Panic attacks – what are these, symptoms,treatment, signs and causes

Panic attack (or episodic paroxysmal anxiety) –
this is a subset of anxiety disorder that refers to
neurotic level disorders associated with
stress. Panic attack is well defined.
эпизодом интенсивной anxiety или недомогания, который приходит
suddenly, peaks within a few minutes and lasts
no more than 10 – 20 minutes.

Characteristic feature is unpredictability
occurrence and the huge difference between the severity of subjective
sensations and objective status of the patient. TOак свидетельствуют
modern psychologists, panic attacks occur in about 5%
people who live in big cities.

What is panic attack?

Панические атаки

A panic attack is an unpredictable attack.
сильного страха или anxiety, сочетающейся с разнообразной
vegetative multiple organ symptomatology. ATо время приступа может
there is a combination of several of the following symptoms:

  • hyperhidrosis
  • heartbeat
  • labored breathing,
  • chills,
  • tides
  • fear of madness or death
  • nausea,
  • dizziness, etc.

Signs of panic attacks are manifested in bouts of fear,
completely unpredictable, the personality is also very
anxious, she is afraid to die, and sometimes she thinks she will become insane.
In this case, the person experiences unpleasant symptoms with physical
side of the body. is heи не способны объяснить причин, не могут
manage time or seizure power.

Phased panic attack development mechanism:

  • adrenaline and other catecholamine release following
    stress;
  • narrowing of the blood vessels;
  • increase in power and heart rate;
  • increased respiratory rate;
  • reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood;
  • the accumulation of lactic acid in the tissues at the periphery.

Panic attacks are a common condition. At least once
every fifth person endured her life,
recurring longer than a year, no more than 1% of people are affected. AT 5 раз
more often women are sick, and the peak of incidence is in age
25-35 years old. But an attack can occur in a child over 3 years old and in
teenager, and in people over 60 years old.

Causes

Today there are many theories of
панических attacks. is heи затрагивают как физиологическое, так и
social link. However, the root cause of the panic attack is taken
count the physiological processes occurring in the body
human, under the influence of stress factors.

The condition can be triggered by any disease, fear
or an operation for which a person was experiencing. Most often attack
develops against the background of mental pathologies, but it can also be
caused by:

  • myocardial infarction;
  • ischemic heart disease;
  • mitral valve prolapse;
  • childbirth;
  • pregnancy;
  • началом половой life;
  • menopause;
  • pheochromocytoma (adrenal tumor, in which
    too much adrenaline is produced);
  • thyrotoxic crisis;
  • taking drugs cholecystokinin, hormone-glucocorticoids,
    anabolic steroids.

In healthy people without bad habits, the appearance of panic attacks
usually provokes a psychological conflict. If a person
constantly lives in a state of stress, suppression of desire, fear for
future (for children), feelings of self-incapacity or
unfortunateness, this can result in panic disorder.

TOроме того, предрасположенность к паническим атакам имеет
genetic basis, approximately 15-17% of first-degree relatives
have similar symptoms.

In men, panic attack is less common at times. This, according to
research findings, due to a complex hormonal change when
menstrual cycle. You will not surprise anyone with the presence of sharp women
emotional jumps. There is a chance that men are less willing
asking for help because of their mocking masculinity. is heи скорее
sit down on drugs or drinks to lose their obsessive
symptoms.

Risk factors:

  • Psychologistsческие травмы.
  • Chronic stress.
  • Disrupted sleep – wakefulness.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • ATредные привычки (приём алкоголя, табакокурение).
  • Psychologistsческие конфликты (подавление желаний, комплексы и
    etc.).

ATиды

Modern medicine allows you to combine PA in several
groups:

  • Spontaneous PA. is heи возникают без каких-либо причин.
  • Situational. Are a reaction to a specific situation, to
    For example, a person is afraid of speaking in public or going through
    bridge.
  • Conditionally situational. Appear in most cases after
    effects on the body of biological or chemical stimulants
    nature (drugs, alcohol, hormonal changes).

Symptoms of Panic Attacks in Adults

When a panic attack occurs, a pronounced fear (phobia) – fear
loss of consciousness, fear of “going crazy”, fear of death. Lost
control of the situation, understanding of the place and time of stay,
sometimes self-awareness (derealization and
depersonalization).

Panic attacks can pursue healthy and optimistic
minded people. However, they occasionally experience bouts. anxiety
and fear that end when you exit the “problem”
situations. But there are other cases where the attacks themselves are not so
as dangerous as the disease that caused them. For example, panic
upset or severe depression.

Symptoms that most often occur during panic attacks:

  • The main symptom that sends an alarm bell to the brain,
    serves dizziness. Panic attacks promote release
    adrenaline, a person feels the danger of the situation and even more
    pumps up.
  • If you do not overcome this generation of attack, shortness of breath appears,
    the heart starts to beat hard, blood pressure rises,
    there is accelerated sweating.
  • Throbbing pain in temples, state of asphyxiation, sometimes heart
    pain, tightness of the diaphragm, poor coordination of movements,
    clouded mind, nausea and gagging, thirst, loss
    real time, strong excitement and not leaving feeling
    of fear.

Psychological symptoms of PA:

  • Confusion or contraction of consciousness.
  • Feeling “coma in the throat.”
  • Derealization: the feeling that everything around seems unreal or
    going on somewhere far from man.
  • Depersonalization: the patient’s own actions are perceived
    as if “from the side.”
  • Fear of death.
  • Anxiety about any unknown danger.
  • Fear of going crazy or doing an inappropriate act (shouting
    faint, rush to the person, wet oneself, etc.).

Panic attack characterized by non-existent
the real danger of a sudden unpredictable start,
avalanche-like growth and gradual subsiding of symptoms,
the presence of post-offensive period.

On average, paroxysm lasts about 15 minutes, but
the duration can vary from 10 minutes to 1 hour.

After suffering a panic attack, the person is in
constant thinking about what happened, fixes attention to
well-being. This behavior can lead to
panic attacks later on.

The frequency of panic attacks in panic disorder may be
different: from several per day to several per year. Noteworthy
that seizures can develop during sleep. So, the man in the midst
night wakes up in horror and cold sweat, not realizing that with him
going on.

What should a person do during a panic attack?

If control is retained, and self-control is not lost,
then, feeling the approaching attack, the patient must try
�”Distract”. There are many ways to do this:

  1. score – you can start counting the number of chairs in the room or
    seats in the bus, the number of people without a headdress in the car
    metro and others;
  2. singing or reciting poetry – try to remember your favorite song and
    hum it “about yourself” carry in your pocket written on
    leaflet verse and with the beginning attack begin to read it;
  3. Know and actively use respiratory relaxation
    techniques: deep abdominal breathing, so that exhalation was slower than inhalation,
    use a paper bag or your own palms, folded
    �”Boat” to eliminate hyperventilation.
  4. Self-hypnosis techniques: inspire yourself that you are relaxed,
    calm and so on
  5. Physical activity: helps get rid of cramps and
    cramps, relax muscles, eliminate shortness of breath, calm down and get distracted
    from an attack.
  6. Get in the habit of doing palm massage when you panic
    caught you off guard. Click on the membrane that is
    between the index and thumb. Press down, count to 5,
    let go.
  7. Relaxation can be done with a massage or
    rubbing of certain parts of the body: ears, areas
    neck, shoulder surfaces, and little fingers and bases of the thumbs
    on both hands.
  8. Cold and hot shower. Every 20-30 seconds should be alternated
    douche with hot and cold water in order to cause a response
    реакцию гормональной системы, которая погасит приступ anxiety.
    It is necessary to direct water to all parts of the body and head.
  9. Relax. If the seizures appeared on the background of chronic
    tired, it’s time to relax a bit. More often type bath with
    fragrant oils, sleep more, go on vacation. Psychologists
    say that this way is cured 80% of people.

Often, over time, patients develop a fear of a new attack,
they are anxiously waiting for him and try to avoid provocative situations.
Naturally, such a constant voltage is no good.
leads and attacks are increasing. Without proper treatment, such
patients often turn into hermits and hypochondriacs who
are constantly searching for new symptoms in themselves, but they are not
преминут появиться в такой situations.

The consequences of PA for humans

Among the consequences should be noted:

  • Social isolation;
  • The occurrence of phobias (including agoraphobia);
  • Hypochondria;
  • The appearance of problems in the personal and professional fields
    life;
  • Violation of interpersonal relationships;
  • The development of secondary depression;
  • The emergence of chemical dependencies.

How to treat panic attacks?

As a rule, after the appearance of the first panic attack, the patient
goes to a therapist, a neurologist, a cardiologist, each of
These specialists do not determine their disorders in their profile. TO
psychotherapist which is necessary for the patient initially, he gets
mainly by the time he reaches a state of depression or
significant deterioration noted in quality of life.

A psychotherapist at the reception explains to the patient what it is with him
occurs, revealing the characteristics of the disease, then produced
selection of tactics for the subsequent management of the disease.

The main goal of treating panic attacks is to reduce the number of
seizures and relief of symptoms. Treatment is always conducted in
two directions – drug and psychological. AT
depending on individual characteristics can be used
one of the directions or both at the same time.

Psychotherapy

The ideal way to start the treatment of panic attacks after all
Counseling psychotherapist is considered. Considering the problem in
psychiatric plane, you can quickly achieve success
since the doctor, denoting the psychogenic origin of the disorders,
prescribe therapy according to degree
emotional and autonomic disorders.

  1. TOогнитивно-поведенческая психотерапия представляет собой один
    of the most common treatments for panic attacks. Therapy
    consists of several steps, the purpose of which is to change the thinking and
    patient attitude to anxiety. ATрач объясняет схему
    the occurrence of panic attacks, which allows the patient to understand
    mechanism occurring with him phenomena.
  2. A very popular, relatively new look is
    neuro-linguistic programming. At the same time use special
    the type of conversation, the person finds terrifying situations and experiences them. is he
    scrolls them so many times that the fear just disappears.
  3. Gestalt therapy – a modern approach to the treatment of panic
    attacks. The patient examines in detail the situations and events that
    cause him anxiety and discomfort. ATо время лечения терапевт
    pushes him to search for solutions and methods to eliminate such
    situations.

Auxiliary herbal therapy is also practiced, in which
it is recommended that patients take broths of some herbs every day.
soothing effect. You can cook broths and infusions of
valerian, veronica, oregano, nettle, lemon balm, mint, wormwood
common, motherwort, chamomile, hops, etc.

Preparations in the treatment of panic attacks

The duration of the drug course, as a rule, is not
less than half a year. Cancellation of the drug is possible against the background of complete reduction.
anxiety ожидания, если паническая атака не наблюдалась в течение
30-40 days.

In a panic attack, the doctor may prescribe the following.
drugs:

  • Сибазон (диазепам, реланиум, седуксен) снимает чувство anxiety,
    general tension, increased emotional excitability.
  • Medazepam (Rudotel) – day tranquilizer, relieves
    panic fears, but not causing drowsiness.
  • Grandaxine (antidepressant) does not have sleeping pills and
    muscle relaxant effect, is used as a day
    tranquilizer.
  • Tazepam, Phenazepam – relax the muscles, give moderate
    sedative effect.
  • Zopiclone (sonnat, sonex) is a fairly popular lung.
    hypnotic, providing full healthy sleep in
    for 7-8 hours.
  • Antidepressants (light – amitriptyline, grandaxine, azafen,
    imizin).

Some of the listed drugs can not be taken more.
2-3 weeks, because possible side effects.

При начале приема некоторых лекарств ощущения anxiety и паники
may become stronger. AT большинстве случаев это временное явление.
If you feel that there is no improvement after a few
days after the start of their reception, be sure to tell your
to the doctor.

There are also drugs that are potent, by
type of tranquilizers are not relevant. Their sale is made without
recipe, while with their help it becomes possible to facilitate
condition of the patient in case of an attack. AT числе таковых можно
highlight:

  • medicinal herbs,
  • daisy
  • birch leaves,
  • motherwort.

A patient who is subject to panic attacks is significantly
facilitates state of awareness: the more he will know about
about how to overcome it and reduce the symptoms
it will be calmer to treat its manifestations and to lead adequately
yourself with seizures.

The use of herbal

  • For the reception of therapeutic herbal tinctures can be prepared
    the following mixture: take 100 g of tea rose fruit and flowers
    daisies; then 50 g of lemon balm leaves, yarrow, root
    angelica and hypericum; add 20 g of hop cones, valerian root and
    peppermint leaves. Brew boiling water, insist and drink
    slightly warm 2 times a day
  • Peppermint should be brewed in this way: two tablespoons
    spoon mint (dry or fresh) pour a glass of boiling water. After
    of this you need to insist mint tea under the lid for two hours.
    Then filter the infusion, and drink at one time for a glass. For
    успокоения нервной системы и лечения панических attacks. Recommended
    drink a day, three glasses of mint tea.

Prevention

Methods for the prevention of PA include:

  1. Exercise – the best prevention in the fight against
    panic attacks. The more intense the lifestyle, the less
    probability of panic attacks.
  2. Walking in the fresh air is still one way to prevent
    панических attacks. Such walks are very effective and have a long
    positive action.
  3. Meditation. This method is suitable for those who can cope with
    their habits and daily exercise complex exercises;
  4. Peripheral vision will help to relax, and therefore
    minimize the risk of panic attack.

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