Update: December 2018 Ovarian cyst is benign
a neoplasm that is a leg tumor, with liquid
content inside and prone to growth with the accumulation of secrets.
There are several types of them, and often the symptoms of such
Но при длительном развитии и увеличении sizes, признаки
tumors can manifest as menstrual disorders,
проблемами с мочеиспусканием, болями внизу belly. Without
adequate treatment of ovarian cysts, the disease may be complicated
his rupture, twisting the legs, which is dangerous development of peritonitis,
острого belly. AT этой статье мы подробно остановимся на описании
types of ovarian cysts, symptoms and treatment of this disease.
ATиды кисты яичников
The term cyst refers to a variety of different
neoplasms that differ not only in localization – cyst
mammary gland, kidney cyst, thyroid and pancreas and
pr, but also the causes of appearance, structure.
Кисты яичников могут появляться как у девочек в period полового
maturation, and in women of childbearing age, and in women in
periodе менопаузы (см. препараты при климаксе у женщин). 30%
women diagnosed with the normal menstrual cycle, and 50%
имеются различные нарушения цикла, period климакса у 6% женщин они
are detected. What are cysts?
- Yellow body cyst
- Follicular cyst
- Endometrial cysts
- Dermoid cysts
- Paraovarial — надъяичникового придатка
What are the symptoms of an ovarian cyst?
In most women, their detection happens by chance, after
routine inspection or diagnosis for other medical conditions or
complaints This is because with ovarian cysts in women,
симптомы ими в большинстве cases никак не ощущаются. Only in
случаях больших их sizes, длительного существования
neoplasms, with polycystic ovary, may occur
When the cyst is small, there is no pain in the woman, and
as the growth grows dull pains may appear below
belly, усиливающиеся при половом акте (см. боли при половом
contact), during physical exertion. Wherein боль локализуется
most often on the one hand, where the tumor is located. it
maybe not even pain, but a feeling of heaviness and squeezing in a small
pelvis. If a complication occurs, such as torsion or rupture
cysts, the pain becomes very intense, give in a straight line
intestine, fever, vomiting, nausea,
симптомы разрыва кисты яичника напоминают синдром «острого belly».
For dermoid neoplasms is characterized by torsion, for luteal
– rupture, at rupture of a follicular cyst may be
short-term pain, not dangerous to health.
- Pains при мочеиспускании, учащенное мочеиспускание, симптомы
pressure vessels and organs
Frequent urination, and pain can be
caused by pressure of the cyst on the bladder. As well as a growing cyst
the ovary can put pressure on the lower intestines, this
manifested by constipation (see all laxatives for constipation),
false urge to defecate. With the compression of venous vascular
bunches, may develop varicose veins of the lower extremities (see
treatment of varicose veins at home).
- Menstrual disorders
Hormonally active neoplasms manifested by amenorrhea
(absence of menstruation), painful periods, copious
menstruation, uterine bleeding, and cycle disorders
– delays, rare menses, not regular.
- Growth волос на лице, огрубение голоса
Hirsutism – when there is hair on the body and face of the male
type, coarse voice, increase in the clitoris, this is due to
enhanced production of male sex hormones, that is
hyperandrogenization of the organism.
- Асимметрия и увеличение belly при крупных размерах кист
Такое явление как рост окружности belly, а также асимметрия
arise either due to ascites when accumulated in the abdominal cavity
жидкость, либо от крупных sizes кисты.
Symptoms of torsion and rupture of a cyst
To provoke rupture of a cyst or torsion of a cyst stem may
excessive physical activity (turns, bends, sharp
movements, jumps, etc.), weight lifting and overly active
sexual intercourse When torsion or rupture of an ovarian cyst occurs,
the symptoms so obviously indicate a serious complication that
woman, in any case, should call an ambulance.
- the gap is characterized primarily by signs
intra-abdominal bleeding (provided that enough is damaged
large vessel in the cyst at its rupture)
- severe pain in the abdomen, extending into the leg, into the rectum, with
this pain is more from the side in which there was a cyst, if in the right
the ovary is on the right side and the pain gives to the right leg.
- if a cyst on the ovary has burst, the symptoms also appear
lower blood pressure because bleeding occurs
in the abdominal cavity, there are signs of general intoxication,
dizziness, cold sweat, delayed stool, acute vascular
failure that is swoon
- symptoms of peritoneal irritation that speaks of acute syndrome
Torsion of the ovary
If there was a torsion, the clinic depends on the degree of torsion.
(90, 180 or 360 degrees). The harder the leg is twisted, the
more intense pain. The patient takes a forced position (on the side,
with curved legs to the stomach). In this case
intoxication syndrome develops quickly. Rises
fever, dyspepsia (nausea,
vomiting), without treatment, peritonitis develops (also
there are signs of peritoneal irritation). Gradual increase
symptoms are characteristic with incomplete torsion of the legs of an ovarian cyst (90
When torso cysts, the symptoms are usually also obvious;
turning the cyst around itself, twisting the leg, on
which is located tumor, it leads to a violation
blood flow, leading to nausea, abdominal pain, also pain
localized more in the direction of finding the damaged
neoplasms. Moreover, such symptoms of torsion cysts can
grow gradually and a woman may not understand the reason
malaise. Therefore, it is very important when a neoplasm is detected.
in case of even minor ailments, on time
consult a doctor and be examined regularly until
the cyst will not resolve or there will be no indication for its removal.
Why ovarian cyst occurs?
Since the exact reasons for the growth of tumors in women
known, many experts find only general patterns,
which combine several factors encountered in cysts
ovaries in women. And often these reasons happen at once.
several hormonal and inflammatory causes:
- Frequent surgical interventions – mini-abortions, consequences
abortion (35% of cases of growth of a cyst after an abortion, because
there is an inflammatory process and hormonal failure)
- Chronic inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs
– STI, adnexitis, (salpingo-oophoritis, see symptoms, treatment
inflammation of the appendages), endometriosis, etc.
- Hormonal imbalance, ovarian dysfunction, early menstruation
(up to 11 years), lack of ovulation and impaired maturation
- Thyroid diseases, most often with a decrease in function
thyroid, other endocrine disorders as well.
- Obesity, diabetes – it leads to impaired production
- Quite often already cured cyst leads to relapses,
therefore, even after removal or resorption, it should be regularly
visit a gynecologist, follow all recommendations and conduct
Also for each species is characterized by a certain overall
- Follicular and yellow body cyst – occur on the background
- Dermoid is a congenital type of cyst that exists in
girls since birth
- Поликистоз яичников, эндометриоидная кисты — возникают на
background of other diseases of the woman
- Cystadenoma is a benign tumor reaching large
- Ovarian carcinoma – malignant neoplasms, like
other cancers, causes and theories of cancer
Risk factors for cyst development
- age up to 50 years
- tobacco smoking
- history of abortions (in 45% of cases in women who have not given birth to 35 years
), cesarean section, cholecystectomy, appendectomy
- in 10% of cases, hyperpolymenorrhea is the main risk factor
– violation of the menstrual cycle with long uterine
bleeding, painful periods – dysmenorrhea
Some sources indicate the following risk factors:
- use of intrauterine contraception – 8% of cases
- use of hormonal contraceptives – 16%
- somatic diseases – 16%
- obesity – 15%
- diseases of the cardiovascular system, thyroid gland
- urinary system 21%
- digestive organs 21%
- benign diseases of the cervix uteri – in 50.9%
- chronic inflammation of the uterus, the uterus itself – 49, 1
- миома матки в 30% cases
- dishormonal changes in the mammary glands in 18% of cases
- endometrial hyperplasia 6%
- endometriosis of the uterus 39%,
- primary infertility 19%
Cyst of the yellow body – what is it?
After ovulation has occurred, the release of the egg and the gap
follicle, в яичнике образуется желтое тело, в котором происходит
progesterone production for pregnancy. But in the case when
pregnancy does not occur in the normal state of genital
organs, the yellow body is absorbed. For any violations
the yellow body does not disappear, but is filled with blood and liquid, forming
thus a neoplasm. How to treat a yellow body cyst? She is
does not require any treatment and within 2 months should
to resolve, in some cases, the gynecologist may prescribe
contraceptive drugs that contribute to its more rapid
However, it is very rare, but there are cases when the cyst of the corpus luteum
grows to a diameter of 7 cm, and also torn or twisted,
it may occur after intercourse or after a strong
physical activity. Then woman needs urgent operational
intervening because such a situation can be dangerous for
of life – body temperature rises, pains in the stomach appear,
возникает синдром острого belly. More on cyst treatment
Corpus luteum of the right and left ovary in our article.
Ovarian follicular cyst
Follicular, as well as cysts of the corpus luteum – this
functional neoplasms, only follicular
образуется на месте неразорвавшегося follicle. At the heart of such
Violations are hormonal failure. Follicular cysts are not
больших sizes и самостоятельно исчезают после рассасывания
secretion and collapse of the cystic cavity.
How to treat ovarian follicular cyst? When saving such
cysts longer than 2 months, and it is 5–7 cm in size; therapy consists in
taking oral contraceptives, birth control pills. AT
case when the use of such treatment does not bring effect and cyst
increases or does not resolve, reaches more than 10 cm,
accompanied by pain, in order to avoid complications such as rupture or
torsion, the question of its removal by surgical
Other dangerous types of ovarian cyst in a woman
ATсе перечисленные ниже виды кист нуждаются только в оперативном
Эти кисты могут быть гигантских sizes, они берут свое начало
from supraorbital appendages, so the ovaries themselves in the process of growth
education not involved.
- Endometrial ovarian cysts and mucinous
These are the most dangerous types of ovarian cysts that require
immediate surgery because these
neoplasms have a high propensity for malignancy.
Endometriotic cysts consist of endometrial particles, containing
which is old blood. Mucinous usually
multi-chamber, inside of which is thick mucus.
- Dermoid ovarian cyst
This is a congenital abnormality in the ovary. Of the remaining stem
клеток вследствие нарушения онтогенеза может развиться (но не
necessarily that will develop) dermoid cyst that contains
hair, cartilage, bones, teeth, fat. That is, the secret of a cyst is fat, in
which are derivatives of the skin. She is закладывается во
prenatal period of development, while there were contained
stem cells that give rise to the formation of any tissue. Growth
Such a benign formation occurs during the period of sexual
maturation of the girl, therefore, with dermoid ovarian cyst, treatment
can only operational, no folk remedies and medicines
will not help her to self-destruct.
When choosing treatment for ovarian cysts, doctors are guided
diagnosed nature of education, intensity
clinical symptoms, risk of malignant neoplasm,
age of the patient, as well as the fact how important it is in
specific case of preserving reproductive function for
For follicular and cysts of the corpus luteum, a waiting is shown.
tactics, as well as uncomplicated flow of functional cysts –
drug therapy which consists in homeopathic
лечении, витаминотерапии (AT6, AT1, К, А, С), приеме 2-3
менструальных цикла двухфазных или монофазных оральных
contraceptives. To accelerate the resorption of tumors can
use folk remedies to treat ovarian cysts. Also
therapeutic gymnastics have a positive effect;
acupuncture, dieting, treatment with mineral waters.
If the positive dynamics after the treatment is not
observed, then removal of the neoplasm with histological
Methods of treatment, removal:
- Now this method of surgery as
laparoscopy of ovarian cysts are used very widely. Only in
when it is reliably known that the ovaries occur
malignant process, such an operation is excluded. Wherein
показана только полосная операция – расширенная лапаротомия
со срочным гистологическим research.
- Ovariectomy is the complete removal of the entire ovary, which is often
combined with tubectomy, and all together it is called adnexectomy.
Adnexectomy is the removal of appendages, that is, the tubes and
- Кистэктомия – это удаление кисты, максимально сохраняя
здоровую ткань ovary. The operation is to heal the capsule.
cysts from his bed, after which the ovarian tissue is preserved and he
then continues to function normally.
- Wedge resection of the ovary – removal of a cyst along with
- Biopsy of ovarian tissue – will be realized if you suspect
oncology, the material is taken for histological examination.
Not only dangerous cysts are subject to mandatory removal.
such as endometrioid, dermoid and mucinous, but also those
which are formed by a young woman wishing to get pregnant,
because during pregnancy the risk of her twisting or
роста neoplasms. With timely handling and detection
ovarian cysts, a routine operation to remove the formation helps in
большинстве cases избежать осложнений. So, for example, in young
women’s operations preserve their reproductive function, and in women period
premenopause (see how to get rid of hot flashes during menopause) and in
климактерическом periodе удаление придатков, являются профилактикой
oncology. After surgery by the attending physician
prescribed a rehabilitation course of therapy, possibly
postoperative treatment of ovarian cysts by homeopathy.