Infectious diseases for all
human history took more lives than the periodic wars
and hunger. Every year, hundreds of people die from diseases like cholera and
even thousands of people from different countries. Infection is difficult
pathogen bacteria have a number of characteristics that need to be
know for preventive measures to avoid
Features of the disease
Ученые насчитали около семи вспышек эпидемий cholera за всё время
the existence of mankind. Every time the disease took at least
ten thousand lives. The death toll in the modern world
depends on the area of infection. The first news of this
The virus appeared in the days of Galen and Hippocrates. In europe he
spread in the nineteenth century. From now on, doctors have become carefully
study its symptoms, causes, and ways of transmission.
A lot of time was spent on the study of the pathogen
The viruses that cause the disease are classic and El Tor
(named after the station where it was found). Since the flash
cholera были слишком частыми, а количество жертв превышало сотни
thousand, this infection was considered to be especially dangerous. Incidence rate
control local health systems every year.
Causative agents of the disease
Cholera is a bacterial disease, that is, its causative agents –
these are bacteria. Of the 150 known groups of vibrios emit only two
causative agent of infection. Special bacteria in the shape of curved or straight
sticks, on which the flagella are located, breed well in
alkaline environment. They live in the intestines, they are not formed
capsules and spores. Scientists for a detailed study grow cholera
vibrio in the laboratory.
The causative agent of the disease has several specific
- he is sensitive to
sunlight and heat;
- dies quickly under the influence of antiseptics and disinfectants so
how it starts to decompose in an acidic environment;
- in boiling water vibrio dies instantly, you can also
fight with antibiotics;
- bacterium for a long time can live in feces, soil, on
bed linen and towels;
- breeds easily and survives in water.
When a pathogen begins to break down, it releases two
protein-lipid structures – exo- and endotoxins. The first causes
изменения в организме во время infection. Cholera toxin comes out
from bacteria in the intestines, where it persists for decades, as in
environment. Thermostable and flagellated antigens allow
vibrio coexist peacefully with other infections in the body
The epidemic of the disease occurs every year and takes many
lives. Unable to get rid of developing cholera bacteria
countries. The leader in the number of infected is Southeast Asia,
the virus is also widespread in Latin America and Africa.
Periodic outbreaks are observed in Russia, but usually
imported from neighboring countries.
AT 1816—1975 годах произошло семь пандемий болезни cholera,
as a result of which it spread throughout the United
States, Japan, the Russian Federation, England and India. Disease
still considered one of the most dangerous in the world. Cholera
vibrio can not be destroyed. Cope with the bacteria
impossible for several reasons:
- it is resistant to adverse environmental conditions and
intestinal microflora in the human body;
- the main source of infection is infected water;
- viruses can mutate and adapt to new
Pick up the infection can be in reservoirs, during contact with
carrier of the virus and by eating infected foods and
low-quality water. ATозбудитель cholera мутирует, в истории
There is a known case when in the disinfectant-treated sludge
found a vibrio.
The reasons for the spread
The characteristic mechanism of cholera infection –
oral-fecal That is, you can pick up a virus from the surrounding
environment. In the room where there was a sick person, it is impossible
идеально обработать все поверхности, so pathogen может
get on other people’s bodies. Ways of infection can
The main path is
the first. When bathing in contaminated water, drinking dirty water
or even while washing your hands in such a liquid increases the risk
попадания холерной палочки на тело person If you touch
to the patient while the pathogen secretes its structural
elements into the environment, then it is also possible to pick up the viral
disease. Alimentary or food method implies
human consumption of products on which the virus is located. it
there may be unwashed fruits and vegetables, stale meat. Sick can
sneeze on food or touch it with your hand, and this will lead to
transmission of the virus.
Infection can only be ingested through the mouth. Animals
also able to accumulate cholera bacteria and carry them,
leave on food. Temporary carriers can be bad
Processed oysters and shrimp, clams and fish. In these products
pathogen lasts for 3-4 years. Also the virus can
оставаться на насекомых, so нужно избегать контакта с мухами,
комарами и тараканами во время вспышек чёрной cholera. Separate
people do not get sick themselves, but are carriers of the disease. During the period
exacerbations in some patients develop chronic forms
Changes in the body
If the body got a little
bacteria, and human health is very strong, the disease can
do not develop. The main barrier to the entry of bacteria is
acid environment of the stomach. The infection quickly loses its pathogens.
свойства в кислоте, so при выработке достаточного количества
Gastric juice vibrio may die. But when hit in thin
the intestine virus begins to feel comfortable since he
находится в alkaline environment.
The vibrio begins to secrete endotoxin and gradually collapses.
Part of the bacteria continues to live and reaches the intestines. Some of
they are attached to the walls with the help of special filiform processes and
remain in the body for a long time. There are zones in the intestines
clusters of active cells through which vibrio gets into
enterocytes, which upsets the balance of enzyme systems. Because of this
a large amount of liquid, chlorine, potassium and sodium is released –
элементов, являющихся жизненно необходимыми для person Organism
dehydrated, his condition worsens.
The main signs of cholera disease are frequent diarrhea and
vomiting. By them you can determine the degree of infection, and
количеству потерянной жидкости делают прогноз последствий infections.
ATсего разделяют четыре вида обезвоживания, они
have differences in the infection of children and adults:
- first degree – adults lose up to 3% of water, children – about
- the second – the loss of fluid reaches 6 and 5% in an adult and a child
- the third – 9 and 8% of the total body mass;
- The critical indicator is water loss of 10% in adults and
8% in children.
Symptoms of the disease do not differ from the symptoms of infection
classic cholera embryo. Incubation time
period is two days, the maximum period is five
days, and with a fast current – only a few hours. The doctors
divide cholera into light, medium and severe depending on
проявления infections. Usually found moderate
cases in which the following symptoms are observed:
- frequent morning or night urge to
toilet, starting suddenly;
- sometimes body temperature may rise, although usually
remains in the normal range;
- the patient suffers from sudden bouts of vomiting by a fountain, while
he does not feel pain in the stomach;
- constant rumbling in the area around the navel, discomfort in the bottom
parts of the abdomen;
- diarrhea occurs due to the fact that bacteria multiply in
intestinal stools accompanied by the smell of raw potatoes or
- lost appetite, an infected person suffers from thirst,
feels weak in muscles;
- the disease may be accompanied by cramps in the limbs;
- the amount of urine is reduced;
- in some cases, a hoarse voice.
During the diagnosis, the doctor notices an increased heart rate, dryness
skin and tongue, low blood pressure. With
hard stages the skin becomes blue. Most
a favorable course of the disease occurs in the mild stage
cholera. Её признаки:
- bouts of diarrhea up to ten times a day;
- general weakness and body aches, dry mouth and constant
- absence or rare cases of vomiting;
- first degree of dehydration;
- symptoms last no more than two days.
If an infected person has these signs, then he
fully recovers in a few days, the effects and
there will be no complications. Infected may not even apply to
to the doctor. Medical care is needed in the second degree.
diseases. With этом наблюдаются другие
- infection passes
- diarrhea up to 20 times a day, the discharge has the appearance of rice broth and
- there are no pains in the intestines, but sometimes false urges occur in
- persistent vomiting that is not preceded by seizures
- severe muscle weakness, thirst, and frequent cramps;
- the second stage of dehydration.
Most тяжёлая стадия cholera — третья. In this case, the state
much worse, a large amount of fluid is lost, appears
severe dryness and cyanotic skin. The amount of urine released
in a day, gradually decreases until anuria occurs.
The appearance of the patient acquires certain
- eyes sink, become
deep-set, mucous membranes dry up;
- on the hands, the skin gathers in folds, wrinkles;
- the patient remains conscious for a long time, suffers from insomnia;
- kidney and bladder problems begin due to
lack of urine;
- certain muscle groups are subject to frequent convulsions;
- temperature stays normal or slightly
If you do not start timely treatment, the infection can lead to
of death. 60% of deaths recorded in the third stage
Varieties of the disease
У cholera множество клинических проявлений. Also isolated
several forms diseases that you need to know – dry and
lightning fast The first is characterized by a sharp onset without vomiting and
diarrhea. The dehydration and shock of the patient develop almost on
eyes, this is the main danger of dry illness. Usually such
the type of infection is observed in those who suffered before infection
A few days a person can burn from lightning form
cholera. Its symptoms are the same as for ordinary illness, but they
flow much faster. Even with timely intervention
most often the disease ends in the death of an infected person.
Special categories of patients include older people and
children. У них ослабленный иммунитет, so признаки cholera
are different. Sometimes the disease is more aggressive than
in adult patients. Symptoms of infection in a child can
be like this:
- faster comes
dehydration, but it is almost imperceptible;
- convulsions are more often observed as the child’s body leaves
a lot of potassium;
- there may be disturbances in the functioning of the brain,
so ребёнок становится заторможенным и часто теряет
- организм ослаблен, на фоне cholera могут развиваться другие
illness, which causes a rise in temperature, a general deterioration
Children need emergency help even with minor losses.
liquids, since light dehydration can lead to irreversible
consequences and death.
Treatment and Prevention
Diagnosis is carried out
in stages, first clarify the history data. If it develops
epidemic, the diagnosis can be made much faster. In man
прибывшего из стран, где часто происходят вспышки cholera, доктор
clarifies all his contacts with infected people.
The rapid development of the disease, bouts of vomiting and diarrhea already
indicate infection with cholera. The main method of diagnosis is
This laboratory research. Conclusion doctor sets, relying
on their results.
For diagnosis of vomit or feces of the patient take
specific materials and add them to food. Then with
using food to infect a laboratory animal. Virus is manifested in
one and a half days, but in specially equipped
research laboratories time is reduced to five hours.
A living organism must be carefully observed in the first three hours.
infection. If this is not possible, then it is placed in alkaline
Лечение нужно начинать на первой стадии cholera. But
Some complications can prevent recovery:
- when weakened
immunity begins purulent fusion of soft tissue;
- следствием cholera может быть заражение крови бактериями;
- fourth degree of dehydration leads to dehydration
shock, the signs of which are blue skin tone in the area
nose, mouth, eyelids and ears, lowering the temperature, hoarseness,
tachycardia and shortness of breath;
- brain function deteriorates;
- frequent loss of consciousness and coma are possible.
The full amount of treatment can cure a patient even with severe
стадиями cholera. Deaths are usually the result.
молниеносной формы infections. Therapy begins immediately, infected
people are placed in an insulating box to avoid spreading
virus. If the disease develops, then carry out procedures for
recovery of lost fluid. For this use
Then with их помощью корректируют минеральный баланс крови в
the body. From the first day of infection, patients take
antibacterial drugs, the duration of treatment which
must be at least five days. Patients do not need to abide by
diet, but the number of meals increased to 6-7 times.
Preventive measures are taken in countries where the passes
epidemic. Separate planned and emergency events. AT
foci of infection carry out such
- prohibit eating infected
water and swim in open water, disinfect all local
- patients are isolated from other people;
- those who are in contact with them should be examined for availability.
- doctors are advised to wash hands frequently with soap and expose everything
heat treated products;
- during the development of the epidemic people who arrived from its outbreaks
spread over five days of observation and
With the population must spend sanitary and educational
work Patients who carry bacteria, but do not have cholera
themselves, must constantly be examined in a hospital. AT случае
activation of the virus spend prophylactic treatment.
vaccines. ATзрослым пациентам вводят 0,8 мл анатоксина или
choleragen. These substances in 95% of cases produce a protective
иммунитет в организме person ATторую инъекцию делают через три
месяца, она даёт стопроцентную гарантию защиты от infections. Can
use oral vaccines consisting of killed or
weakened viruses. Drops take twice with a break of one
a week They are easily tolerated and perceived by the body.
provide protection up to 90%. Vaccination should be repeated every
half a year
Infection can take hundreds of lives in a few hours, so
it is important to know all about the symptoms and causes of the disease, prevention and
treatment of cholera. Thanks to a brief description of the main features
You can learn about the presence or absence of a virus in the body.