Parkinson’s disease – what are the signssymptoms, treatment and causes

Parkinson’s disease – a neurological disease
character with chronic signs. It progresses slowly and
affects older people. To establish
The diagnosis requires the presence of clinical symptoms and data
instrumental research methods. To slow down
the progression of the disease and the deterioration of the condition of the patient with the disease
Parkinson’s need to constantly take medicinal
facilities.

In more detail what kind of disease is it, what factors are
impetus to its occurrence, as well as the first signs and symptoms of the disease
Parkinson, we look further.

Parkinson’s disease: what is it?

Болезнь Паркинсона

Болезнь Паркинсона — это дегенеративное заболевание
central nervous system, the main manifestation of which is
pronounced impairment of motor functions. This disease is characteristic
for older people it is also called otherwise “trembling
paralysis “, which indicates the main symptoms of this disease:
constant trembling and increased muscle stiffness, and
the difficulty of performing directed movements.

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the early nineteenth century first described
врач Джеймс Паркинсон в «Эссе о дрожательном параличе»,
thanks to which the disease got the name of a scientist.

Parkinson’s syndrome develops due to death in the head
brain of the corresponding nerve cells responsible for controlling
committed movements.

Destroyed neurons lose their ability to perform their tasks, in
the result is a decrease in dopamine (dopamine) synthesis and
развитие симптомов болезни:

  • Increased muscle tone (rigidity);
  • Decreased motor activity (hypokinesia);
  • Difficulty walking and keeping balance;
  • Trembling (tremor);
  • Vegetative and mental disorders.

The first stages of Parkinson’s disease usually go unnoticed.
In rare cases, the surrounding pay attention to some
slow motion and less expressiveness of mimicry.

As the pathology progresses, at the next stage
Parkinson’s patient himself notes that it is difficult for him
perform some subtle movements. Gradually changing handwriting –
down to serious writing difficulties. It becomes difficult
carry out usual hygiene procedures (brush teeth, shave).
Over time, facial expressions are so impoverished that the face becomes
masked In addition, speech is noticeably disturbed.

Withчины возникновения

Scientists have not yet been able to identify the exact causes.
the onset of Parkinson’s disease, however
a group of factors that can trigger the development of this
diseases.

According to statistics, Parkinson’s disease
diagnosed in 1% of the population under 60 years old and in 5% of those older
age The incidence among men is somewhat higher.

Withчины возникновения болезни Паркинсона можно выделить
such:

  • aging of the body in which the natural way
    decreases the number of neurons, which leads to a decrease
    dopamine production;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • permanent residence near motorways, industrial
    enterprises or railways;
  • lack of vitamin D, which is formed when exposed to rays
    ultraviolet in the body, and preserving cell formation
    brain from the damaging effects of free radicals and various
    toxins;
  • poisoning with some chemical compounds;
  • appearance due to mutation of defective mitochondria, which
    often leads to neuronal degeneration;
  • neuroinfection (tick-borne encephalitis);
  • tumor processes occurring in the brain or its injuries.

Parkinson’s disease can also develop, for some
allegations against the background of drug intoxication associated with
long-term patient medications, representing
phenothiazine, as well as with certain narcotic
drugs.

Scientists come to believe that most often to the development of the disease
leads rather a combination of several listed reasons.

Withчины болезни также зависят и от вида:

  • Первичный паркинсонизм –  в 80% случаев вызван
    genetic predisposition.
  • Secondary parkinsonism – occurs on the background of various pathologies
    and existing diseases.

The risk groups include people 60-65 years old, most often male
population. Встречается оно и у людей молодого age In that
case it proceeds more slowly than in older people
groups.

It is worth noting that the signs of Parkinson’s disease in women and in
men do not have clear differences, since cell damage occurs,
regardless of the sex of a person.

The forms and stages of Parkinson

In medicine, there are 3 forms of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Rigid-bradykinetic. Characterized mainly
    increased muscle tone (especially flexors) in plastic type.
    Active movements are slowed down to immobility. For this
    Forms are characterized by the classic “hunched” posture.
  • Shivering-rigid. Manifested by distal tremor
    limbs, which over time joins stiffness
    movements.
  • Trembling. Manifests itself constant tremor of the limbs,
    lower jaw, tongue. The amplitude of oscillatory movements can be
    great, but the rate of voluntary movements is always maintained. Tone
    The muscles are usually elevated.

Syndrome of Parkinson’s disease is divided according to the principle of severity of symptoms.
at the stage, each of them has its own characteristics in the methods of treatment.
Stages of Parkinson’s disease, disability groups in more detail
described on Hen-Yar scale:

  1. In the first stage, the symptoms of the disease are noted on one
    limbs (with the transition to the body);
  2. For the second stage peculiar manifestation of postural
    instability on both sides;
  3. In the third stage, postural instability progresses,
    however, the patient, albeit with difficulty, still overcomes the inertia
    movement when pushed, and able to serve himself;
  4. Although the patient can still stand or walk, he begins strongly
    need help;
  5. Total immobility Disability. Standing stranger
    care.

According to the rate of development of the disease, the transition from one stage to
following emit:

Темп прогрессирования Features
Fast change of stages from one to another occurs within 2 years and
less;
Moderate transition more than 2 years, but less than 5 years;
Slow transition more than 5 years.

In the terminal stage of Parkinson’s disease, the main difficulties
associated with cachexia, loss of ability to stand, walk and
self catering. At this time it is necessary to conduct the whole
complex of rehabilitation measures aimed at ensuring
optimal conditions for everyday household activities
the patient.

Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms and Signs

You can not predict the appearance of the disease, because she does not wear
genetic nature, however, you can stop its development on
early stages. Withзнаки болезни Паркинсона в самом начале, когда
the cells of the black substance are just starting to break down, reveal
complicated. When the disease acquires new stages,
new symptoms of impaired nervous system. Parkinson’s syndrome
is rapidly changing a person.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:

  1. Tremor (constant involuntary trembling). Excess
    stimulating effect of the central nervous system on the muscles leads to
    the appearance of constant trembling of the limbs, head, eyelids, lower
    jaws and others
  2. Rigidity (stiffness and reduced muscle mobility).
    Lack of dopamine inhibitory effect leads to excessive
    increase muscle tone, causing them to become hard,
    fixed, lose elasticity.
  3. Restricted and slow motion (defined as
    bradykinesia), especially this symptom appears with prolonged
    state of rest with the subsequent beginning of movements from the patient.
    A similar condition may occur when trying to roll over
    bed to the other side or get up after sitting in the chair and
    etc.
  4. Нарушение координации movements. The danger of this symptom is
    that a person loses stability and at any moment may fall.
    Also, people with this disease often have a slouch,
    and they tend to lower their shoulders and tilt their heads forward.

It is important to note that Parkinson’s disease is progressive.
disease, and often enough at the initial stage of the disease
имеет латентное течение.

Despite the fact that tremor is a major
symptoms indicating Parkinson’s disease, its presence
however, is not exceptional evidence of the fact that
the person is this disease. Tremor caused by other
painful conditions unlike tremor
Parkinson’s, less pronounced with limb immobility and
on the contrary, more noticeable in motion.

Other signs of Parkinson’s disease

In addition to the above-mentioned main manifestations of parkinsonism, the disease
Parkinson’s has other symptoms that, in some
cases may come to the forefront of the clinical picture. Withчем
the degree of disadaptation of the patient in such cases is no less.
We list only some of them:

  • salivation,
  • dysarthria and / or dysphagia,
  • constipation,
  • dementia
  • depression,
  • sleep disturbances
  • dysuric disorders,
  • restless legs syndrome and others.

Accompanied by parkinsonism and mental disorders:

  • Changes in the affective sphere (decrease in mood
    depressed type or alternation of depression with periods
    elevated mood).
  • Dementia. Violations of the cognitive sphere of the type of deficiency. Have
    patients the intelligence is sharply reduced, they cannot solve everyday
    tasks.

Первые явления психоза (страх, бессонница,
растерянность, галлюцинации, параноидное состояние с
дезориентацией) отмечаются у 20 % индивидов с
parkinsonism. The decline in intellectual function is less pronounced,
нежели at старческом слабоумии.

Have 40 % индивидов, страдающих паркинсонизмом, отмечаются
расстройства сновидений и чрезмерная утомляемость, у 47 % —
depressive states. Patients are initiativeless, apathetic,
annoying. They tend to ask the same questions.

Human consequences

With заболевании паркинсонизмом проблемой становится вставание с
bed and armchairs, coups in bed, difficulties arise at
brushing your teeth and doing simple household chores. Sometimes slow
gait is replaced by a quick run, with which the patient can not
cope until it faces an obstacle or falls. Speech
больного становится монотонной, без модуляций.

The effects of Parkinson’s disease are:

  • violation of the intellectual sphere;
  • mental disorders;
  • decrease, up to complete disappearance, ability to
    self-catering;
  • complete immobilization, loss of speech function.

Diagnostics

Diagnostics болезни Паркинсона состоит из 3 этапов:

Stage 1

Identification of symptoms indicating parkinsonism.
This step includes a physical examination of the patient on
the moment you go to the doctor. Он позволяет выявить основные atзнаки
Parkinson’s disease: constant muscle tremors, muscle stiffness,
difficulty keeping balance or doing directed
movements.

Stage 2

It is important for the physician to exclude all possible diseases with similar
symptoms. These may be ocular crises, repeated strokes,
secondary traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors,
poisoning, etc.

Stage 3 – Confirmation of the presence of Parkinson’s disease

The final stage of diagnosis is based on the availability of both
минимум трех atзнаков. It:

  • disease duration more than 10 years,
  • disease progression
  • asymmetry of symptoms with predominance on that side of the body,
    где дебютировала болезнь, atсутствие тремора покоя, односторонние
    manifestations of the disease at the initial stage of its development.

In addition to these three diagnostic stages, the neurological
examinations, a person may be referred to an EEG, CT or MRI of the head
the brain. Также atменяют реоэнцефалографию.

Treatment

A patient who has the initial symptoms of the disease
Parkinson’s requires careful treatment with an individual course,
связанно это с тем, что упущенное лечение atводит к серьезным
the consequences.

The main task in treatment are:

  • maintain motor activity for as long as possible
    the patient;
  • development of a special exercise program;
  • drug therapy.

Drug treatment

Врач at выявлении заболевания и ее стадии назначает препараты
at болезни Паркинсона, соответствующие этапу развития
syndrome:

  • Initially effective pills amantadine, which stimulates
    dopamine production.
  • In the first stage, dopamine agonists are also effective.
    receptors (mirapeks, pramipexol).
  • Levodopa medicine in combination with other drugs prescribed
    in complex therapy at later stages of development
    syndrome

The basic drug that can slow down the development
Parkinson’s syndrome is Levodopa. It should be noted that
drug has a number of side effects. Before reference to clinical
the practice of this tool is the only significant method of treatment
was the destruction of the basal nuclei.

Symptomatic treatment:

  1. Hallucinations, psychosis – psychoanaleptics (Ekselon, Reminil),
    neuroleptics (Seroquel, Clozapine, Azaleptin, Leponex)
  2. Вегетативные нарушения – слабительные facilities at
    constipation, GIT motility stimulants (Motilium), antispasmodics
    (Detruzitol), antidepressants (Amitriptyline)
  3. Нарушение сна, боли, depression, тревожность – антидепрессанты
    (tsipramil, iksel, amitriptyline, paksil) zolpidem, sedatives
    facilities
  4. Decreased concentration, impaired memory – Exelon,
    Memantine-akatinol, Reminyl

The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the disease and condition.
health, and is carried out only by a doctor after it is held
complete diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.

Exercise therapy

Therapeutic exercise is one of the best ways to clean
symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Simple exercises can be performed
and in the apartment, and on the street. Haveпражнения помогают держать мышцы в
tonus. In order for the effect to be better, exercise is necessary
perform every day.  If the patient cannot on his own
do them, then you need to help him.

Surgical intervention

Operative intervention is performed only when not
medications helped. Modern medicine achieves good
результатов даже at частичном хирургическом вмешательстве – это
pallidotomy. Surgery reduces hypokinesia by almost 100.
percent.

Широкое atменение получило и малоинвазивное хирургическое
intervention – neurostimulation. This is point directed
the impact of electric current on certain areas of the head
the brain.

Recommendations for people with Parkinson

Основой нормальной жизни at таком диагнозе является перечень
rules:

  • Follow the recommendations of the attending physician;
  • Рассчитывать свои силы так, чтобы это не стало atчиной
    aggravating health problems;
  • Systematically engage in the exercise and
    follow proper nutrition;
  • If necessary – seek advice from
    a qualified psychologist who will tell you how to overcome
    difficulties to a person with such a diagnosis
  • Не atбегать к самостоятельному atёму медикаментов.
    Игнорировать информацию, касающуюся atмеров и советов людей,
    которые победили недуг или улучшили своё здоровье at помощи
    any extraneous means.

Forecast

Lifespan with Parkinson’s disease is reduced as
progression of symptoms, quality of life deteriorates irreversibly,
ability to work is lost.

Modern medicine allows a person with Parkinson’s disease
live an active life of at least 15 years, only then will a person begin
need care. And death usually occurs due to
other causes are heart disease, pneumonia, and so on. With
compliance with all the recommendations of the doctor a person can not just be
independent in life, but also to be professional
sought after.

With отсутствии лечения, к сожалению, через 10-12 лет человек
may be bedridden. And catch up
impossible, changes are irreversible.

Prevention

Specific measures for the prevention of Parkinson’s disease does not exist.
However, human strengths significantly reduce the risk of
get sick To do this:

  • Maintain a level of physical activity.
    Hypodynamia increases the risk of parkinsonism.
  • Regularly “train” the brain. Solve problems, solve
    crosswords, play chess. This is a universal preventive measure.
    against Parkinson and Alzheimer’s.
  • Be careful with antipsychotics. Such drugs should
    taken only under medical supervision.
  • Regularly undergo preventive examinations at
    a neurologist.

Parkinson’s disease is a fairly dangerous disease,
which have a serious impact on human activity. therefore
so important to know what symptoms are characteristic of this pathology.
Timely detection of symptoms and immediate medical attention
will allow a person to live a full life for a long time.

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