Ovarian cyst – causes, signs,symptoms, treatment and effects for a woman

Киста в яичнике — это доброкачественное новообразование,
which is a leg tumor, with fluid content inside and
prone to growth with secret accumulation. This disease more often
all susceptible to women of reproductive age. Less cyst
яичника возникает у женщин старше пятидесяти years old.

What is this disease, what causes,
symptoms and possible consequences for the female body as well
why it is important to start treatment at the first signs, we
consider further in the article.

What is an ovarian cyst?

Киста в яичнике

An ovarian cyst is a blister with fluid or
полужидким содержимым, возникающее в структуре яичника и
increasing its volume several times. Unlike a tumor,
such a neoplasm grows and increases due to the addition
fluid, not cell multiplication.

Anatomically, the cyst looks like a thin-walled cavity in the form
pouch. The size of this formation ranges from several
15-20 centimeters in diameter.

The main functions of the ovaries:

  • development, growth and maturation of the eggs in the follicles (cavities in
    in the form of vesicles that are in the thickness of the ovarian tissue);
  • release of a mature egg into the abdominal cavity
  • synthesis of female sex hormones: estradiol,
    эстриола, прогестерона и пр.;
  • regulation of the menstrual cycle by means of
  • ensuring pregnancy through produced

Ovaries should be examined at least 2 times a year, so
how a cyst can be dangerous for a woman’s reproductive health and
trigger oncological processes.

Ovarian cysts are a common disease and
more common in women in the childbearing period: in 30% of cases they
diagnosed in women with a regular menstrual cycle and in 50%
– with disturbed. During menopause, cysts occur in 6%

Types of cysts

The classification of cysts occurs on the basis of the causes identified.

Follicular cyst

Follicular cyst яичника – кистозное образование, которое
is an enlarged follicle. Such a cyst
has thin walls and a cavity with liquid contents. Its surface
flat, smooth. Its dimensions usually do not exceed 8 cm.

Yellow body cyst

For cysts of the yellow body is characterized by the presence of thicker walls
ее диаметр составляет от 2 до 7 см. Киста имеет ровную
rounded surface. There is a yellowish red liquid inside
colors. Saved for a longer period of time, compared
with follicular. There may be no particular symptoms,
there is a cyst on only one of the ovaries.

Endometrial cysts

Already one name gives women a clue what a cyst is.
ovary of endometrial origin. Such capsules are formed
as a result of mutation of endometrial cells. They have thick walls, and
inside instead of grayish, blood or yellow fluid is
the contents are dark brown (so it is sometimes called

Dermoid cysts

This ovarian cyst is benign, with
this woman with such a cyst very rarely complains,
associated with its manifestations. Very rarely a sensation may occur.
heaviness or discomfort in the lower abdomen.


Hemorrhagic киста в яичнике — относится к функциональным, но
in this case, inside the follicle or the corpus luteum, they burst
blood vessels. Hemorrhage occurs, severe pain at the bottom.


Mucinous ovarian cysts are often multi-chamber, they
filled with thick mucus (mucin), which is produced by the inner
mucous membrane of the cyst. Most often they are found in women in 50
years old.

All these types of ovarian cysts are complicated by severe
consequences – reach a large size, reborn in
malignant formation, there is a risk of infertility.
A woman should be alerted by pain in the lower abdomen, brown
discharge, irregular menstruation.


This disease can wear both congenital and
acquired character. But mostly, most of it
species arises during life. Cyst contents
appears either when blockage of the excretory duct of the glands and
the accumulation of secretions, either by the production of a fluid cavity,
which previously did not exist.

Basically, a cyst on the ovary is diagnosed in young girls and
women. According to statistics, cyst formation occurs in 7%
mature women, including after menopause. Appearance of this
pathology associated with the menstrual cycle and does not depend on age and
health of a woman, so it is logical that after menopause cyst
The ovary is a very rare occurrence.

The reasons:

  • Violations of the menstrual cycle – if the girl has a period
    comes at the wrong time (the period is considered 12–15 years), and
    menopausal events appear too early (up to 50 years), in
    in adulthood, the appearance of a cavity filled with liquid is quite
  • Endocrine disruption, early menstruation
    aged abortions, lack of hormones produced
    thyroid, inflammatory diseases and genital infections –
    All this also causes ovarian cyst.
  • Lifestyle – smoking leads to impaired blood circulation during
    all organs, so a lady who cannot live without a cigarette
    diseases of the reproductive system may occur.

Symptoms of ovarian cyst in a woman + photo

In most women, their detection happens by chance, after
routine inspection or diagnosis for other medical conditions or
complaints This is because with ovarian cysts in women,
symptoms in most cases are not felt.

на фото яичник с кистой и норма

Symptoms and signs:

  • The most common (and often the only) symptom of growth
    cystic tumor is pain during menstruation and
  • Disorder of the menstrual cycle. In the presence of hormonal
    активных новообразований у женщин развивается аменорея, то
    there is no menstruation. In addition, menstruation can
    painful and copious, there may be a delay in menstruation,
    irregularity and rarity of their appearance, uterine bleeding.
  • symptoms of compression of the organs and blood vessels. Growing ovarian cyst
    can squeeze the bladder or lower intestines that
    проявляется дизурическими расстройствами и запорами. Compression
    venous bundles can cause varicose veins
    lower limbs.
  • Asymmetry and an increase in the abdomen at large sizes. Such a
    phenomenon as the growth of the abdominal circumference, as well as asymmetry arise
    either because of ascites, when fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity,
    either from large sized cysts.
  • Nausea, retching after intercourse or physical
    loads (workouts, weight lifting);
  • Abdominal pains that worsen after physical
  • Abdominal pain during intercourse
  • False urination to urinate and defecate.
Cyst of the right ovary In the case when the process is aggravated, a cyst on the right ovary
will make itself known:

  • sharp pain in the right side;
  • tension of the abdominal muscles;
  • bleeding that has nothing to do with
  • frequent urination but scanty
  • асимметрическим увеличением правой части belly.
Cysts on the left ovary
  • discharge of blood from the genitals in addition to menstruation;
  • nausea;
  • pain on the left side of the abdomen;
  • disturbed menstrual cycle;
  • sudden acute abdominal pain;
  • боли в животе после физloads, во время секса;
  • false urge to feces;
  • abdominal enlargement, palpation of education from the left

Signs for which you need to consult a doctor

At the same time there are signs that are accompanied with
the above symptoms suggest that it’s time to turn to

  • temperature over 38 degrees;
  • слабость и головокружение;
  • copious discharge during menstruation;
  • an increase in the abdomen;
  • male facial hair growth;
  • great thirst with copious urination;
  • ненормальное артериальное давление;
  • uncontrolled weight loss;
  • probable seal in the abdominal cavity;

This ovarian disease is not always harmless – sometimes its growth
causes compression of nearby vessels and organs. She can
cause not only discomfort, pain and bleeding. Thinned out
the walls of the cyst, with sudden movements, may rupture, diminished
the contents often cause purulent peritonitis.

Implications for the woman’s body

If treatment is not carried out in a timely manner, in some
In cases of illness, severe complications can occur.
First of all, the risk of developing cancer increases.
Therefore, gynecologists make every effort to timely identify
cyst and provide the right approach to therapy.

Possible complications and consequences of ovarian cysts:

  • The most unpleasant complication that can occur with a cyst
    the ovary is its rupture. If the cyst was inflamed, exit is possible.
    pus in the peritoneal cavity. Almost 80% of the time it ends
    острым перитонитом и может стать причиной развития
  • Заболевание может быть причиной бесплодия у женщин при
    presence of associated risk factors.
  • Certain types of cysts can degenerate into malignant.
    опухоль, особенно в возрасте старше 45 years old.

In the early stages, treatment without surgery is effective. On late –
surgical intervention is indicated.


To determine if a patient has an ovarian cyst, allows a number of
Specific studies, in particular, are:

  • Gynecological examination. It helps to identify tumors
    even in the initial stages, evaluate their pain and
  • Blood and urine tests to determine the possible inflammation
    blood loss.
  • Ultrasound of ovarian cysts. This survey is considered sufficient
    informative. Its value increases when used
    transvaginal sensor.
  • CT scan. This method is more often carried out for
    differential diagnosis. Tomography makes it possible to distinguish a cyst
    ovary from other possible neoplasms.
  • MRI Allows you to assess the overall condition of the ovaries, the presence and
    number of follicles the nature of cystic formation;
  • pregnancy test or blood for hCG to refute
    ectopic pregnancy. Such a обследование связано с похожестью
    symptoms of ovarian cysts and signs of pregnancy
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy. For deletion and subsequent
    cyst research.

Treatment of cysts in the ovary

After confirming the diagnosis, many women immediately begin
nervous, worried about how to cure a cyst and what kind of medicine
for this are needed. First of all, you should calm down and
remember that stress affects the disease and
aggravate the situation. The choice of treatment method depends on
causes of pathology, size of the cyst, characteristics,
age of the woman, presence of associated diseases,
of pregnancy.

Principles of therapeutic treatment:

  • hormonal agents;
  • vitamin therapy;
  • lifestyle correction;
  • diet therapy;
  • physiotherapy.

Therapy is not always required. For example, functional
cyst can disappear on its own during
1-2 менструальных циклов. If it does not resolve, it is solved
the question of the need for drug therapy.

Conservative therapy consists of prescribing drugs that
relieve pain, inhibit pregnancy and suppress
новые education.

  • In such cases, hormonal drugs are often used,
    for example duphaston which contains a large amount
    прогестерона и замедляет рост education. Course лечения
    quite long – about six months.
  • Ovarian cyst pain can be relieved at home by various
    painkillers, as well as anti-inflammatory
    drugs: ibuprofen, acetaminophen and so on. It also follows
    limit yourself from physical and strenuous activities, for
    avoid twisting or breaking it.

There are cysts with a benign course, which after 2-3
months of therapy are eliminated. However, in some cases
education threatens the patient’s life. This happens in the following

  • rapid growth of education with compression of surrounding organs;
  • malignant rebirth;
  • danger of twisting the legs.

Any sign is the reason for the operation.

Types of cysts яичников, которые способны рассосаться без
surgical intervention:

  • follicular – small size (up to 4 cm);
  • cyst of the yellow body of small size (up to 5 cm);
  • retention ovarian cysts;
  • поликистоз яичников требует медикаментозного лечения.

The operation is shown in the following varieties:

  • dermoid ovarian cyst;
  • mucinous;
  • endometrioid.

What not to do?

In the presence of tumors are contraindicated:

  • massage, cold, hot wraps, any
  • hot baths, sauna, sauna;
  • a tan;
  • интенсивные физические loads, которые могут привести к
  • самоtreatment.

Cyst removal surgery

If the cyst exceeds the size of more than 10 cm, or does not pass after
course of treatment or after 3 menstrual cycles, the doctor may
assign an operation.

Removal methods:

  1. Laparoscopic removal – minimally invasive intervention, not
    requires opening the abdominal cavity, and carried out through
    small holes with a laparoscope. Differs most
    short recovery period and minimal risks
  2. Abdominal surgery. Used in situations where necessary
    good overview, or the contents of the education fell into the peritoneum
    (violation of the integrity of the cyst), bleeding has opened.

Before laparoscopy, the following preparation is necessary:

  • Eating no later than 22 hours the day before the intervention;
  • First you need to clean the intestines with activated carbon (by
    4 tablets 3 times a day);
  • In the presence of mental disorders, doctors prescribe

Before surgery, the following clinical diagnostic

  • Biochemical analysis;
  • Urine and blood tests;
  • Fluorography;
  • Blood clotting test;
  • Electrocardiogram.

Consider the cases in which an operation can be assigned:

  • Heavy bleeding and apoplexy.
  • Tumor processes affected by most
  • Malignant neoplasm, directly related
    with female hormones.
  • Removal of the uterus during menopause.
  • If an ectopic pregnancy develops in the ovary.

An ovarian cyst can be removed in the following ways:

  • Adnexectomy – uterine appendages removed.
  • Овариоэктомия — убирается пораженный яичник.
  • Кистэктомия — иссечение education.
  • Electrocoagulation – cauterization.

During the operation, a biopsy is performed – taking ovarian tissue for
histological examination for suspected malignant

Recovery after surgery

Recovery after removal of ovarian cyst method
laparoscopy usually occurs fairly quickly.

Before discharge from the hospital, the attending physician must give

  • For fifteen days after surgery you can not take
  • After taking a shower, treatment of seams with disinfectants is necessary.
  • In the first month after surgery is not recommended to use
    alcoholic beverages and heavy food;
  • Sexual rest during the first month after surgery;
  • Planning pregnancy no earlier than through three months after
    removal of cysts;
  • Periodic observation by a gynecologist to complete

You can plan a pregnancy in 4-6 months after
surgical intervention. During this period of time a woman
must be observed by a doctor. For a detailed examination, she can
need stationary mode. Drug treatment of the patient
will need to normalize hormone levels and restore


Try to eat fiber-rich foods every day.
These products include cabbage, carrots, paprika,
eggplants, potatoes, cucumbers, zucchini. Eat vegetables preferably
either raw or pre-cooked.

From the diet should be excluded such harmful products as:

  • carbonated sugary drinks;
  • tea and coffee;
  • cocoa;
  • chocolate.

They provoke the formation of liquids and gases, which becomes
cause ovarian cyst growth. To avoid aggravation, you need
stop using these products by focusing on taking
more useful.

The hormonal background of the woman is also associated with the work of the liver, kidneys,
adrenal glands and gallbladder. A lot of fatty foods
too acute or salty disrupts the work of these organs, thereby
causing an imbalance of hormones. Therefore, you should exclude such food from
ration or at least reduce its amount.

Diet в послеоперационный период должна осуществляться строго в
according to doctor’s prescriptions. This will eliminate the possibility
complications, and speed up the recovery of the body.

Folk remedies

Before using folk remedies to treat ovarian cysts,
Be sure to consult with the gynecologist.

  1. Dandelion. For therapy, use the roots of the plant. They are crushed
    convenient way, pour hot boiled water and insist to
    half an hour. For two tablespoons of the roots will need 250-300 ml
    fluid. Before adoption, filter and take 1/3 cup per
    an hour before the morning meal and one hour after the evening meal. Course
    held 5 days before menstruation.
  2. Take 14 walnuts, kernels pull out, and chop the shell
    hammer and put in a jar, pour 500 g of vodka, close the lid, 7
    days to insist in a dark warm place. Then strain and put in
    fridge. Infusion to drink in the morning on an empty stomach and 1 tbsp. l. until
    will end.
  3. 30 g herb borovoy uterus pour 300 ml of vodka, insist 30
    days, strain. Take the tincture during the month 3 times a day
    before meals, 40 drops, diluting with water.
  4. Kalanchoe is a medicinal plant that relieves inflammation,
    promotes the resorption of tumors. Pick a few
    Kalanchoe leaves, squeeze out the juice and mix it with honey –
    product that contains a lot of necessary for female
    health nutrients. Dip a gauze swab into the mixture.
    enter as usual.
  5. 2 bunches of fresh burdock leaves mince and from
    squeeze out the resulting mass. It is necessary to take the tool for 1 tea
    spoon 2 times a day for the first 2 days, and then 1 tablespoon 3
    times a day in the following days. Course лечения – 1 месяц. Burdock juice
    perfectly stored in glassware in the refrigerator.


Functional ovarian cysts can form
re throughout life as long as persists
menstrual function. Correctly selected hormone therapy
allows you to avoid relapses.

There is an unfavorable prognosis in cases where, despite
the presence of ovarian cysts, the woman does not receive adequate treatment and does not
observed by a gynecologist. In such situations, the risk of complications
increases significantly, and therefore the forecast becomes


Recommendations for the prevention of ovarian cysts:

  • Avoiding overeating and obesity.
  • Timely treatment of inflammatory diseases in women
    sexual sphere and hormonal imbalance.
  • Loyalty to the sexual partner and the avoidance of casual relationships
  • Regular gynecological examinations for early
    detection of ovarian neoplasms, even in the presence of minor
    complaints (brown discharge, pain in the lower abdomen) and timely

All of the above recommendations apply not only to
preventive measures to prevent the occurrence
neoplasms, but also to prevent absolutely any violation in

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