Update: December 2018
Our children are constantly in contact with the environment and its
components: objects, adults, peers,
animals, etc. In addition to visible objects, we are surrounded
the microscopic world in the form of bacteria, protozoa, viruses and
products of their life.
From this we can conclude that absolutely sterile conditions
existence in principle does not exist, and protect your own child
from all the negative agents we can not do. It is this
due to the high contagiousness of the head lice or
lice in children.
Pediculosis occurs when parasitizing on the hairy part
baby heads of small insects – lice that feed on blood.
Because lice are parasites, lice are referred to as
parasitic skin diseases.
Head louse whose life cycle lasts about 3 weeks,
is an insect about 3 mm in size, has
gray-brown color and parasitic on the scalp.
Differs in high reproductive capabilities – already in 6-14
days after hatching, the female may lay eggs. Eggs
insects are called nits, in appearance similar to dandruff, but
difficult to remove from the hair. The maturation of the eggs to the larvae occurs in
within 7-10 days.
Where do lice come from? Causes of infection
Why does the baby have lice? Such a problem as lice and nits in children
is very common, since it is among children
of the population is easily realized the path of transmission of parasites –
Many parents, having learned about this trouble, wonder where they came from
lice could appear
and inspected child?
The concept that pediculosis is common only in the environment
socially disadvantaged children is wrong, today lice
detected in children from different families, including those who are well off.
Infection of a healthy child comes from a person (child,
adult), affected by pediculosis. Louse is not able to actively
to move around and, contrary to the common myth, does not know how to jump and
fly, but can crawl.
During close contact the insect creeps from one head.
to another and continues its life cycle in a new place.
Contact of children is very high in any organized groups.
(kindergartens, camps, schools, boarding schools), therefore, under such conditions
Often detected mass infection with lice. Close contact possible
and on children’s playgrounds during games, on a visit, on children’s
Insect transfer is also likely with
individual items and hygiene products with several children
the time of games – combs, towels, caps, hairpins, rubber bands. Much
less often the contact path is implemented in public places –
hairdressing salons, baths, pools.
Based on the described, it becomes clear that if detected
lice, the reasons lie in the social conditions of his stay, in
contact with the source of infection. However, there are factors
individual predisposition to pediculosis:
- the presence of long hair, especially for girls, because with such
conditions, the louse has a great chance to catch on and start
- antisocial conditions of life that is often observed in
dysfunctional families, where lice is found in all members
- lack of personal hygiene regarding care
scalp – dirty and tangled hair creates
ideal conditions for breeding lice and promote visual
disguise parasites under dandruff and dirt;
- low parental control over the child.
How to detect head lice – head lice symptoms
Lice parasitis on the head causes quite severe itching
skin, which is most intense in the temples, neck,
ears. Because of the constant itchiness, children become more capricious and
restless, constantly scratching their heads and sleeping poorly.
The products of lice fall on the skin of the face and neck and
lead to the appearance of erythema, vesicles, papules, which may
take on the character of chronic dermatitis with prolonged
no treatment with pediculosis medications. When hit cocci
infection through sores on the skin, secondary pyoderma occurs, and with
its significant spread may increase lymphatic
Pubic and dressing pediculosis in children is a rare phenomenon. Symptoms
similar to head lice and differ only in localization – with
the pubic lice suffers from the skin of the pubic area and genital
bodies, when paid – marked itching and scratching
Lice are detected by visual examination of the scalp. In the nursery
organized teams to examine children for pediculosis regularly
conducted by a health worker or educator, however, parents must
inspect the child’s head regardless of whether he visits
educational institution or not.
The main signs that can be suspected head lice:
- Small ulcers, swelling on the skin of the neck, shoulders, head
- Nits – lice eggs are transparent or white micro dots that
attached to the hair at an angle.
For inspection the child must be seated in a chair under the source
bright light. If the hair is long, the strands are separated.
with the help of a fine comb and are inspected. Living lice despite
small size, easy to detect when viewed when running
diseases are found and dead individuals. On the surface of the skin
cover can be detected scratching with crusts, bluish
Nits are often confused with dandruff, but, unlike dandruff, they
difficult to remove from hair and when crushed between nails create
In terms of medical institutions for the diagnosis of pediculosis
apply a special lamp Wood, under which live nits glow
blue fluorescent light.
How to get lice?
If lice are detected, treatment should be started as soon as possible.
- Firstly, it will prevent the spread of the disease
among contact persons
- second, avoid unpleasant complications
- thirdly, it will save the child from unpleasant symptoms.
There are several areas of pediculosis treatment that
most cases have to be combined. Despite
a variety of modern drugs against pediculosis, not always
drug treatment with chemicals leads to
the destruction of parasites, since the latter are capable of producing
resistance to active ingredients of drugs. Exist
The following remedies for pediculosis in children:
There are three types of insecticidal chemicals.
against head lice:
- Malathion – one of the preparations based on it – Pedilin
- Phenotrin – one of the drugs on its basis Parasidosis (Itaks
- Permethrin – based drugs: Medifox-gel
pediculicidal Medifox concentrate for the preparation of an emulsion of 5%,
Nittifor, Hygia shampoo, Knicks cream.
- Benzyl benzoate. Drug based on it: Phoxeil Lotion
- The combined drug (Malathion + Permethrin
+ Piperonyl butoxide) – Pair Plus aerosol about 400 rubles.
Any cure for pediculosis in a child, the active ingredient
which is one of the three mentioned above, is released without
When treating with chemicals it is important to strictly observe
instructions for use. The drug must be applied twice.
having sustained a week break, because during the initial application
only the larvae and adult insects perish, but the eggs are not always
destroyed by chemical means. Repeated medication
allows you to destroy the hatched larvae.
The time to which the drug is applied varies from 10 minutes to
half a day. After the drug is washed off, you must carefully
comb the dead insects.
Insecticidal agents do not always lead to
lice destruction. This is due to several factors:
- lice insensitivity to the active substance,
- improper use of the drug,
- non-compliance with the multiplicity of application.
Even the most expensive children’s lice shampoo will be ineffective,
if not follow the instructions. Some children have
allergic reactions against the use of insecticides, so when
first use or if the child is allergic, you need to be very
Drugs do not protect against reinfection, therefore, after
treatment should follow preventive measures
This technique has been known for a very long time, but is quite
effective with four times combing
at regular intervals of two weeks.
After washing, conditioner is applied to the hair in a greasy layer. After
combing hair with rare teeth
already combed out by a frequent comb. With the remnants of the air conditioner will
comb and lice, so the comb should be periodically washed.
After того, как будут прочесаны все волосы, следует высушить их
towel, comb and repeat the procedure of combing frequent
Combing according to the described scheme is carried out four times through three
days – 1, 5, 9 and 13 days. This is done to kill the lice on
different life cycle.
An interesting experiment! Belgian scientists was conducted
an experiment showing that using hair conditioner
when combing nits is not inferior to chemical pediculicides
efficacy. However, if you started treatment
Permethrin and other chemicals, then before treatment and 2 weeks
after that it is necessary to avoid the use of hair rinses and
conditioners because they create a film on the hair and reduce
absorption of chemicals. That is, use only one way –
either drugs, or combing with air conditioning.
Exist другие, менее популярные способы лечения педикулеза у
- Herbal remedies containing certain essential oils and
plant extracts (anise, geranium, basil, rosemary, etc.)
have an insecticidal effect with unproven efficacy,
those. not recommended by official medicine.
- Battery-powered electric combs and
destroy lice discharge of electric current. It is costly
devices, the use of which permissible only on dry
hair, therefore, one hundred percent effectiveness is not guaranteed.
- Destruction of lice and nits with your hands, i.e. crush between
nails This method is often used at home, but
its effectiveness is low, because some parasites can again
crawl onto the already inspected hair, and the person conducting the inspection,
may become infected with lice.
- Shaving hair bald. This method is used for rehabilitation.
hearths in dysfunctional families.
Admission to the team before and after treatment
When lice are detected, active treatment immediately begins.
baby It is very important to carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene.
this stage and prevent contamination of contact persons. For a while
treatment, the child is isolated from the team and allowed to visit
institutions after recovery.
Complications of Pediculosis
Due to scratching itchy spots on the scalp occur
wounds and crusts that are prone to suppuration when joining
secondary infection. When complications of pediculosis occur
impetiginous eczema, pyoderma, and in severe forms hair
entangled in koltun, having a putrid odor. Lice can
to carry infectious diseases, the most dangerous of which is
Pediculosis prevention заключается в соблюдении правил личной
hygiene, which is 90% dependent on parents:
- The child needs to be taught hygienic skills, explain that
such items for personal use and why not to give
their other children.
- Also, children should understand that it is necessary to observe at least
minimum distance when communicating and playing games with other children
and do not allow heads to touch.
- It is important to regularly examine the scalp of the child,
to detect pediculosis in time. This is especially true
event in identifying pediculosis in an organized team,
which is visited by a child.
- Girls should be taught to tidy and neat hairstyles with
Of course, completely prevent pediculosis and eliminate
the probability of infecting a child is one hundred percent impossible. But
compliance with basic safety measures and personal hygiene allows
significantly reduce this probability.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог