Pancreatitis – what it is, first reasonssigns, symptoms and treatment of pancreatitis in adults

Панкреатит – воспалительное заболевание поджелудочной
glands. The main reason is a violation of the outflow
digestive juice and other enzymes produced
pancreas, small intestine (duodenal ulcer)
the gut). The frequency of pancreatitis and other diseases of the pancreas
glands all over the world are growing. This is primarily due to
poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, deterioration
environmental conditions.

In this article we will look in detail: what are they, what are the main
causes, first signs and symptoms, and what
treatment prescribed for pancreatitis in adults, and what you need
Be sure to know if a seizure has occurred.

What is pancreatitis?

панкреатит у взрослых

Pancreatitis is an inflammatory-degenerative process in
pancreas. If such a process occurs,
то ферменты, продуцируемые поджелудочной железой, не попадают
into the duodenum. Consequently, they begin to actively
act already in the pancreas, gradually destroying it.

This process is called autolysis, which, translated from
Latin, and is called “self-digestion.” Now you know,
in most general terms about acute pancreatitis, what it is. it
just a chemical attack, and turning the gland “on its own” into
semi-digested mass.

Pancreas is one of the most complex organs.
the human body, which is practically not amenable
recovery. The performance of this gland regulates the exchange
substances, normal digestion.

Its main functions are:

  • Isolation of enzymes for the breakdown of beneficial substances
    derived from food, in the small intestine.
  • Fermentation of insulin and glucagon in the blood – hormones,
    regulating the storage and consumption of food
    energy.

The reasons

Pancreatitis in adults is a fairly common problem, with
which everyone can face. Can lead to development
disorders associated with the outflow of bile, as well as eating habits
(for example, consumption of fat and abundant meat food, stress,
hereditary predisposition, alcohol, etc.).

Therefore, a higher risk of developing pancreatitis is
those people who are constantly abusing alcohol. According to statistics
more often develops in pregnant women and in young mothers in the postpartum
period. The key to preventing the development of pancreatitis is
the right approach to the formation of the diet.

The presence of the following factors can cause pancreatitis:

  • surgeries on the biliary tract and in general on the stomach;
  • injuries to the abdomen, injuries;
  • parasitic invasions, infections, in particular viral
    hepatitis;
  • mumps (mumps);
  • genetic predisposition.

Statistics of pancreatitis by reason of appearance

  • 40% of all patients with inflammation of the pancreas are
    alcoholics. They most often detect either organ necrosis or
    destructive violations.
  • 30% of patients are patients with gallstone disease in
    anamnesis
  • 20% of patients are obese patients.
  • 5% of patients are patients who have suffered an organ injury or
    intoxication taking drugs.
  • Less than 5% of patients are hereditary patients.
    predisposition to the formation of inflammation, or suffering from
    congenital defects of organ development.

Classification

Doctors distinguish the following types of the disease:

Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis под собой подразумевает, соответственно,
acute manifestation of aseptic inflammation, which
exposed pancreas. Most often develops in
following cases:

  • when taking alcohol – up to 70% of all cases of the disease
    (mainly in men of young and mature age),
  • in the presence of gallstone disease – up to 25% or 30% (more often in
    women)
  • surgery on the stomach or other abdominal organs – about
    4% or a little more.

There are certain phases of pancreatitis, which
considered in the framework of its acute form:

  • enzymatic phase (within three to five days);
  • reactive phase (ranging from 6 to 14 days);
  • sequestration phase (from 15 days);
  • the outcome phase (from six months or more since the beginning
    appearance).

Chronic pancreatitis

What it is? Хронический панкреатит – это форма болезни,
in which inflammation progresses slowly, with functions
pancreas gradually broken. As a result, it can
fibrosis of pancreatic tissue or her
calcification. Most often found in women in the elderly
age

For the predominant reason for the development of inflammation are distinguished
chronic pancreatitis:

  • toxic-metabolic (including alcoholic),
  • idiopathic,
  • hereditary,
  • autoimmune,
  • recurrent
  • obstructive.

Можно выделить первичную хроническую форму панкреатита,
secondary which develops due to digestive diseases
systems – cholecystitis, chronic gastritis, enteritis.

First signs of an attack

If a patient has signs of acute pancreatitis, his
condition will deteriorate rapidly. Therefore, it is so important
immediately contact for medical help.

  • In the acute form of the disease, pain is localized under the spoon in
    upper part, left and right hypochondrium, if the whole gland is affected,
    then the pains have a shingles nature.
  • Also, the patient has vomiting with an admixture of bile, which is not
    brings him relief, dry mouth, hiccups, nausea
    и отрыжка.

Identical signs that manifest as acute and
chronic (in the period of exacerbations) forms of pancreatitis is acute,
severe pain in the abdomen. Localization depends on which
it is part of the pancreas that is covered by inflammatory
process.

Symptoms of Pancreatitis in Adults

Pancreatitis, the symptoms of which are due to the fact that not
there is a release of gland secreted enzymes into
duodenum, proceeds with the activation of these enzymes
directly in the gland, due to which it is gradual
destruction, in other words – self-digestion.

The acute form of pancreatitis is accompanied by the following
symptoms:

  • Severe pain in left hypochondrium, extending to the back or
    shingles.
  • Nausea, vomiting, flatulence. Failure in the digestive tract.
  • Increased body temperature.
  • Dry mouth, thick white bloom on the tongue.
  • Headache, sweating. The skin becomes pale.
  • Increased blood pressure, heart palpitations,
    shock.

If there are such symptoms, the patient’s condition worsens with
every minute, so you can not hesitate. At first suspicions
should immediately call an ambulance.

Description of symptoms in an adult
Pancreatic colic
  • it острая боль в первые 3 дня имеет «опоясывающий» характер и
    felt in the upper abdomen, which can give to the left
    the clavicle or both shoulder blades, the posterior regions of the lower ribs to the left.
  • Gradually, the intensity of pain decreases, they become dull
    and last about 1 week.
Vomiting
  • In acute pancreatitis, it is multiple, painful,
    does not bring relief. May occur at the beginning of the disease together.
    with pancreatic colic, and at later stages.
Bloating
  • The abdomen is swollen especially at the top, when you touch it,
    severe pain may occur. It is especially aggravated when
    palpation is deep. When the stomach is tapped, intestinal
    noises fade.
Skin color changes May change the color of the skin:

  • pallor,
  • cyanosis,
  • yellowness

Цианоз  (синюшная окраска кожи и слизистых оболочек)
occurs infrequently, but accompanied by severe forms of acute and
chronic recurrent pancreatitis. It appears common and
local boards on the patient’s body, anterior area and lateral
surfaces of the abdomen, in the navel, as well as on the face of the patient.

Temperature
  • In addition, the patient has a fever,
    moreover, the more affected gland tissue, the higher
    temperature.
Respiratory failure
  • The frequency and depth of breathing is disturbed, it sometimes seems that
    enough air.
  • Shortness of breath occurs due to loss of electrolytes in the blood during vomiting.
    It is accompanied by sticky sweat.
  • A strong yellow patina appears on the tongue.

In chronic pancreatitis:

  • Permanent or temporary abdominal pain. Appears after
    drinking alcohol and fatty foods.
  • Pain in the upper abdomen is given in the back.
  • Rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, nausea, vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite, upset stool, chronic diarrhea.
  • Dehydration. As a result, the patient’s body weight is reduced.
  • The skin and mucous membrane of the oral cavity become yellow.
    shade.
  • In the last stage of the disease, diabetes occurs.

With relatively minor pains, the period of exacerbation may
last long enough (up to several months). For such
period characterized by decreased appetite, general weakness, reduced
mood.

Complications

Complicationsми панкреатита могут быть:

  • Абсцесс железы;
  • Pancreatonecrosis (necrosis of pancreatic tissue);
  • Formation of a false cyst;
  • Pancreatic ascites;
  • Pulmonary complications;
  • Diabetes;
  • Death.

With complications, a change of habitual character occurs. 
diseases: character, localization and intensity change
pain, it can become permanent.

Diagnostics

The earlier the patient receives qualified care, the less
treatment will take time and it will be more effective. But just
early diagnosis of this disease is the main
a problem.

The most reliable method for the detection of pancreatitis and its forms
achieved with the help of a complete examination of the patient. In the diagnosis
diseases distinguish the following stages:

  • assessment of clinical symptoms;
  • research of biochemical parameters;
  • conducting enzymatic tests;
  • instrumental studies in the diagnosis of the disease.

Blood tests:

  • General (UAC) will identify leukocytes, show sedimentation rate
    Erythrocyte (ESR) and the volume of pancreatic enzymes will help identify inflammation.
    The number of leukocytes more than 8.8 thousand / ml or ESR from 15 mm / h – bad
    the signs.
  • Биохимический анализ выявит уровень глюкозы (опасно
    the increase in the concentration of “sugar” to 6.5 mmol / l and 106 mg / dL –
    hyperglycemia), cholesterol (should not be less than 3 mmol / l) and
    pancreatic enzymes: amylase (with pancreatitis increases in
    dozens of times, up to 1000 U / l and above), α2-globulins (should not be
    less than 7%), trypsin (should not be higher than 4 µmol / ml.min), lipase
    (should not exceed 190 U / l), etc.

Instrumental diagnostics:

  1. При УЗИ органов брюшной полости можно обнаружить
    an increase in the pancreas and the presence of stones in the ducts.
  2. Рентгенодиагностикой устанавливается парез кишечника
    (violation of contractility), visible areas fall
    lungs (atelectasis) and the presence of effusion in the pleural cavity.
  3. Гастродуоденоскопическим методом выявляется отечный
    stomach and duodenum.
  4. Исследование сосудов – ангиография, позволяет увидеть
    deformed and displaced arterial vessels, congestion
    of a contrasting substance in them due to stagnation.

If used for diagnosis only
ultrasound diagnosis, it may be unreliable. Often
pancreatitis does not give any specific signs and specialist,
examiner may detect only minor
diffuse changes or swelling of the organ. Although even these
indicators are visible on ultrasound only with exacerbation of the disease.

Pancreatitis treatment

In acute pancreatitis, treatment is possible only under conditions of
hospital, under the supervision of qualified professionals, it
considered a very dangerous condition. Poetmou when the first
signs call an ambulance.

First aid

If you suspect an attack of pancreatitis as a first aid –
rest, sitting position with knees pressed to chest, strict
fasting with a quarter glass of water every 30 minutes – an hour, on
the area of ​​the pancreas from the back put a bubble with
by ice. Shallow breathing will help relieve an attack.

Painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs to take
It is impossible, it will greatly complicate the diagnosis.

If the pain is intense, the doctor may prescribe antispasmodics.
(But-shpa, Drotaverin). They reduce inflammation in
pancreas and as a result – pain subsides
sensations.

In the hospital for the treatment of acute pancreatitis are used
conservative therapies. In particular, injected into the bloodstream
разнообразные растворы – солевые растворы, белковые
препараты, глюкоза, с помощью которых преодолевается
intoxication and pain syndrome. Also normalized
acid-base balance.

Medications for pancreatitis

  • With frequent vomiting, drugs are used to restore
    water-salt balance, for example, “Sodium Chloride Solution”.
  • To restore the work of the digestive tract take enzyme preparations
    which replace missing enzymes during illness
    pancreas: “Creon”, “Pancreatin”, “Festal”.
  • Vitamin therapy. In the treatment of chronic pancreatitis
    assigned additional
    прием витаминов – А, Е, С, D, К и витамины
    группы В. Кроме того, назначается прием – липоевой кислоты,
    cocarboxylase.
  • Parenteral nutrition. With severe digestive disorders and
    poor absorption of food by the intestines, parenteral appointed
    nutrition.

As parenteral nutrition, by intravenous drip,
usually introduced:

  • A mixture of essential amino acids (250-400 ml): “Alveein”,
    �Alvezin, Aminosol;
  • Electrolyte solutions: 10% solution of potassium chloride (10-15 ml) and
    10% calcium gluconate solution (10 ml).

Treatment of chronic pancreatitis involves: dieting,
painkillers, vitamins, replacement therapy
enzymes treatment of diabetes and other endocrine
disorders, timely treatment of gallstone disease.

Surgery

Surgical treatment is indicated when spilled
inflammation of the peritoneum, purulent complications, increasing mechanical
jaundice and destruction of the gallbladder and ducts.

Operations can be assigned to the following:

  • Emergency Conducted at the very beginning of the development of the disease. it
    may be the first hours and days. Urgently operate on patients
    with peritonitis caused by enzymes and acute pancreatitis,
    which began due to blockage of the duodenum 12.
  • Planned. The surgeon begins to operate the patient only
    case of acute inflammation in the pancreas
    has stopped. Before surgery, the patient is carefully examined to
    did not begin recurrence of the attack.

Diet

The basis of successful therapeutic correction of this disease
lies following a diet. Daily food intake is adjusted.
thus: the level of fats and carbohydrate products in
diet and increased protein intake. Assigned
vitamin preparations. The number of meals should be 5-6 per
one day.

In acute pancreatitis, in the first 2-3 days it is necessary to completely
refuse to eat, only drink plenty of water –
mineral water, dogrose broth or in case of emergency
water.

When exacerbation of pancreatitis has passed it is necessary to adhere to such
nutrition rules like:

  1. В питании должны присутствовать липиды, белки и углеwater.
  2. Drink water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
    complexes.
  3. Discard products that contain chemicals
    substances because they can be annoying intestinal
    mucous membrane
  4. You can not eat spices, smoked, spicy.
  5. It is best to cook food for a couple, pre-chop
    it may need to fray.
  6. Eating food must be warm, but not hot.

After the symptoms of acute pancreatitis are completely gone,
you need to eat soup, lean meat, fish, low-fat cottage cheese, different
types of cereals, vegetables, you can drink fruit juice, with sweets to give
preference to honey, jam and pudding.

First meal
  • variety of vegetable or cereal soups, in meat broths with
    low fat content.
Second courses
  • boiled beef, fish or poultry, omelets.
Cereal dishes
  • pasta, cereal, bread.
Milk products
  • low-fat milk, kefir, yogurt, butter
Fruits, berries and vegetables
  • can be baked or raw, vegetables can be boiled.
Dessert
  • reduced consumption of digestible carbohydrate foods
    (below the level of the physiological norm). You can eat honey,
    jam.
The drinks
  • juices, tea with milk.

Folk remedies

Below, we have collected effective folk remedies for pancreatitis,
but before using them, be sure to consult with your doctor.
a doctor.

  1. Golden mustache. 1 large sheet (length 25 cm) or two small
    grind and pour 700 ml of water. Over medium heat decoction languish in
    for 15-20 minutes, then infused for several hours in the body
    location (can be left overnight). Need to use infusion in the heat
    25 ml (before meals).
  2. Potato and carrot juice. 2 potatoes and 1 carrot
    skip through a juicer. Drink 2 times a day for 30
    minutes before meals, the treatment for adults will be 7 days, the method
    helps to normalize digestion, eliminate pain
    symptoms.
  3. Herbs for pancreas are used in collections and one of them
    must consist of yarrow herb, calendula flowers and
    chamomile. All components are taken in a tablespoon and brewed in
    ladle with boiling water. After half an hour, you can drink the first portion (100
    ml), and after 40 minutes to eat. Need to drink
    medicine at least 4 times a day, exclusively before meals.
  4. For the recipe from pancreatitis you need immortelle flowers,
    motherwort, St. John’s wort, all pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist 30 minutes,
    drink up to three times a day before meals.
  5. Instead of ordinary tea, use tea with mint and honey. Mint
    has a choleretic effect and contributes to the release of enzymes from
    pancreas.
  6. Propolis. Small pieces are chewed thoroughly in
    intervals between eating food, the method is a prime example
    effective modern homeopathy and eliminates pain attacks
    normalizing the work of digestion.
  7. Rowan. Excellent choleretic agent that
    It is used both in the treatment and in the prevention of pancreatitis.
    Rowan fruits can be consumed fresh or dried.
    for future use.
  8. For 10 days you need to take 1 teaspoon of oil
    rose hips. Rest for two months and take the course again.
    Recommended for chronic pathology.
  9. Pour a glass of oats with a liter of water, insist for 12 hours.
    Bring the broth to a boil and boil under the lid for half an hour. Capacity with
    wrap the broth, insist 12 hours, after filtering and pour water
    up to one liter. Adults take the broth three times a day.
    100 – 150 ml half an hour before meals. The course of treatment is a month.
  10. Rosehip In chronic pancreatitis, dogrose can
    drink on a regular basis – up to 400 ml per day. Hot water
    wild rose berries are poured (the number of berries is equal to the number
    fluid). In a thermos flask is left for a couple of hours, after which
    drink can be consumed.

Prevention

Prevention methods:

  • In the first place is the correction of risk factors: alcoholism,
    various metabolic disorders.
  • You must constantly follow a diet. Try to be
    always indifferent to what you eat, as it is in the future
    will not play you at hand. Eat vegetables and fruits as often as possible,
    which will enrich your body with vitamins. Such prevention
    will protect you not only from pancreatitis, but also from others
    diseases.
  • Also requires constant correction of treatment. For this
    It is recommended to visit a gastroenterologist 2 times a year in the absence of
    recurrence. When relapses should immediately consult a doctor.

Now, you know what this disease is and how it occurs in adults
people. Remember that time to start treatment allows you to avoid
chronic pancreatitis and reduce the risk of
complications. Be healthy and watch your health!

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