Pediculosis: symptoms, treatment and preventiondiseases

Pediculosis: symptoms, treatment and prevention diseasesDespite significant improvements in quality of life and development
modern medicine, the problems associated with the defeat of lice do not
people are left to this day, especially for children.
Pediculosis is manifested in several forms: dressing, head,
pubic. In addition, there are also mixed types of the disease, with
which simultaneously there are signs of two or three

Описание diseases

Louse is a small blood sucking parasite that lives on clothing or body
person The size of an adult individual does not exceed 4 mm. The main
the manifestation of pediculosis is a pronounced itch that
occurs at the site of the bite: in the genital area or on the skin
scalp. Transparent or greyish yellow lice
prefer to settle on the back of his head or temples, gradually
spreading over the entire area of ​​the head. These insects feed
by the blood of its “master.” Nits stick to hair with
special substance secreted by adults.

Описание diseases педикулеза

Some interesting facts

An adult insect is able to lay from 4 to 10 eggs per day, and
clothes louse and even more – up to 20 pieces. Gestation period nits,
on average is about 15 days, life expectancy
insects – up to 40 days. Outside the body, the louse is killed within
days, nits are able to survive more than 7 days.

Заряжение педикулезомTo pediculosis infection more
susceptible people of the Caucasians. The disease spreads
regardless of the standard of living of the population of a particular country. But
according to statistics, the type of illness disease most often
affects residents of poor states with low sanitation

The incidence of pediculosis in Russia is 300 cases per
100 thousand people annually, and about 20% of the number of cases
– these are children and teenagers.

Ways of infection

Argued that pediculosis can only be infected by people
leading an antisocial lifestyle, having low incomes and not
comply with sanitary standards. To some extent this is true, however
Lice can appear in both poor and rich. It’s all about
neglect of hygienic procedures.

Byскольку паразиты ни летать, ни прыгать неспособны, то
they can only be infected by contacting with a patient
by man. It is especially easy to “pick up” the infection to owners of long
hair. It also does not exclude the possibility of infection through household
items, towels, hairbrushes and so on. Insects are capable
move from one person to another absolutely anywhere –
beach, sauna, swimming pool, train compartment, shop and so on.

Ways of infection вшами

As for infection with pubic lice, in most cases
This happens through sexual contact. Spread probability
lice from animals is completely excluded because this species
насекомых поражает только person

The mainи факторами, провоцирующими развитие diseases, считаются
lack of basic sanitation conditions, tourism, migration
population, frequent stay in crowded places, as well as large
collectives and stuff. The risk of lice infestation is also increasing.
when visiting the following objects:

  • Пути заражения вшамиpond or pool in case
    lack of rubber cap;
  • hairdresser – through untreated work tools
    (scissors, comb, etc.);
  • kindergarten, school or other educational institution;
  • the river – insects can live in water for about two days;
  • public transport, especially at peak times
    a crowd of people;
  • children’s holiday camp.

Infection vectors

Infection vectorsMany believe that lice
are carriers of infectious diseases and they can
to become infected with hepatitis, HIV, AIDS and other severe pathologies.
Adherents of this theory explain their point of view by the fact that
insects feed on human blood, therefore they are able to endure
infection from a sick person to a healthy one. However research
showed that such a route of infection is completely excluded because
the causative agent of infection dies immediately, as it turns out
gastrointestinal tract of the parasite, it happens under the influence of
special enzymes.

It is known that HIV infects the body’s immune system, and hepatitis
– liver cells. The causative agent of these diseases does not affect the very
паразита — эти diseases характерны только для person However louse
can trigger the development of recurrent and typhus.
Modern medicine can easily cope with these diseases, but
There may be complications.

Symptoms and signs

Insects caught in a new habitat, immediately begin
to the “development of the territory.” Byначалу укусы паразитов практически
invisible because they are not accompanied by unpleasant sensations.
Byэтому на начальных этапах развития diseases обнаружить вшей
manages very rarely. Often, a person takes the symptoms of pediculosis.
for something else, and not in a hurry to establish an accurate diagnosis. And lice
multiply fairly quickly, capturing all large areas.
Byэтому лечение и профилактика педикулёза должны проводиться как
possible before.

With каждом укусе происходит выброс специального вещества,
providing the parasite’s normal digestion. This enzyme
is an allergen for the carrier of insects, therefore, in all cases
there are allergic reactions of varying severity:
from the usual itch that can be painful to the development
severe inflammations.

Вошь на голове

In addition to the intense “eating” of a person, lice also begin
active reproduction. Byявившиеся личинки очень быстро проходят все
developmental stages and turn into adult parasites, which also
immediately begin reproduction. Just hatched individuals
begin to bite the carrier hard, causing him a lot
inconvenience. Of particular concern to the carrier are the nymphs (larvae),
which for normal nutrition and development requires enhanced

Чтобы вовремя обнаружить вшивость, следует обратить
special attention to the following signs:

  • Зуд головы у ребенкаWithсутствие паразитов в волосах
    (even dead and isolated);
  • causeless itching in the neck, behind the ears, on the hairy part
  • the sudden appearance of skin “rashes” (in places of bites);
  • unexpectedly appeared “dandruff” which does not give in
    shaking off.

The first and main sign of the presence of pediculosis in a patient
is pruritus, the intensity of which increases as
increase the number of lice. Next most common
symptom – the condition of the skin. Any causeless suppuration
or reddening of the skin may indicate the development of pediculosis.
Byявление белых частиц у основания волос также должно насторожить,
even more so if such “dandruff” cannot be shaken off or combed out.
Most likely, these are insect eggs, dressed in a cocoon.

Parasite detection methods

Identify the head type of pediculosis is quite simple: just enough
conduct a thorough inspection of the head, taking advantage of the bright
lighting. For этого необходимо усадить человека на стул и
ask him to sit still. Sharing hair strands comb,
should carefully examine the head, for greater certainty better
use a magnifying glass. Short hair can be checked by hand.

Parasite detection methodsAdult insects
rather slowly moving through the hair, preferring
�”Sit out” at the very roots, closer to the power source. Hungry
parasites have a translucent gray color that allows them to easily
merge with hair. The easiest thing to find a fed louse, which
after the meal becomes brown.


Recognizing insect eggs is quite simple: it’s worth
take a close look. Light nits are rounded to
hair, they are attached at a slight angle. They sit tight, almost not
combed and not removed with fingers. If a раздавить
viable nail nits, you can hear a characteristic click.
It is by these characteristics that parasite eggs are distinguished from the usual

In medical institutions to identify pediculosis
Wood’s lamp, the glow of which gives blue to viable nits
fluorescent color. Detect adult insects can only
when viewed.

Even more dangerous is the disease, which has become chronic.
The skin in chronic pediculosis becomes brown,
get rude. The skin begins to peel off, and the parasite bites
merge into one large spot that goes beyond the growth line
волос, что значительно портит внешний вид person Very often when
такой форме diseases на теле и волосах человека одновременно
parasitize several different types of bloodsucking insects.

Treatment methods

Byлностью вылечить педикулёз, особенно на поздних стадиях его
development, it is possible only with the help of special preparations
pediculicides. There are many drugs that
conditionally divided into several groups (depending on the active

Medicines with permethrin

Most of the drugs in this group are assigned

  • Pair Plus;
  • Medfoks.

Пара-Плюс от вшейPair Plus is high
toxicity, so it cannot be used to treat children in
under two and a half years. The drug is available in the form of
aerosols. With использовании этого средства следует соблюдать
Caution: Before spraying, be sure to protect the nose.
and the mouth from the ingress of medication vapors, since it threatens to develop
bronchospasm, which is quite difficult to stop.

Spray the drug should be the entire length of the hair (from the roots to
very tips) and after 10-15 minutes, thoroughly wash your hair
shampoo, after which you should remove all nits with
comb or special comb. The remedy causes insects
paralysis, preventing their further reproduction. Pair Plus also
used for processing linen and household items.

Medifox is available in the form of a gel or a special
concentrated mixture for the preparation of funds. Withменение геля
has age restrictions: it can not be used for treatment
kids up to 5 years. The concentrate can be used from the very first year.
the life of a child. The emulsion is prepared from a concentrated product (1/3
part) and boiled water (200 ml) at room temperature.
Only freshly prepared solution is used, which is applied to
affected areas and gently rubbed into the skin under the hair. Through
20 minutes, the drug is washed off with shampoo or soap.

Before using the gel, hair should be slightly moistened,
then put on them about 1/5 of the tube. Dosage is determined
degree of infection and length of hair. After 35—45 minutes Medifox
wash off using any detergent for hair. By
after the procedure, all parasites are combed with a comb
or comb.

Phenotrin Medicines

Препараты этой группы также весьма успешно применяются в
fight against parasites:

  • Жидкое средство ПаразидозLiquid remedy Parazidoz.
    Prohibited for use in the treatment of children under two years. Before
    applying the hair must be lightly moistened, then apply
    agent, for their entire length, leave for 10 minutes. By истечении этого
    time, the hair must again be moistened with clean water and carefully
    rub Parazidosis into the skin. After 5 minutes, the head is washed with shampoo
    and combed the dead lice with a comb. If necessary on
    The next day the procedure can be repeated. However, children do it
    not recommended as Parasidosis is very toxic.
  • Шампунь Веда 2. Before процедурой волосы моют обычным шампунем и
    lightly dried (they should not be completely dry). Therapeutic
    tool 2 table. l put on the head, massaged to education
    foam and rubbed into the skin. By истечении 10 минут голову необходимо
    rinse and comb out insects. Some patients advise to keep
    the drug on the hair for 20 minutes, and for more
    effect – rinse hair apple cider vinegar (5%). Required
    be careful: drugs in this group are contraindicated
    women during pregnancy and lactation.

Household items

To combat parasites that attacked not only the body, but also
предметы быта, используют специальные препараты,
produced by the chemical industry:

  • Spray Pax. от вшейSpray Pax. The tool is available
    in the form of aerosols that can be sprayed even on furniture and
    delicate fabrics because Spray Pax leaves no marks.
    If you have any doubts about the safety of the drug can be washed
    processed things using ordinary powder.
  • A-Par. Multifunctional drug, which includes
    several types of active substances that provides more
    long and fast effect. A-Par can be used not
    only for processing the head, but also for furniture, clothing, as well
    other household items. Only adult can use this spray.
    to people. Contraindications – children’s age, pregnancy and
    breastfeeding. Things should be handled twice with
    one week intervals. Some light things can only be washed in
    hot water.

Natural products

Drugs on a natural basis also showed its high
effectiveness in the treatment of pediculosis. However, despite the natural
origin of the components, the use of such tools should still
with extreme caution and necessarily in accordance with

  • Cheremical water.Cheremical water. Not allowed
    use of cherem water when removing lice in women during
    pregnancy and lactation, as well as in children. For achievement
    optimal concentration of the active substance drug before
    application is recommended to shake well. Hair also
    you must first prepare – wash and lightly dry,
    but make sure they stay wet. Apply the drug
    It should be on the entire area of ​​the head, paying special attention to the areas behind
    auricles and occiput area. It is in these places
    there is the greatest accumulation of insects.
  • Pedikulen Ultra. The tool is available в виде шампуня и
    lotion. The composition Pediculen Ultra includes anise oil and alcohol.
    Contraindication – children’s age. Byскольку препарат имеет не
    very pleasant smell and can cause vomiting, use it
    should with caution. Small amount of medicinal
    substances are applied to wet hair and left for half an hour, while
    head cover is not necessary. Then the hair is washed and combed out.
    insects with a comb.

Педикулен Ультра

Folk remedies

It is possible to fight insects that parasitize on the human body.
with the help of traditional medicine. However, it is worth considering that
the fact that not all such drugs are sufficient
efficiency, therefore, it is impossible to exclude the development of relapse. To that
however, many of them are no less toxic than pharmaceuticals. For
борьбы со вшами в домашних условиях используют следующие
medicinal formulations:

  • Folk remedies от вшейKerosene and soap
    (economic). Components are taken in equal parts (50/50), after
    what the resulting mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
  • Table vinegar (9%) must be diluted with water so that
    It turned out poorly concentrated (4.5%) solution.
  • Byдсолнечное масло и керосин — в соотношении 50/50.
  • Dichlorvos.
  • Tar soap – the effect is provided due to the increased
    alkali content.
  • Cranberry Juice – kills lice eggs through exposure
    acidic environment, dissolving the shell of nits.
  • Also used various essential oils – tea tree,
    lavender and so on. But such funds possess rather
    prophylactic, not therapeutic effect. Byэтому чаще всего их
    used to prevent infection pediculosis.

Literally everything, including folk remedies to combat
bloodsuckers have their drawbacks. For example, kerosene-containing
Formulations are flammable. To that же они оказывают
adverse effects on the condition of hair in
pubic areas: hair becomes sticky and dirty, it is hard
rinse and comb.

Vinegar, which dries heavily, is no less dangerous.
hair, and its concentrated solution can cause burns.
Agents like Dichlorvos are very toxic, which is also necessary
consider when processing.

General recommendations

Neither barber scissors, much less a hairdryer in the fight against parasites
will not help. With a strong infection, the problem must be solved.
cardinal way: shave all hair cleaned. However if
boys / men can easily endure such a dramatic change
appearance, then for girls / girls – this is a real drama.
It is useless to do a short hairstyle, lice eggs are located very
close to the surface of the skin, and so cut short
hair is unlikely to succeed.

There are several general rules to follow.
in the treatment of pediculosis and the fight against its pathogens.
The main recommendations are as follows:

  • Use drugs in the treatment of disease
    necessary at the same time to all family members and those living with them in
    one house to individuals. It is necessary to take
    attention is the state of health and age of all people involved in
  • Вычесывание вшейHead and other body areas
    process only once, unless otherwise indicated in the instructions.
    Byвторная процедура (при неэффективности первой) проводится не
    earlier than 7 days. The maximum number of treatments is not
    more than three.
  • Preparations in the form of gels and sprays can be used to treat
    hair in the genital area (pubic pediculosis). With
    this women should be especially careful not to allow
    contact with the mucous membranes of the vagina.
  • In no case can not use multiple drugs
    in one procedure – it can cause severe poisoning
  • Given the longevity of insects outside the body of the “host”, in
    for three days, it is necessary to further process the skin and
    bedding that had contact with parasites as well
    hats. Then all these things should be folded in cellophane
    packages and leave for two weeks, after which carefully

Ignoring these recommendations may result in re-development.
pediculosis and its further spread.

Preventive measures

To avoid infection, you must follow a few
нехитрых правиl The main ones are

  • Preventive measures педикулезаMonitor condition
    hair in children, since it is they who most often suffer from pediculosis
    because of their sociability and desire to be in big
    teams with peers. In the summer of insects can be picked up on
    street, playground and so on, in winter – in the garden or school. If a
    after treatment there was at least one living specimen, relapse is not
    to avoid.
  • Each family member must have an individual comb.
    Required провести беседу со своим ребёнком на тему использования
    other things hygiene and care.
  • Do not wear someone else’s baseball cap or hat. If a по какой-то причине
    there was no own headdress nearby
    use the usual handkerchief, tied at his tips
  • Avoid casual sex. This may lead to
    infection not only with pubic lice, but also more serious
  • With посещении бассейна надевать на голову резиновую шапочку.
    This will help protect hair from exposure to chemicals
    used to disinfect water and also avoid contamination
  • Also, do not go to other people’s baths and saunas. And if so
    turned out, it is necessary to process the canopy and the pots before bathing
    boiling water.
  • Going to shopping, to the hospital and other crowded places
    long hair must be collected in a braid or tail.
  • Make it a rule to rinse your hair after washing
    vinegar solution.

Although pediculosis is not an infectious disease and
transmitted by airborne droplets, it is quite easy to catch them.
Byэтому необходимо тщательно соблюдать основные правила гигиены не
only the body, but also their homes, as well as more closely
treat your health. With малейших подозрениях на
the presence of insects should conduct a full state check
hair on the head and in the pubic area, and if parasites are detected
immediately proceed to their destruction.

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