Otitis – what it is, types, symptoms in adults,ear otitis therapy

Отит — это ЛОР-заболевание, представляющее собой
inflammation in the ear. Manifested by pain in the ear
(pulsating, shooting, aching), increased body temperature,
нарушением слуха, tinnitus слизисто-гнойными выделениями из
наружного слухового passage. The severity of the pathological
process depends entirely on the virulence of the microorganisms, as well as
plays an important role in the state of human immune defense.

What it is, what are the first signs and symptoms of otitis, and
how to treat in adults without consequences for the ear, we will look further
in the article.

What is otitis media?

отит уха

Otitis is an inflammatory lesion of the inner, middle, or
the external part of the human ear flowing in a chronic or
acute form. The disease is characterized by lesions of structures.
the outer, middle or inner ear, while patients
make specific complaints. The symptoms in adults depend on
areas of inflammation, local or systemic adherence
complications.

Pathology can develop at any time of the year, but the peak
hospital visits fall and winter, when people are not yet
they have time to change from heat to cold.

The reasons

The reasons и симптомы отита зависят от вида заболевания, состояния
immunity and environmental factors. Foundational
elements in the formation of the disease is the influence of air temperature
clean water used for hygiene, time of year.

The causes of otitis are:

  • Penetration of infection from other ENT-organs – as a complication
    concomitant infectious viral disease;
  • Various diseases of the nose, sinuses and nasopharynx. This includes
    all types of rhinitis, curvature of the nasal septum,
    аденоиды (аденоидные вегетации);
  • Injuries of the auricle;
  • Hypothermia and weakened immunity.

Among the conditions that significantly increase the risk of developing
diseases include:

  • allergies;
  • inflammation of the upper respiratory tract;
  • immunodeficiency states;
  • performing surgical operations in the nasopharynx or nasal area
    cavities;
  • infancy, children’s age.
Otitis in adults – a disease that needs to
take it seriously, know its symptoms, effects and
лечение.

Виды отитов

Строение человеческого уха разделяется на три
interrelated parts that have the following names:

  • outer ear;
  • the average;
  • inner ear.

строение уха человека

В зависимости от того, в какой конкретной части
органа протекает воспалительный процесс, в медицине принято
distinguish three types of otitis:

External otitis

External otitis может быть ограниченным или разлитым, в
in some cases it extends to the eardrum, more often
occurs in elderly patients. Resulting from
механической или химической травмы уха. Patient with external
otitis media complains of a throbbing pain in the ear, which
gives back to neck, teeth and eyes, worse when talking and chewing.

Development contribute to two factors:

  • Infections with a sharp object (hairpin, toothpick);
  • Moisture and accumulation in the external auditory canal.

Often occurs if the ear is constantly in contact with water,
for example, when swimming, so it is called “swimmer’s ear.”

Otitis media уха

With otitis media, the inflammatory process occurs in the tympanic
cavities. There are many forms and options for the flow of this
diseases. It can be catarrhal and purulent, perforating and
non-perforated, acute and chronic. Otitis may develop
complications.

Internal otitis

This type is also called labyrinthitis, its symptoms can
vary in severity (from light to bright
expressed).

Symptoms of otitis are similar in all forms of the disease, but
their intensity and some features depend on the species.

According to the nature of the course of the disease, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Spicy Occurs suddenly, has pronounced symptoms.
  • Chronic. The inflammatory process continues for a long time.
    time, has periods of aggravation.

According to the methods of manifestation of otitis, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Purulent. Pus accumulates behind the drum room.
    membrane.
  • Catarrhal There is swelling and redness of the tissues, absent
    liquid or purulent discharge.
  • Exudative. Liquid accumulates in the middle ear (blood or
    lymph), which is an excellent breeding ground
    microorganisms.

How and how to treat ear otitis, the otolaryngologist determines
установив вид и степень заболевания.

Symptoms of otitis in adults

The clinical picture of otitis directly depends on the site of localization
pathological process.

Symptoms:

  • earache. This symptom is disturbing all the time and is
    major, which brings the greatest discomfort. Sometimes pain
    shoots in the teeth, temple, lower jaw. The reason for the development of such
    state in otitis is considered increased pressure in the cavity
    ear;
  • redness of the ear canal, change in ear color
    shells;
  • gradual hearing impairment due to
    вскрытием гнойников и заполнением слухового прохода гнойными
    masses;
  • повышение температуры — чаще всего происходит повышение
    body temperature, however, is also an optional feature;
  • выделения из уха при наружном отите бывают practically
    is always. After all, nothing prevents the inflammatory fluid to stand out
    out.

Otitis symptoms are often accompanied by a runny nose, which
leads to swelling of the nasal mucosa and congestion of the auditory tube.

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Symptoms and first signs
External otitis
  • In case of development of acute purulent local external otitis
    (furuncle in the auditory canal) the patient complains of earaches,
    which are intensified by pressure or by pushing it.
  • There is also pain when opening the mouth and pain with
    the introduction of an ear funnel for the purpose of examining the external auditory
    passage.
  • Externally, the auricle is edematous and reddened.
  • Acute infectious purulent diffuse otitis media develops in
    as a result of inflammation of the middle ear and suppuration from it.
Otitis media How does otitis media manifest?

  • heat;
  • ear pain (throbbing or aching);
  • decrease in auditory function, which is usually
    recovers a few days after the first manifestations
    symptoms;
  • nausea, malaise, vomiting;
  • purulent discharge from the ears.
Internal ear otitis The onset of the disease is most often accompanied by:

  • tinnitus
  • dizziness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • balance disorder
  • hearing loss.
Acute form
  • The main symptom of the acute form is severe earache,
    which patients describe as jerking or shooting.
  • The pain can be very intense, increasing in the evening
    time.
  • Одним из признаков отита является так называемая аутофония
    – the presence of constant noise in the ear, not associated with sounds
    from the outside, ear congestion appears.

Острый отит всегда нужно лечить до конца,
так как гной начнет распространяться внутрь черепа.

Chronic form
  • Hearing loss
  • Periodic purulent discharge from the ear.
  • Головокружение или шум в ушах.
  • The pain appears only during periods of aggravation.
  • Temperature may rise.

If you have otitis symptoms, you need to urgently turn to
a doctor who correctly diagnoses and tells you how to treat
inflammation.

Complications

Do not think that ear otitis is a harmless cold.
disease. In addition, he permanently knocks out a person “from
rut “, reducing its ability to work for at least 10 days,
irreversible changes may develop with persistent deterioration or
complete hearing loss.

When starting the disease on drift, the following may occur
complications:

  • rupture of the eardrum (usually for healing
    the hole formed takes 2 weeks);
  • choleostomy (growth of tissue behind the eardrum,
    hearing loss);
  • destruction of the auditory ossicles of the middle ear (anvil,
    hammer, stirrup);
  • mastoiditis (inflammation of the mastoid process)
    temporal bone).

Diagnostics

A competent doctor diagnoses acute otitis without special
adaptations and innovative technologies. Enough ordinary
examination of the ear and ear canal using the forehead
a reflector (a mirror with a hole in the center) or an otoscope to
diagnose ear otitis.

As methods that confirm and clarify the diagnosis,
a general blood count is indicated in which signs are detected
inflammation (increased ESR, an increase in the number of white blood cells and
others).

From instrumental methods use radiography,
computed tomography of the temporal areas.

How to treat otitis media in adults?

Antibacterials play a special role in the treatment of otitis
(antibiotics, sulfonamides, etc.). Their use has a number
features – the drug should not only act on the bacteria,
caused otitis, but also well penetrate into the tympanic cavity.

Treatment of auricular inflammatory changes begins with
compliance with bed rest. Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory
drugs, antipyretic drugs are prescribed simultaneously.
The combination of drugs can effectively treat
pathology.

Comprehensive treatment of ear otitis

Ear drops

It’s no secret than how to treat acute otitis in adults – drops
in the ears. This is the most common remedy for otitis. Depending
on the type of disease using different drugs. Ear drops могут
contain only antibacterial drug or be
combined – to have an antibiotic and
anti-inflammatory substance.

The following types of drops are distinguished:

  • glucocorticosteroids (Garazon, Sofradex, Dexon,
    Anauran);
  • incorporating anti-inflammatory nonsteroid
    means (Otinum, Otipaks);
  • антибактериальные (Отофа, Ципромед, Butрмакс, Фугентин).

The course of treatment takes 5-7 days.

Additional funds:

  1. В комплексе с ушными каплями при отите,
    отоларингологи часто прописывают сосудосуживающие капли в нос
    (Нафтизин, Назол, Галазолин, Отривин и т.д.), благодаря
    who manage to remove the puffiness of the mucosal Eustachian
    трубы и тем самым уменьшить нагрузку на барабанную
    membrane.
  2. Кроме капель в комплексе может быть назначен прием
    и антигистаминных (противоаллергических) средств, преследующих
    ту же цель — снятие отека слизистой. It can be
    таблетки Лоратадина, Супрастина, Диазолина и т.д.
  3. To reduce the temperature and reduce pain in the ear prescribed
    nonsteroidal paracetamol-based anti-inflammatory drugs
    (panadol), ibuprofen (nurofen), nise.
  4. Antibiotics for otitis in adults are attached to the treatment of acute
    medium form with the development of purulent inflammation. Good
    The use of Augmentin has proven itself. Rulid,
    Amoxiclav, Cefazolin.

In addition to these measures, procedures are used.
physiotherapy:

  • UHF for the nose area;
  • laser therapy for the mouth of the auditory tube;
  • pneumomassage oriented to the drum
    membranes.

If all the above actions did not lead to regression of the process,
or treatment was started at the stage of perforation of the eardrum,
then first of all it is necessary to ensure a good outflow of pus from
cavity of the middle ear. To do this, conduct regular cleansing.
external auditory canal from secretions.

During the manipulation using local anesthesia. In the drum
membrane using a special needle make a puncture through which
pus is removed. The incision is overgrown independently after the termination
discharge of pus.

Recommendations

Recommendations врача нужно обязательно соблюдать:

  • You can not prescribe their own medicines
    choose dosage, discontinue taking medications with the disappearance
    otitis symptoms.
  • Wrong actions taken at their discretion, you can
    harm health.
  • Before going to the doctor, you can only take a paracetamol tablet with
    to reduce pain. This drug is effective and has little
    contraindications. Paracetamol is rarely used with proper use.
    causes side effects.

Prevention

The main goal of preventing otitis media in adults is
so that the Eustachian tube is not blocked by thick mucus.
This is not such an easy task. Usually,
острые риниты сопровождаются жидкими выделениями, но в
during treatment, mucus often becomes much thicker, stagnating in
nasopharynx.

  1. Foci of chronic infection – tonsillitis, pharyngitis increase
    risk of otitis.
  2. After swimming, especially in open water, it is necessary
    thoroughly dry the ears to prevent water from entering along with
    bacteria inside. Especially for people who are prone to otitis,
    developed antiseptic drops that are buried in the ears after
    every bathing.
  3. Regularly clean the ears from dirt and sulfur, to maintain hygiene. But
    it is better to leave at least sulfur as it protects the ear canal from
    hits of pathogenic microbes.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that otitis media is very unpleasant.
disease. Do not think that all symptoms will pass
on their own. Be sure to contact your doctor when you see
first signs. Often people treat otitis media unnecessarily.
frivolously, not realizing that the complications of this infection
can lead to the saddest consequences.

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