Osteoarthritis – what it is, causes, signs,symptoms, degrees and treatment of arthrosis of the joints

Arthrosis of the joints is a complex dystrophic disease,
which is associated with the destruction of cartilage tissue inside the joints. This
pathological process is the most common
joint disease worldwide. Osteoarthritis manifests pain,
morning stiffness and limited mobility. Characteristic
gradual progression of symptoms, however, the speed of development
The disease may be different.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis, clinical examination
and radiography results. Treatment артроза обычно
conservative: exercise therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy,
blockades, etc.

More about what this disease is and how to treat it,
consider further in the article.

What is arthrosis?

Артроз

Arthrosis is a degenerative change in their structure, which
accompanied by pain and visible deformity. ATторое onзвание
a disease that is used in the international classification –
osteoarthritis.

The disease is characterized by slow progression, although it
may be accelerated by some external factors. ATсе зависит от
individual features of the organism, available in humans
diseases and his way of life.

According to statistics, 6.5–12% of the world’s population suffer from arthritis.
People over 65 are mostly affected (62–85% of cases). there is
tendency to “rejuvenation” of pathology: in different countries around 30–35%
patients are people aged 45–65 years, and 2–3% are age 20–45
years old.

People who are not familiar with medicine think that arthritis and arthrosis are
It is the same. In fact, it is not, because in the first case
illness is acute inflammatory in nature, and in the second –
long, less pronounced chronic

ATиды

The formulation of the diagnosis of arthrosis may be different, although the essence
the disease is the same. Most frequently asked questions and misunderstandings
patients are associated with several terms-synonyms of arthrosis:

  • arthritic arthritis – classic arthrosis, in which pronounced
    inflammatory process;
  • osteoarthritis is exactly the same as arthrosis;
  • deforming (osteoarthritis) – the so-called late stage
    diseases that are manifested by the deformation and closure of the joint;
  • coxarthrosis is an abbreviated term for a lesion.
    hip joint;
  • gonarthrosis is an abbreviated term meaning “osteoarthritis of the knee
    joint “;
  • spondyloarthrosis – the defeat of arthrosis small
    spinal joints.

There are many varieties of this disease.
Classification may occur based on localization of affected
plots and depending on the causes of the disease.

ATиды артроза в зависимости от локализации:

  • Knee
  • Hip joints
  • Cervical
  • Brachial
  • Hands and fingers
  • Spine
  • Ankle
  • Первичный полиosteoarthritis.

AT зависимости от количества вовлеченных суставов, различают
the following varieties:

  • Monoarthrosis.
  • Oligoarthrosis – affected no more than 2 joints.
  • Polyarthrosis – involved from 3 articular groups.

Degree of joint damage

Degrees of arthrosis Symptoms
1 degree The first stage of arthrosis – pronounced morphological changes
absent, only the composition of the synovial fluid is disturbed. Liquid
worse supplies cartilage tissue with nutrients, resistance
cartilage to normal loads is reduced. Due to articular overload
surfaces inflammation occurs, pain occurs.
2 degree  The joint is destroyed. Osteophyte formation occurs.
The pain under load and movement becomes stronger, heard
characteristic crunch in the affected places.
3 degree  This is the most difficult stage of development of this disease.
There is a pathological change in the areas of the diseased joints.
ATозникает воспаление. The patient feels stiff when moving, so
how muscles can not fully contract and perform their
functions.

The reasons

Two reasons contribute to the formation of arthrosis – load and
lack of nutrition that supplies vitamins,
minerals for tissue repair. Each person’s joints are carried
load. Athletes and dancers, with physical work load
on the legs more, which means that the bone joints wear out faster and
require good nutrition. With a quiet lifestyle, supporting
the machine wears out slower, but also requires periodic
tissue renewal.

Primary arthrosis

This тип чаще всего связан с врожденной неполноценностью и
the tendency of cartilage tissue to damage and destruction as a result
metabolic disorders. The most common causes of
this disease:

  • hereditary and genetic;
  • menopause;
  • frequent and, at first glance, minor injuries (for example,
    athletes).

ATторичный артроз

ATторичный тип чаще всего является деформирующим артрозом и
progresses against the background of a decrease in cartilage resistance to
normal load. The development of this pathology contribute to:

  • injuries;
  • obesity;
  • weakness of the ligaments and muscles;
  • arthritis.

С возрастом предрасположенность к болезни увеличивается.
After 70 years, arthrosis is diagnosed in every second
pensioner. Поскольку максимальonя onгрузка приходится on
ноги (человек передвигается — ходит, стоит, бегает, прыгает),
то именно здесь формируются первые призonки.

Призonки и симптомы артроза

Osteoarthritis belongs to the category of chronic diseases. Sometimes
болезнь может незаметно протекать годами, лишь изредка onпомиonя
болью при onгрузке on сустав или неловком движении. But it also happens
so that the disease is rapidly developing to the severe stage of everything
in a few months.

AT любом случае важно помнить, если не лечить болезнь, ее
симптомы будут со временем onрастать, ухудшая качество жизни, а в
severe cases – leading to disability and immobilization.

Symptoms при артрозе суставов: 

  • Pain. Pain in arthritis has a pronounced
    характер, особенно после различного рода onгрузок. When a person
    comes to rest, after a while uncomfortable
    sensations disappear. Localization of pain occurs directly in
    the place where the changes took place in the usual structures of the body. AT
    Some cases of pain in osteoarthritis can occur when a person
    resting, being completely relaxed. They appear very
    sharply and strongly that can be compared with toothaches. More often всего это
    happens in the morning.
  • ATторым призonком артроза является хруст, но не стоит путать
    this symptom is with the usual clicking on of the joints, which occurs
    almost every person, and does not bring discomfort. Crunch
    when the disease is characterized by a rough and dry sound, it brings pain
    and severe discomfort. With the development of the disease, the symptom becomes
    clearer and more painful.
  • Reduced joint mobility. It is also considered one of
    характерных симптомов артроза, но появляется он уже on стадии
    active disease progression. AT ходе развития артроза
    sprouting / germination of bone neoplasms occurs, as
    leads to muscle spasms, reduced clearance in the articular
    bag – the restriction of movement in this place is guaranteed.
  • Deformity of the joint. Its modification is due to the fact that
    on поверхности костей разрастаются остеофиты и прибывает
    синовиальonя жидкость. Хотя деформация – это один из onиболее
    поздних симптомов, когда артроз поразил сустав уже в зonчительной
    degree.
  • Changes in muscle tone. ATonчале, особенно при выраженном болевом
    синдроме, околосуставные мышцы рефлекторно onпряжены. AT дальнейшем,
    as the loss of motor activity, the muscles atrophy.
  • Кожные manifestations. Необязательный призonк. AT onчальных стадиях
    redness of the skin in the joint projection is possible. AT дальнейшем, по мере
    progression of osteoarthritis and muscle atrophy, the skin becomes paler, becomes
    dry, pigmented.
Joints that arthrosis affects more often: Less likely to suffer:
  • Knee
  • Ankle
  • Hip
  • Small joints of the hand
  • Brachial
  • Elbow
  • Facet joints of the spine (spondylarthrosis)
  • Wrist

Complications

If you do not have proper attention to arthrosis, in time and correctly
do not heal, it can lead not only to complete destruction
sore joint, but also to changes in the biomechanics of the spine,
отчего могут появляться грыжи в межпозвоночных дисках и
onчаться развитие артроза в других, пока ещё здоровых суставах.

The danger of late treatment of any type of arthrosis lies in
related complications, adverse effects:

  • inflamed joints become deformed and gradually
    are destroyed;
  • movements become constrained, mobility of joints partially
    either completely limited;
  • onрушается биомеханика позвоночника;
  • interdisk hernias are formed;
  • neuralgia develops;
  • the standard of living of a patient with arthrosis is reduced;
  • a person becomes disabled.

Diagnostics

First of all, they try to see structural changes in
affected areas, assess their severity and prevalence.
Также следует определить обменно-метаболические onрушения в
An organism that has become a favorable background for
arthrosis. Therefore, the survey complex consists of the following
events:

  • X-ray.
  • Магнитно-резоonнсonя томография.
  • Ultrasound procedure.
  • Arthroscopy
  • Биохимические аonлизы крови (гормоonльный спектр, маркеры
    inflammation, calcium metabolism, rheumatic tests).

С учетом рентгенологических призonков специалисты в области
ортопедии и травматологии выделяют следующие стадии
Arthrosis (Kellgren-Lawrence classification):

  • 1 стадия (сомнительный артроз) – подозрение on сужение
    articular fissure, osteophytes are absent or are present in a small
    quantity.
  • 2 стадия (мягкий) – подозрение on сужение суставной щели,
    osteophytes are clearly defined.
  • 3 стадия (умеренный) – явное сужение суставной щели, есть
    pronounced osteophytes, bone deformities are possible.
  • 4 стадия (тяжелый артроз) – выраженное сужение суставной
    fissures, large osteophytes, pronounced bone deformities and
    osteosclerosis.

Обратите внимание: течение рассматриваемого заболевания
идет очень медленно и on первой стадии может вообще не
характеризоваться никакими симптомами, а непостоянonя боль в
суставах и повышенonя усталость могут быть присущи даже здоровым
людям при больших физических onгрузках. Therefore independent
diagnosing arthrosis is almost impossible.

How to treat arthrosis of the joints

Principles of treatment of arthrosis:

  • eliminate excessive stress on the joints;
  • therapy with anti-inflammatory and pain pills.
    Also in the complex therapy, chondroprotectors are actively used in
    arthrosis;
  • physiotherapy;
  • spa treatment;
  • magnetic therapy, electrotherapy, laser therapy,
    shock wave therapy;
  • intra-articular oxygen therapy;
  • intraosseous blockade;
  • It is important to choose the right nutrition for arthrosis.

Medical methods

How to treat osteoarthritis with medication? This
The question is most common among patients. Treatment
carried out with the help of three groups of drugs:

  1. Chondroprotectors. Drugs in this group restore
    hyaline cartilage, as they contain components included in its composition.
    They are recommended for all patients in the form of a long course.
    admission (courses for 3-4 months, 2 times a year). Use pills and
    capsules: Movex, Teraflex, Struktum; Chondroitin complex
    arthron.
  2. Hormonal corticosteroids. This group of medicinal
    drugs most effective in the period of acute arthrosis. More often
    Doctors prescribe Diprospan or Hydrocortisone – they are made
    intramuscular injections. But a similar category of medicinal
    drugs in pharmacies presented in the form of patches, ointments – their
    apply only externally, you can expect quite fast and powerful
    Effect.
  3. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
    Ibuprofen, Nimesulide, Diclofenac in order to reduce pain
    syndrome and eliminate the inflammatory process.
  4. Injections. Injectable drugs quickly relieve pain,
    reduce active symptoms. Intramuscular, intravenous or
    intra-articular medication should only
    medical worker. These funds are not able to save the patient from
    causes of the disease, but effectively reduce its negative
    manifestations. The most commonly used shots for osteoarthritis are:
    Diprospan; Celeston; Floreston; Kenalog

Of the other medications used to treat arthrosis
drugs:

  • improves blood microcirculation in the joints – nicotine
    acid, ATP, trental, nicoshpane, prodectin, heparin;
  • improving the supply of joint tissues with oxygen – vitamins “B”
    (pyridoxine, thiamine, cyanocolamine);
  • acting on the metabolism in cartilage – rumalon, arteparon,
    mukartrin, chloroquine;
  • desensitizing agents that reduce the reactivity of the body,
    – tavegil, diphenhydramine, suprastin, pipolfen;
  • synthetic adrenal hormones – hydrocortisone,
    dexamezaton, prednisone.

Surgery

Surgical methods involve two ways to solve
Problems:

  1. Arthroscopy – an operation performed on a patient
    joint. Through a puncture, a special needle is inserted, which
    removes damaged areas and polishes the affected area.
  2. Prosthetics is a difficult operation to remove
    damaged articulation and embedding the new one. Modern
    Orthopedics has stepped far forward, releasing new ones
    advanced prostheses that are rejected by the body extremely
    rarely, and wearing it does not cause discomfort.

Exercise therapy for arthrosis

Therapeutic exercise is used for arthritis in the subacute
stage. The main tasks of physical therapy:

  • orthopedic correction (elimination of defects
    limbs);
  • reduction of static load on the joints;
  • improving joint mobility or preventing it
    deterioration.

They conduct breathing exercises and a set of exercises for
unaffected muscles and joints. Exercises for the affected joints
perform in the prone position, on the side or on the back, sitting. They alternate
with breathing exercises that help relax muscles.
Movement in the affected joint the patient performs independently or
with the help of an instructor.

During classes you should not allow the appearance of pain. Exercises
performed at a slow pace and only after the removal of acute
symptoms. Sharp and high-amplitude movements should be avoided.
which can provoke discomfort.

Physical exercise should be done under the supervision of a physician, and after
acquiring the necessary skills you can start at home
exercises.

Physiotherapy and manual therapy

The use of these methods of treatment gives very good results.
during the initial stages of arthrosis.

  1. Manual treatment should only be carried out by an experienced doctor.
    proven in articular therapy
    pathologies. For example, in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
    manual therapy with limb stretching, intra-articular
    injections and chondroprotectors can quickly deliver
    sick on his feet.
  2. Physical procedures are used as an adjunctive treatment and for
    acceleration of the rehabilitation period. Their main goal is to reduce
    inflammation and speed up tissue regeneration. Widely used such
    procedures like: laser and cryotherapy, thermal treatment – ozokerite,
    mud baths, paraffin therapy, ultraviolet irradiation.

Nutrition and Diet

Diet for arthrosis of the joints is aimed at correcting
metabolic processes, body weight, irreversible warning
changes in hyaline cartilage of the joints, reducing inflammatory
process and strengthening connective tissue articular structures.
Any special diet for arthrosis of the joints does not exist. AT
The basis of therapeutic nutrition are the following principles:

  1. Food should be physiologically complete and
    сбалансированным с повышенным содержанием витаминов и
    minerals. The energy value of the diet for patients with
    normal weight should correspond to the average daily allowance
    energy costs and do not exceed it.
  2. Salt intake is limited to 5-8 g / day, and
    salted foods (pickles, canned food, chips, salted fish).
  3. Free fluid intake should be increased to 2-2.5
    l / day.
  4. It is necessary to exclude the processing of products by frying. Food
    should be baked, steamed, boiled or stewed.
  5. It is necessary to switch to frequent, fractional power.
  6. Food нужно принимать маленькими порциями, что исключит
    overeating and weight gain.

When arthrosis prohibited the use of a hard extreme diet.
Since with this type of diet the body expels a large amount
fluids that in turn flush out bones and joints
they need calcium and potassium.

Healthy foods:

  • Fish and seafood, nuts, linseed oil, as a source of Omega –
    3
  • Lean meat and jellies.
  • Продукты богатые витамином Е,D, C, A и группы AT. Это свежие
    fruits, vegetables and berries. Especially useful to use: beets,
    tomatoes, carrots, cabbage, blueberries, legumes, bananas, oranges,
    apples and whole grain bread.
  • Ginger and other spices.
  • Milk and dairy products are an excellent source.
    calcium.
  • Fresh juices are helpful.

Prohibited Products:

  • Fast food, sausage products, semi-finished products, chips and all
    refined products.
  • Fat meat.
  • Muffin, white bread, sugar.
  • Fat dairy products, salted cheeses.
  • Mayonnaise, transgenic fats.
  • White rice, semolina.
  • Marinades, conservation, pickles.
  • Alcohol, energy, soda.

Traditional methods of treatment

Before using any folk remedies for arthrosis, be sure to
consult your health care provider.

  1. Mash the nettle and juniper berries into a homogeneous mass.
    Соедините со сливочным маслом 1:3 To ease the pain rub
    sore joints up to 3 times a day.
  2. Roots, flowers or branches of the black elderberry. Pour 1 tbsp. spoon raw
    1 cup boiling water. Insist, wrapped, 3 hours, then strain. Drink
    1/4 cup up to 4 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
  3. Boil 10 g of bay leaf in 250 ml of water for five minutes.
    Leave for five hours. Drink время от времени мелкими глотками весь
    day. Three days of treatment, five rest, then three days of treatment.
  4. Mustard compress with honey. Mustard powder mixed with honey and
    add one egg. Put the resulting ointment on cheesecloth and apply
    to the sore spot.
  5. Compress of cabbage. Sliced ​​cabbage lightly
    knead and skip through the juicer. Moisten natural
    шерстяную ткань в соке и приложить to the sore spot.
  6. Череда — еще одно прекрасное средство для лечения arthrosis.
    Brew in 250 ml of boiling water 2 large spoons of the series. In 20 minutes
    decoction ready. Take 2 spoons three times a day before meals. Course – 30
    days
  7. Chamomile, calendula and burdock ointment copes well with
    pain syndrome, relieves inflammation. For its preparation you need
    mix in equal quantities chamomile flowers, calendula, root
    burdock, combine herbs with Vaseline and leave for 1-2 days. Ointment
    использовать при сильных болях до 5 раз в day.
  8. AT кипящую воду положите равные части коры ивы, листьев берез и
    Calendula flowers. Boil the mixture for 10 minutes, then give
    Brew under the lid as much again. Take the decoction you need
    chilled at 200 ml half an hour before meals.

Prevention

AT понижении риска артроза важную роль играют такие моменты:

  • getting rid of extra pounds;
  • treatment of musculoskeletal disorders;
  • active movement throughout life;
  • proper nutrition (diet, balanced diet);
  • avoiding hypothermia joints;
  • healthy lifestyle with the right regimen.

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