Панкреатит – воспалительное заболевание поджелудочной
glands. The main reason is a violation of the outflow
digestive juice and other enzymes produced
pancreas, small intestine (duodenal ulcer)
the gut). The frequency of pancreatitis and other diseases of the pancreas
glands all over the world are growing. This is primarily due to
poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, deterioration
In this article we will look in detail: what are they, what are the main
causes, first signs and symptoms, and what
treatment prescribed for pancreatitis in adults, and what you need
Be sure to know if a seizure has occurred.
What is pancreatitis?
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory-degenerative process in
pancreas. If such a process occurs,
то ферменты, продуцируемые поджелудочной железой, не попадают
into the duodenum. Consequently, they begin to actively
act already in the pancreas, gradually destroying it.
This process is called autolysis, which, translated from
Latin, and is called “self-digestion.” Now you know,
in most general terms about acute pancreatitis, what it is. it
just a chemical attack, and turning the gland “on its own” into
Pancreas is one of the most complex organs.
the human body, which is practically not amenable
recovery. The performance of this gland regulates the exchange
substances, normal digestion.
Its main functions are:
- Isolation of enzymes for the breakdown of beneficial substances
derived from food, in the small intestine.
- Fermentation of insulin and glucagon in the blood – hormones,
regulating the storage and consumption of food
Pancreatitis in adults is a fairly common problem, with
which everyone can face. Can lead to development
disorders associated with the outflow of bile, as well as eating habits
(for example, consumption of fat and abundant meat food, stress,
hereditary predisposition, alcohol, etc.).
Therefore, a higher risk of developing pancreatitis is
those people who are constantly abusing alcohol. According to statistics
more often develops in pregnant women and in young mothers in the postpartum
period. The key to preventing the development of pancreatitis is
the right approach to the formation of the diet.
The presence of the following factors can cause pancreatitis:
- surgeries on the biliary tract and in general on the stomach;
- injuries to the abdomen, injuries;
- parasitic invasions, infections, in particular viral
- mumps (mumps);
- genetic predisposition.
Statistics of pancreatitis by reason of appearance
- 40% of all patients with inflammation of the pancreas are
alcoholics. They most often detect either organ necrosis or
- 30% of patients are patients with gallstone disease in
- 20% of patients are obese patients.
- 5% of patients are patients who have suffered an organ injury or
intoxication taking drugs.
- Less than 5% of patients are hereditary patients.
predisposition to the formation of inflammation, or suffering from
congenital defects of organ development.
Doctors distinguish the following types of the disease:
Acute pancreatitis под собой подразумевает, соответственно,
acute manifestation of aseptic inflammation, which
exposed pancreas. Most often develops in
- when taking alcohol – up to 70% of all cases of the disease
(mainly in men of young and mature age),
- in the presence of gallstone disease – up to 25% or 30% (more often in
- surgery on the stomach or other abdominal organs – about
4% or a little more.
There are certain phases of pancreatitis, which
considered in the framework of its acute form:
- enzymatic phase (within three to five days);
- reactive phase (ranging from 6 to 14 days);
- sequestration phase (from 15 days);
- the outcome phase (from six months or more since the beginning
What it is? Хронический панкреатит – это форма болезни,
in which inflammation progresses slowly, with functions
pancreas gradually broken. As a result, it can
fibrosis of pancreatic tissue or her
calcification. Most often found in women in the elderly
For the predominant reason for the development of inflammation are distinguished
- toxic-metabolic (including alcoholic),
Можно выделить первичную хроническую форму панкреатита,
secondary which develops due to digestive diseases
systems – cholecystitis, chronic gastritis, enteritis.
First signs of an attack
If a patient has signs of acute pancreatitis, his
condition will deteriorate rapidly. Therefore, it is so important
immediately contact for medical help.
- In the acute form of the disease, pain is localized under the spoon in
upper part, left and right hypochondrium, if the whole gland is affected,
then the pains have a shingles nature.
- Also, the patient has vomiting with an admixture of bile, which is not
brings him relief, dry mouth, hiccups, nausea
Identical signs that manifest as acute and
chronic (in the period of exacerbations) forms of pancreatitis is acute,
severe pain in the abdomen. Localization depends on which
it is part of the pancreas that is covered by inflammatory
Symptoms of Pancreatitis in Adults
Pancreatitis, the symptoms of which are due to the fact that not
there is a release of gland secreted enzymes into
duodenum, proceeds with the activation of these enzymes
directly in the gland, due to which it is gradual
destruction, in other words – self-digestion.
The acute form of pancreatitis is accompanied by the following
- Severe pain in left hypochondrium, extending to the back or
- Nausea, vomiting, flatulence. Failure in the digestive tract.
- Increased body temperature.
- Dry mouth, thick white bloom on the tongue.
- Headache, sweating. The skin becomes pale.
- Increased blood pressure, heart palpitations,
If there are such symptoms, the patient’s condition worsens with
every minute, so you can not hesitate. At first suspicions
should immediately call an ambulance.
|Description of symptoms in an adult|
|Skin color changes||May change the color of the skin:
Цианоз (синюшная окраска кожи и слизистых оболочек)
In chronic pancreatitis:
- Permanent or temporary abdominal pain. Appears after
drinking alcohol and fatty foods.
- Pain in the upper abdomen is given in the back.
- Rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, nausea, vomiting.
- Loss of appetite, upset stool, chronic diarrhea.
- Dehydration. As a result, the patient’s body weight is reduced.
- The skin and mucous membrane of the oral cavity become yellow.
- In the last stage of the disease, diabetes occurs.
With relatively minor pains, the period of exacerbation may
last long enough (up to several months). For such
period characterized by decreased appetite, general weakness, reduced
Complicationsми панкреатита могут быть:
- Абсцесс железы;
- Pancreatonecrosis (necrosis of pancreatic tissue);
- Formation of a false cyst;
- Pancreatic ascites;
- Pulmonary complications;
With complications, a change of habitual character occurs.
diseases: character, localization and intensity change
pain, it can become permanent.
The earlier the patient receives qualified care, the less
treatment will take time and it will be more effective. But just
early diagnosis of this disease is the main
The most reliable method for the detection of pancreatitis and its forms
achieved with the help of a complete examination of the patient. In the diagnosis
diseases distinguish the following stages:
- assessment of clinical symptoms;
- research of biochemical parameters;
- conducting enzymatic tests;
- instrumental studies in the diagnosis of the disease.
- General (UAC) will identify leukocytes, show sedimentation rate
Erythrocyte (ESR) and the volume of pancreatic enzymes will help identify inflammation.
The number of leukocytes more than 8.8 thousand / ml or ESR from 15 mm / h – bad
- Биохимический анализ выявит уровень глюкозы (опасно
the increase in the concentration of “sugar” to 6.5 mmol / l and 106 mg / dL –
hyperglycemia), cholesterol (should not be less than 3 mmol / l) and
pancreatic enzymes: amylase (with pancreatitis increases in
dozens of times, up to 1000 U / l and above), α2-globulins (should not be
less than 7%), trypsin (should not be higher than 4 µmol / ml.min), lipase
(should not exceed 190 U / l), etc.
- При УЗИ органов брюшной полости можно обнаружить
an increase in the pancreas and the presence of stones in the ducts.
- Рентгенодиагностикой устанавливается парез кишечника
(violation of contractility), visible areas fall
lungs (atelectasis) and the presence of effusion in the pleural cavity.
- Гастродуоденоскопическим методом выявляется отечный
stomach and duodenum.
- Исследование сосудов – ангиография, позволяет увидеть
deformed and displaced arterial vessels, congestion
of a contrasting substance in them due to stagnation.
If used for diagnosis only
ultrasound diagnosis, it may be unreliable. Often
pancreatitis does not give any specific signs and specialist,
examiner may detect only minor
diffuse changes or swelling of the organ. Although even these
indicators are visible on ultrasound only with exacerbation of the disease.
In acute pancreatitis, treatment is possible only under conditions of
hospital, under the supervision of qualified professionals, it
considered a very dangerous condition. Poetmou when the first
signs call an ambulance.
If you suspect an attack of pancreatitis as a first aid –
rest, sitting position with knees pressed to chest, strict
fasting with a quarter glass of water every 30 minutes – an hour, on
the area of the pancreas from the back put a bubble with
by ice. Shallow breathing will help relieve an attack.
Painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs to take
It is impossible, it will greatly complicate the diagnosis.
If the pain is intense, the doctor may prescribe antispasmodics.
(But-shpa, Drotaverin). They reduce inflammation in
pancreas and as a result – pain subsides
In the hospital for the treatment of acute pancreatitis are used
conservative therapies. In particular, injected into the bloodstream
разнообразные растворы – солевые растворы, белковые
препараты, глюкоза, с помощью которых преодолевается
intoxication and pain syndrome. Also normalized
Medications for pancreatitis
- With frequent vomiting, drugs are used to restore
water-salt balance, for example, “Sodium Chloride Solution”.
- To restore the work of the digestive tract take enzyme preparations
which replace missing enzymes during illness
pancreas: “Creon”, “Pancreatin”, “Festal”.
- Vitamin therapy. In the treatment of chronic pancreatitis
прием витаминов – А, Е, С, D, К и витамины
группы В. Кроме того, назначается прием – липоевой кислоты,
- Parenteral nutrition. With severe digestive disorders and
poor absorption of food by the intestines, parenteral appointed
As parenteral nutrition, by intravenous drip,
- A mixture of essential amino acids (250-400 ml): “Alveein”,
- Electrolyte solutions: 10% solution of potassium chloride (10-15 ml) and
10% calcium gluconate solution (10 ml).
Treatment of chronic pancreatitis involves: dieting,
painkillers, vitamins, replacement therapy
enzymes treatment of diabetes and other endocrine
disorders, timely treatment of gallstone disease.
Surgical treatment is indicated when spilled
inflammation of the peritoneum, purulent complications, increasing mechanical
jaundice and destruction of the gallbladder and ducts.
Operations can be assigned to the following:
- Emergency Conducted at the very beginning of the development of the disease. it
may be the first hours and days. Urgently operate on patients
with peritonitis caused by enzymes and acute pancreatitis,
which began due to blockage of the duodenum 12.
- Planned. The surgeon begins to operate the patient only
case of acute inflammation in the pancreas
has stopped. Before surgery, the patient is carefully examined to
did not begin recurrence of the attack.
The basis of successful therapeutic correction of this disease
lies following a diet. Daily food intake is adjusted.
thus: the level of fats and carbohydrate products in
diet and increased protein intake. Assigned
vitamin preparations. The number of meals should be 5-6 per
In acute pancreatitis, in the first 2-3 days it is necessary to completely
refuse to eat, only drink plenty of water –
mineral water, dogrose broth or in case of emergency
When exacerbation of pancreatitis has passed it is necessary to adhere to such
nutrition rules like:
- В питании должны присутствовать липиды, белки и углеwater.
- Drink water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
- Discard products that contain chemicals
substances because they can be annoying intestinal
- You can not eat spices, smoked, spicy.
- It is best to cook food for a couple, pre-chop
it may need to fray.
- Eating food must be warm, but not hot.
After the symptoms of acute pancreatitis are completely gone,
you need to eat soup, lean meat, fish, low-fat cottage cheese, different
types of cereals, vegetables, you can drink fruit juice, with sweets to give
preference to honey, jam and pudding.
|Fruits, berries and vegetables||
Below, we have collected effective folk remedies for pancreatitis,
but before using them, be sure to consult with your doctor.
- Golden mustache. 1 large sheet (length 25 cm) or two small
grind and pour 700 ml of water. Over medium heat decoction languish in
for 15-20 minutes, then infused for several hours in the body
location (can be left overnight). Need to use infusion in the heat
25 ml (before meals).
- Potato and carrot juice. 2 potatoes and 1 carrot
skip through a juicer. Drink 2 times a day for 30
minutes before meals, the treatment for adults will be 7 days, the method
helps to normalize digestion, eliminate pain
- Herbs for pancreas are used in collections and one of them
must consist of yarrow herb, calendula flowers and
chamomile. All components are taken in a tablespoon and brewed in
ladle with boiling water. After half an hour, you can drink the first portion (100
ml), and after 40 minutes to eat. Need to drink
medicine at least 4 times a day, exclusively before meals.
- For the recipe from pancreatitis you need immortelle flowers,
motherwort, St. John’s wort, all pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist 30 minutes,
drink up to three times a day before meals.
- Instead of ordinary tea, use tea with mint and honey. Mint
has a choleretic effect and contributes to the release of enzymes from
- Propolis. Small pieces are chewed thoroughly in
intervals between eating food, the method is a prime example
effective modern homeopathy and eliminates pain attacks
normalizing the work of digestion.
- Rowan. Excellent choleretic agent that
It is used both in the treatment and in the prevention of pancreatitis.
Rowan fruits can be consumed fresh or dried.
for future use.
- For 10 days you need to take 1 teaspoon of oil
rose hips. Rest for two months and take the course again.
Recommended for chronic pathology.
- Pour a glass of oats with a liter of water, insist for 12 hours.
Bring the broth to a boil and boil under the lid for half an hour. Capacity with
wrap the broth, insist 12 hours, after filtering and pour water
up to one liter. Adults take the broth three times a day.
100 – 150 ml half an hour before meals. The course of treatment is a month.
- Rosehip In chronic pancreatitis, dogrose can
drink on a regular basis – up to 400 ml per day. Hot water
wild rose berries are poured (the number of berries is equal to the number
fluid). In a thermos flask is left for a couple of hours, after which
drink can be consumed.
- In the first place is the correction of risk factors: alcoholism,
various metabolic disorders.
- You must constantly follow a diet. Try to be
always indifferent to what you eat, as it is in the future
will not play you at hand. Eat vegetables and fruits as often as possible,
which will enrich your body with vitamins. Such prevention
will protect you not only from pancreatitis, but also from others
- Also requires constant correction of treatment. For this
It is recommended to visit a gastroenterologist 2 times a year in the absence of
recurrence. When relapses should immediately consult a doctor.
Now, you know what this disease is and how it occurs in adults
people. Remember that time to start treatment allows you to avoid
chronic pancreatitis and reduce the risk of
complications. Be healthy and watch your health!