Почему возникают трещины на языке – этоsevere pathology or not?

During a routine inspection from any specialist, the doctor asks
show language. This request is not formed because of the great love for
slaves, and in order to diagnose many diseases.

And not only the oral cavity, but also the internal organs
particular. According to studies, the first manifestations of the disease
It starts in the mouth.

AND при плановом осмотре, у этого узкого специалиста, можно их
to notice. The most diagnostically significant is language – its
the form, the presence of plaque, the condition of the papillae and the appearance of ulcers,

Causes of language defects

  • Если язык в трещинах у ребенка с рождения – это складчатый
    glossitis, a congenital anomaly that does not require treatment, while
    deep cracks.
  • Если трещины возникли в течении жизни – это симптом различных
    diseases of the oral cavity, digestive system, excretory,
    endocrine, immune systems of the body.

In accordance with this, the manifestation of cracks, their appearance,
localization in the language and associated symptoms may be different.
Why did the language crack? All the reasons for the formation of this
pathologies can be divided into two groups:

  • Dental (local)
  • Common ones related to:
    • internal diseases
    • metabolic disorders
    • infectious pathology

Dental causes

Such a defect may be a manifestation of dental pathology.
and be an independent disease that is called
glossitis. В переводе с греческого языка «gloss» – язык, «it» –
inflammation, that is, inflammation of the tongue. Its symptoms are:

  • the appearance of stains on the tongue, cracks
  • discomfort in the form of pain, burning, stinging, which
    mostly characteristic of a defect at the tip of the tongue

If the cracks are caused by the following provoking factors, then
eliminating them, you can get rid of this defect:

  • Аллергия – аллергические реакции на средства гигиены полости
    of mouth: toothpastes, conditioners for mouth and so on.
    Usually, after they are canceled, the language acquires its original
  • Травмы – не менее частая причина формирования таких симптомов –
    mechanical injury of the tongue. She can be sharp and
    возникать однократно – появляется одиночная трещина, которая быстро
    drags on. В случае хронической травмы – при постоянном
    biting the tongue, injury from the edges of the destroyed teeth, wearing
    poor quality dentures, multiple cracks and long
    persisting. Local formation causes pass quickly if
    remove the source of irritation.

In dentistry, there are several types of glossitis, among them
micro cracks and cracks manifest themselves:

Desquamative Glossite географический язык

This disease is more commonly known as “geographic language”.

  • With this pathology, islands appear on the surface of the tongue.
    lesions, with clearly visible boundaries, the boundary is always
    differs in color – bright red.
  • Also characteristic is the formation of shallow cracks that can
    be and not noticeable.
  • When inspecting a language, it resembles a geographical map, hence
  • Lesions can migrate, and almost every
    a few days on the surface of the tongue a new picture.
  • In this case, the patient feels a burning sensation and moderate pain.

Usually such glossitis occurs in pregnant women with chronic
gastrointestinal diseases, parasitic diseases, helminthic invasions,
diseases of the blood, liver, metabolic disorders.

Diamond Glossite Diamond Glossite

  • When rhomboid glosite, it is also called the middle one
    the crack is located in the middle of the tongue.
  • Moreover, the appearance of a limited area is characteristic.
    bluish color diamond-shaped or oval.
  • Such manifestations may disappear and reappear, which says
    about the chronic process.

It occurs in chronic diseases of the digestive system,
most often with gastritis with low acidity.

Folded glossitis Язык в трещинах с рождения

  • People whose tongue is cracked since birth are diagnosed –
    складчатый glossitis.
  • AND именно при этой врожденной аномалии, дефекты языка наиболее
    are expressed.
  • The symptoms of a folded tongue are the formation of longitudinal and
    transverse folds on its surface of different depths and
  • The deepest crease forms along the median line.

Folded glossitis не сопровождается никакими неприятными
sensations and does not need treatment. Only with
A significant number of wrinkling treatments are performed in aesthetic

The formation of a “geographical
language “in children and women. Most often, this pathology can

  • in the period of teething in children
  • in adolescents during puberty
  • in women during pregnancy and menopause

The causes of the “geographic language” are not yet fully understood, but
there are basic theories of occurrence.

  • One group of scientists claims that this is a kind of manifestation
    allergic reaction.
  • Другая – говорит о более глубокой причине формирования –
    hormonal changes and diseases of the digestive

As the oral cavity, since ancient times diagnosed by many
diseases. For example, various kinds of anemia, liver disease,
kidney, gastrointestinal tract, etc. According to the eastern
medicine, points of many organs are projected in the language, therefore
change in language structure, the appearance of a raid will indicate
на  патологии соответствующих органов.

Common causes

Congenital anomaly – folded glossitis

If we talk about the general factors of occurrence, then
It is necessary to consider the age of the patient. At the children’s reception, first
the queue will need to exclude such states as:

  • lack of vitamins PP and groups B and A (see symptoms
  • the formation of iron deficiency anemia (see iron preparations with
  • helminthic invasions (see pinworms in a child)
  • poisoning with heavy metal salts

In medieval Spain, pathology was spread as
pellagra. Vitamin deficiency was the basis of the disease.
PP, which was reflected in the work of the digestive tract, nervous
systems, etc. The main manifestations of this pathology were on the skin in
form of various dermatitis, and one of the first signs was
the appearance of cracks on the tongue. The same picture of development occurs when
lack of vitamin A.

Diseases of internal organs

For adults, the reasons are mainly in
diseases of internal organs. Oral cavity and language in particular
is a component of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract), and malfunction
in the operation of this system will appear throughout its entire length, and
the oral cavity is subject to change one of the first. Various
language changes may indicate such chronic

  • gastritis of the stomach (acute or recurrent)
  • ulcerative lesions of the stomach and duodenum
  • enterocolitis
  • acute cholecystitis and chronic
  • a combination of cracks and plaque on the tongue, depending on the color,
    will indicate the pathology of the kidneys and liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis
    liver, liver cancer)

Пример из практики: Женщина 43 лет обратилась с жалобами
dry mouth, persistent and long-lasting candidiasis
oral cavity (thrush). During the inspection, edema of the soft
tissues, point hemorrhages in the mucous membranes, candidiasis and small
erosion, which are poorly amenable to treatment. At the end of the inspection and
drawing up a treatment plan, one of the recommendations was to visit
endocrinologist and blood test for glucose. After 2
month, the patient came to re-admission with prophylactic
goal, and reported on the established diagnosis – diabetes mellitus II

It is clear that the localization of various kinds of defects in the language in
will depend largely on the reason that should be established with
using additional research. And rarely seen
single symptoms, their combination is usually observed, which is serious
complicates the diagnosis.

All over the tongue Presence of stains �”Geographical language”, folded language
Plaque (see white patina on tongue, yellow patina) Diseases of the digestive tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer)
A touch of dark shades, up to a brown patina Pathology of the liver, gallbladder
Tip of the tongue There may be pain and reactions to sour Injuries, burns, development of stomatitis
Middle of tongue Diamond and folded glossitis
Side surfaces of the tongue Unpleasant sensations, a sense of increasing language Blood disorders, including anemia. Pathologies
digestive tract

Treatment of cracks in the tongue

In case there are no complaints and discomfort
is only an aesthetic defect, special treatment is not
требуется, следует проводить терапию основного diseases.

In some cases, the causes of the formation of cracks are so
serious, such as peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer
intestines that patients are simply not up to such an insignificant defect. AND
all forces and means are aimed at combating the main pathology. AND
as soon as the acute stage was stopped, cracks appeared,
disappear by themselves. In case there are complaints of pain and
any discomfort, besides the specific treatment,
appointed local:

Sanitation of the oral cavity. Training in local oral hygiene, with
selection of hygiene products and items
  • ANDсключение провоцирующих факторов, и источников инфекции, таких
    as caries, not only positively affect the flow
    disease, but also eliminate the accession of a secondary infection.
  • At the dentist’s appointment, the standard method is taught.
    brushing your teeth with the right tools and items
    hygiene. Particular emphasis should be placed on cleaning the tongue.
ANDсключение раздражителей: горячее, кислое, соленое, сладкое,
  • This list of products is valid not only locally in the cavity
    of the mouth, but also has an effect on the work of the stomach in
  • Abuse of acidic, can provoke exacerbation
    gastritis with high acidity that appears on the state
    language in a direct way, and far from the best.
ANDспользование местных лекарственных препаратов (отвары, настои,
  • ANDспользование antiseptics aimed at the destruction of pathogenic
    oral microflora that may be the cause of adherence
    secondary infection.
  • Among the list of drugs most often prescribed
    gargles with chamomile decoction, sage, oak bark, which
    have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.
ANDспользование анестетиков
  • Justified only when unpleasant and painful
  • The selection of an anesthetic drug, the doctor should deal with
    with the exception of the possible development of an allergic reaction to
  • In dental practice, for such purposes, more often it
    Anesthesin (powder) is used, or anesthetic gels with
    content of lidocaine, Novocain.
  • For pain relief in children, gels can be used when
    teething, for example, “Kalgel”, “Baby Doctor”,
Application of keratoplasty
  • Keratoplasty – a group of drugs with pronounced wound healing
    action. In this case, assigned to restore
    surface of the tongue.
  • This group of drugs includes:
    • oil solution of vitamin A,
    • sea ​​buckthorn oil,
    • �”Karotolin” and so on.
Treatment of concomitant diseases
  • For the success of the treatment of problems, it is necessary to stop the main
    a disease that is carried out by a specialist in
    depending on the diagnosis

At first glance, language defects are exclusively
cosmetic nature, and often simply does not bring discomfort. But,
the human body is a perfect system and any negative
manifestation is grounded. The main task of the doctor and
patient to notice it in time and take all the necessary

Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог

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