    fullness, excessive sweating.
When diencephalic clinical form
  • expressed symptoms of impaired function
    endocrine system at the diencephalic level.

The reasons

About polycystic ovarian science has learned more than 100 years ago, however
so far, due to the fact that this pathology is characteristic
multiple manifestations, its etiology and its
pathogenesis.

Studies show that polycystic ovaries suffer from 5
up to 10% of all women of childbearing age, regardless of race or
nationality.

The following factors contribute to the development of the disease:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • overweight;
  • constant stress;
  • the presence of chronic infections;
  • большое количество абортов (ведут к гормональным
    failures);
  • complicated pregnancy and childbirth;
  • irregular sex life;
  • endocrine pathology (diseases
    щитовидки, надпочечников, поджелудочной железы и прочие);
  • disturbed ecology;
  • gynecological problems (both inflammatory and
    endocrine character).

Polycystic ovary occurs in both adolescent girls and
у взрослых рожавших women. Impetus to the development of the disease may
стать сильный стресс, тяжелое инфекционное заболевание,
autoimmune process, abrupt climate change.

Symptoms of polycystic ovary

The symptoms of polycystic are incredibly diverse, most of them
non-specific, as they can be present at any
dishormonal disorder. They may appear with the first
menstruation or a few years after a period of normal
menstruation.

фото поликистоза правого яичника

The most common symptoms of polycystosis in women:

  • Нарушения менструального цикла – длительные задержки и
    продолжительные menses.
  • Increased greasiness of hair and skin, the appearance of acne, acne,
    seborrhea. When polycystic develops due to hypersecretion
    androgens are permanent not give in
    symptomatic therapy.
  • Significant weight gain. Fatty deposits
    appear mainly in the waist area (like an apple).
    The development of obesity in polycystic ovaries is associated with impaired
    glucose tolerance and excess insulin in the blood.
  • The appearance of dark spots on the skin (often in the area
    neck), acne, wrinkles and skin folds, increasing fat content
    skin, male-pattern hair growth (hirsutism).
  • Abdominal tenderness. Pain symptom can be
    permanent. This is explained by an increase in the ovaries and pressure on
    pelvic organs.
  • constancy of basal temperature – an increase in basal
    temperature in women indicates ovulation has occurred –
    It is on this basis that the best days for conception are determined.
    Patients with polycystic have a constant temperature, which
    It says that a woman does not ovulate.
  • Infertility. Explained by chronic anovulation or rare
    ovulation (during the rupture of the follicle and the release of the egg, it does not
    can break through too dense ovarian membrane).
  • Depression and dysphoria. The manifestations of these states are expressed in
    nervousness, irritability and aggressiveness. Often enough
    there is also lethargy, apathy, drowsiness.

Diseases that can mimic polycystic

  • Pathological processes associated with hypothyroidism
    glands;
  • Tumors of the ovaries and adrenal glands;
  • Увеличение секреции пролактина (гиперпролактинемия
    pituitary gland).

I would like to emphasize that the above diseases
symptoms are very similar to signs of PCO, and therefore a large
attention should be paid to the diagnosis of the pathological process.

Complications

Polycystic ovary is a very insidious disease that
in addition to infertility entails a lot of undesirable effects
for the health of women.

Possible consequences:

  • The most serious complication of the disease is the impossibility of a woman
    get pregnant
  • If a woman does not respond properly to the symptoms
    diseases and does not seek medical attention during the first
    two years since the onset of the disease, she has an increased risk
    incidence of cervical and breast cancer.
  • Metabolic disorders, and especially fats, lead to
    the development of vascular atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardial infarction,
    fatty liver and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Severe anemia due to massive uterine
    bleeding.

Polycystic is a disease with a favorable prognosis.
Timely and quality treatment leads to recovery
the ability of the representative of the weak half of society to conceive and
Bearing the fetus in 75-90% of cases.

Diagnostics

It’s no secret that a timely diagnosis will help
timely start effective treatment and help avoid
surgical intervention. Diagnostics поможет установить
the true causes that provoked the disease.

Поликистоз яичников ставится только на совокупности
several signs (infertility,
androgen and associated symptoms).

The main methods for the diagnosis of polycystic:

  1. General inspection, including assessment of body type,
    the nature of hair growth, the condition of the skin and mucous membranes,
    palpation of the abdomen, etc.
  2. Гинекологический влагалищно-абдоминальный осмотр на
    the chair, allowing to reveal increase and consolidation of ovaries with
    both sides.
  3. Ultrasound transvaginal examination. Ovarian volume
    increased and is 8 or more cubic cm. Immediately under
    a capsule can detect 10 or more atretic follicles. Stroma
    thickened, hyperplastic and may be 25% of the volume
    ovary.
  4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
    allowing to exclude tumor lesions.
  5. Pelvic laparoscopy – examination of the abdominal organs using
    endoscope inserted through the anterior abdominal wall. Indications for
    laparoscopy are suspected to have a uterine tumor or
    ovarian, chronic pelvic pain, suspected tubal pain
    pregnancy, ovarian apoplexy, tumors, cyst rupture.
  6. Test for glucose tolerance (insulin resistance),
    elevated insulin high blood sugar
    indicate a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.

It is also necessary to conduct a study of hormonal
status.

  • Pathognomic sign of polycystic ovary is
    the increase in the ratio of luteinizing hormone to
    follicle-stimulating up to 3: 1.
  • The blood levels of testosterone increased, there is a decrease
    прогестерона во вторую фазу цикла, а в моче определяется
    increase 17-cs.

Примечание: при гормональных сбоях базальная
the temperature throughout the menstrual cycle remains
unchanged. Voice coarsening, defeminization and clitoral hypertrophy
with PCOS, as a rule, is not observed.

Pregnancy

In the overwhelming majority of cases (85%) infertility with
polycystic ovary is primary and may be the only
his symptom. The number of spontaneous pregnancies with polycystic
does not exceed 3 – 5%, and the probability of their successful outcome
negligible.

Most specialists claims to get pregnant with PKI
quite possible. In clinical practice, there are many cases
Successful childbearing by patients suffering
polycystic. However, for this throughout pregnancy
recommended supportive drug therapy.

Attention! Pregnancy with such a diagnosis is a great threat.
fading of the fetus, miscarriage, and premature labor.

How to treat polycystic ovaries?

Treatment of polycystic ovarian process is quite long and
complicated. The main thing is to be patient and follow tirelessly to
goals

The goals of treatment:

  • normalization of the menstrual cycle;
  • restoration of ovulation and later on
    pregnancy;
  • elimination of cosmetic problems;
  • weight correction.

Given the fact that polycystic ovaries can act in
as a side effect of another type of disease
(хронического аднексита, диабета, заболеваний печени и
etc.), treatment should be directed not only at elimination
symptoms (actually polycystic ovaries), but also to eliminate
the underlying disease that triggered the
pathology.

The treatment consists of:

  1. Mandatory weight loss in the presence of obesity. Have these
    Patients first is exactly this stage. To do this, held
    correction of nutrition and lifestyle. Weight loss can help in
    treating hormonal changes and improving condition indicators
    health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure or high
    cholesterol level.
  2. Oral contraceptives reduce blood androgen concentration.
    If you take drugs for 2-3 months, perhaps
    Restoration of ovulation. The method is effective only when
    polycystic due to hyperandrogenesis.
  3. In the presence of insulin resistance – reduced ability
    cells respond to insulin, which helps absorb glucose,
    Metformin drugs are prescribed: Glyukofazh, Siofor.
  4. Stimulation of ovulation. Prescribe minimal doses of hormones,
    that will “launch” the ovaries and provide an opportunity to get pregnancy
    as naturally as possible.
  5. Негормональные методы терапии синдрома поликистозных
    ovaries, for example, physiotherapy or nonsteroidal antiandrogens
    usually used as an aid.
  6. Reception of ascorbic acid, vitamins of groups is necessary: ​​E, B12,
    PP, B1, B9, B6.

Operation

The indication for surgical treatment of polycystic ovarian disease is
lack of effect from conservative therapy. Operation method
determined according to the picture of the disease. In women with
sterility surgical treatment is analogous to hormonal
stimulate ovulation.

Methods of surgical intervention are aimed at achieving
following goals:

  • remove affected parts;
  • destroy some areas of the ovary;
  • intensify the synthesis of androgens in order to normalize
    the relationship between the ovaries and the central parts of the structure
    the brain.

The main advantage of laparoscopy is that
the procedure does not harm the patient. She wakes up through
a couple of hours after surgery, and full recovery occurs through
several days.

But surgical methods are resorted to in extreme cases when
drug methods described above do not help. Can also
prescribe laparoscopy for women over 30 years old who have bright
pronounced disorders of hirsutism and the menstrual cycle, as well as
those who have developed hyperplastic processes
endometrium.

In the case when treatment of polycystic will be assigned
in due time, it is possible to get rid of it already at the earliest stages.
With all medical recommendations, the prognosis of the disease
favorable, and only when planning a pregnancy can
there are certain difficulties.

Pregnancy после хирургического лечения наступает в течение
6-9 months, but the more time passed after the operation, the
меньше шансов get pregnant

Diet

диета при поликистозе яичников

Nutrition provides the body with substances to produce energy,
necessary for metabolic processes, for recovery and
synthesis of new cells to set aside spare substances (fat – in
adipose tissue, glycogen – in the liver).

Doctors recommend that patients with polycystic
schedule:

  • heavy first breakfast about 30–40 minutes after
    awakenings;
  • easy second breakfast;
  • full lunch;
  • multi-course dinner;
  • light snack before bedtime.

In case of polycystic ovaries, it will be necessary to exclude once and for all from
food ration, which includes a large amount of carbohydrates and
cholesterol. The requirement is very categorical – listed below.
products can not be even sometimes, and even if you really want.

Permitted Polycystic Products Exclude products
  • low-fat fish and meat;
  • rye, barley, bakery products based on them;
  • bean products: chickpeas, lentils, soybeans, peas, beans;
  • brown rice;
  • eggs;
  • dairy products: cottage cheese, yogurt, with a low percentage
    fat;
  • mushrooms;
  • berries and fruits: apricot, pears, gooseberries, apples, currants,
    peach, strawberry, cherry, raspberry, strawberry, quince, nectarine,
    mulberry, orange, grapefruit, mandarin, plum;
  • nuts: hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, pine nuts, cashews;
  • vegetables: color, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, peppers, onions,
    asparagus, zucchini, garlic, eggplant, corn, tomatoes, cucumbers,
    greenery;
  • chocolate: black (at least 85% cocoa);
  • sugar free jam;
  • fructose based ice cream.
  • fruits: pineapple, watermelon, melon, persimmon and mango;
  • vegetables: potatoes, turnips, pumpkin, beets, carrots, parsnips;
  • bakery products, flour of all kinds, baking;
  • alcoholic beverages;
  • jam, honey, jam, candy;
  • chocolate: white, milk;
  • ice cream;
  • bulgur, rice, semolina;
  • pasta;
  • mayonnaise, ketchup, various sauces;
  • canned foods;
  • · Strong tea, coffee;
  • tobacco, nicotine;
  • fast food;
  • semi-finished products;
  • fatty, fried and smoked food.

Rules diet with polycystic ovaries:

  • Caloric content of food is not more than 1800 – 2000 kilocalories per
    day.
  • Fractional nutrition 5-6 times.
  • Protein foods combine with vegetables.
  • Do not combine fruit intake with other products.
  • Cooking methods – cooking, stewing, baking, cooking
    for a couple.
  • Питьевой режим до 2 литров воды в day.
  • Fasting days no more than 1 time in 7-10 days (kefir,
    curd, fruit).
  • Reduce the intake of salt and foods where Na is contained in
    large quantities (crackers, nuts, canned food).
  • Limit carbohydrate intake after 6 pm.

Traditional methods of treatment

 Before using folk remedies for polycystic
ovaries, be sure to consult with the gynecologist.

  1. Tampons with mummy. Mumie in the amount of 150 grams pour 3
    dessert spoons of warm water. After swelling of the main
    component mix the mixture. Tampon, formed from a bandage,
    placed in the composition and enter into the vagina before going to bed at night. Course
    treatment – 10 days. Procedures are not used in the period.
    menses.
  2. Stalk and leaves of young celandine wash, dry,
    grind. In equal parts, mix with vodka and insist in dark
    place 10 days. Drink an infusion of a teaspoon mixed with 50 ml of water per
    thirty minutes before meals.
  3. Put in a glass of boiling water 5 g milk thistle. Let it cool down and
    filter out. Drink 100 ml in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before
    a dream.
  4. It will take 40 grams of dry oregano per 300 ml of boiling water. An hour later
    filter, drink 20 ml three times a day.
  5. To reduce androgens, you can use mint. Tinctures
    peppermints, tea with mint can be drunk without restriction (within
    reasonable). To quickly achieve the desired effect you need
    brew mint with milk thistle and take twice daily
    one glass.

Prevention

Prevention поликистоза включает:

  • регулярное посещение гинеколога — дважды в год;
  • weight control, regular exercise, diet;
  • hormonal contraceptive use.

Now, you know what this disease is. But despite
serious pathological changes in the reproductive system,
reasonable, correct and staged treatment of polycystic ovary
gives you the opportunity to restore normal hormonal her
functioning and achieve full pregnancy and childbirth.

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