Osteoarthritis of the knee: symptoms, degrees,the reasons

Update: December 2018

Deforming arthrosis of the knee, in medicine wears
название гонартроз — это  дегенеративно-дистрофическое
disease in the hyaline cartilage of the knee that covers the condyles
femoral and tibial bones.

With osteoarthritis of the knee, symptoms develop gradually,
For years, the main manifestation of the disease are pain, stiffness with
movement. That gonarthrosis is considered the most common
disease among arthrosis of other joints, such as
hip arthrosis, arthrosis of the elbow or shoulder joints, phalanges
fingers.

Most often, the disease affects people over 40, women
most prone to arthrosis. Sometimes it develops in young people.
against the background of injury or athletes from excessive loads.

Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee

Не бывает одной единственной the reasons развития такого заболевания
as osteoarthritis of the knee, it is usually a combination
several provoking factors that with age can
lead to a similar violation. Mechanisms of arthrosis in
medicine is divided into:

  • Первичный  — который возникает в пожилом возрасте от
    natural aging of body tissues and against the background of some
    factors causing this disease, such as obesity (10%
    cases), heredity, increased load during
    of life.
  • Secondary – he owns 30% of all cases of osteoarthritis of the knee
    joint, it usually appears after injury, fracture of the leg,
    ligament rupture, meniscus damage. Moreover, with such arthrosis
    knee joint symptoms in most cases
    appear after 3-4 years, but after a serious injury it is possible and
    in 2-3 months.

It is also not uncommon (7-8% of cases) of arthrosis, when
a person after 40 years of age suddenly begins physical activity,
especially running and intense squats. It is at this age already
there are age-related changes in the joints and sudden loads can
provoke rapid dystrophic and degenerative changes in
joints.

Also another cause of osteoarthritis of the knee
there may be not only injuries, serious damage, but also
associated diseases – rheumatoid, reactive or
psoriatic arthritis (see why psoriasis is dangerous and contagious),
gout, ankylosing spondylitis, overweight and varicose veins
(see treatment of varicose veins at home).

Occupations by professional sports or just permanent
heavy physical exertion, heavy lifting or frequent long-term
climbing stairs in old age – may be the reasons
development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Also increases the risk
gonarthrosis with spinal injuries, with neurological
diseases, diabetes and other metabolic disorders
substances, as well as genetic weakness of the ligamentous apparatus
(3-5% of cases).

In 50-60% of cases, the cause of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is
muscle spasm of the front of the thigh. Until the moment
the patient will ache in the knees, like a muscle spasm for a very long time
does not manifest, but a person only experiences lower back pain,
tiredness, heaviness in the legs. If straight and ileo-lumbar
the thigh muscles are in constant spasm, then with
age gradually occurs “tightening” of the knees, which is not
allows them to move freely.

An interesting discovery about the bone joint shocked scientists

Артроз коленного сустава симптомыBelgian surgeons –
orthopedists in the city of Leuven has recently been discovered unexplored and
a previously unknown bundle ALL, which is in human
the knee, it is now assigned the name of the anterolateral or
anterolateral.

The fact is that in some patients, even after successful
operations after injuries and rupture of the ligaments of the knee felt
instability of the knee joint and pain with physical
load.

Studies for 4 years on 40 knees
joints, allowed to detect this very ligament, which was not
known to medicine in general. The main function of this bundle is
rotational movement of the tibia and injury
which, the doctors did not even know about her surgical correction
during operations. Read more about this discovery in our article.
A previously unknown ligament is open in the human knee joint.

 Degrees of osteoarthritis of the knee

Most often, arthrosis develops in one of the knee joints and with
considering the intensity of pathological processes in medicine, there are 3
degree of gonarthrosis:

  • The first – with this degree of deformation of the bones of the joint is not, however
    dull periodic pain after
    load on the joint. There may be swelling of the joint,
    insignificant and self-disappearing.
  • Osteoarthritis Grade 2 of the knee – with symptoms of osteoarthritis
    begin to increase significantly, pain already occurs when
    slight physical exertion, when walking, lifting weights,
    they are more intense and long lasting, a crunch appears
    in the joint, in the second degree, the development of joint deformity and
    moderate limit movement.
  • Grade 3 osteoarthritis of the knee joint is characterized
    maximum symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Is broken
    patient’s gait from constant pain and noticeable deformity of the joint,
    as well as limited mobility of the joint. Pains
    depending on weather conditions, they are often
    so strong that a person cannot find a comfortable position
    sleep is disturbed, and limitation of joint mobility may be
    reduced to a minimum.

What is the confusion arthrosis of the knee?

Even before the blood test for arthritis, there are all signs of inflammation:
swelling, redness, hot skin over the affected joint, violation
his movements. Osteoarthritis is pain combined with radiographic
changes.

  • Damage to the menisci and blockade of the knee joint

This disease develops very quickly, with unsuccessful movement.
after a crunch in the knee, acute pain appears, which after 15
minutes subsides, swelling of the knee occurs the next day.

  • Arthritis – rheumatoid, reactive, psoriatic, articular
    rheumatism, gout, ankylosing spondylitis

It is possible to distinguish arthrosis from arthritis by blood analysis, with arthrosis
complete blood count does not show any changes, but the analysis
arthritis almost always indicates inflammation
(except, for example, cases of lesions of the small joint of the hand).

  • Inflammation of the knee ligaments (tendonitis)

Such pain is more common in women after 40 years of age when descending from
ladder or carrying weights, it is localized on the inside or
the outside of the knee, at the base of attachment of the patella.
Difficult leg extension in the joint, swelling may be observed.

  • Vascular pain in the knees

These are symmetrical pains that occur in both knees.
at the same time and mainly in young people during the accelerated
bone growth occurs when the weather changes, during a cold, physical
load, describe the condition of the patients as “twists
knees”.

Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in stages

This insidious disease develops gradually. At first
the patient begins to be disturbed only by slight discomfort,
pain when driving, descending and climbing stairs. Sometimes
a person describes his feelings as a popliteal
areas and small joint stiffness. Hallmark
arthrosis of the knee joint, is a symptom of starting pain, that is,
when a person from a sitting position abruptly rises and begins
movement, pain occurs at the first steps, but as you move
softens or disappears altogether. However, after considerable load
reappears.

In the first degree, the knee does not differ in appearance from
healthy, only sometimes patients notice a slight swelling in
affected area. Also, there are times when the knee
fluid accumulates, it swells up, becomes spherical,
then synovitis develops, joint movement is restricted,
felt heavy. Why do such pains and changes occur?
joint?

In the first degree of arthrosis, blood circulation is disturbed during
intraosseous small vessels that supply nutrient
substances hyaline cartilage. For this reason, the surface of the cartilage with
time becomes not smooth, dry, on the surface of the cartilage
cracks appear. Slip cartilage when driving should be
soft, and unimpeded, and in this case they cling to each other
friend, such a constant state of microtraumas is thinning cartilage
fabric, so it loses its depreciation properties.

With the development of pathological processes occur and changes
bone structures, when the articular area flattens out, along the edges
joints appear osteophytes – thorns or as they are called bone
sprawl. Joint capsule reborn, synovial membrane
wrinkles, joint fluid thickens. All this leads to
an even more significant reduction in the supply of nutrition to cartilage and
degeneration begins to accelerate.

Therefore, with 2 degrees of osteoarthritis of the knee joint, symptoms
intensified, pain localized more often on the front inside side
joint and arise even with low loads, rest gives
relief, but the movement again causes severe pain.

Mobility of the joint is also reduced when trying to bend the leg.
a sharp pain arises to the maximum, a rough one is heard when moving
crunch. Sinovites are already observed much more often than at the beginning
diseases, fluid accumulates in greater quantities, the joint
changes its configuration, it becomes as if expanded.

With osteoarthritis of the knee 3
deformation of the bone, they are as if pressed into each other, cartilaginous
the tissue is almost absent, limiting the movement of the joint
is growing. Pains беспокоят больного и днем, и ночью, и в покое, и
when walking, bend or straighten the joint becomes problematic.
The joint is deformed, the legs become X or O shaped,
gait reeling, unstable, often in severe cases
the patient needs crutches or canes.

Diagnosis and treatment of arthrosis

In the first degree of arthrosis, such a diagnosis is made during a routine examination.
not possible to install. At 2-3 degrees already when viewed noticeable
deformities of bones and joints, changes in the axis of the limbs, stiffness
движения, слышен хруст, при синовите noticeable отеки,
swelling.

Today, in addition to standard radiography for
For the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee, modern
MRI and CT methods, which allow for a more thorough examination
pathological changes in the soft tissues and study the disorders
bone structures.

The treatment of this disease lies in the whole complex of procedures.
and drug therapy. More on the treatment of osteoarthritis
knee joint can learn from our next article. Orthopedists
prescribe physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy,
mud therapy

Drug treatment includes the appointment of chondroprotectors,
drugs that replace synovial fluid. Sometimes показано
the introduction of steroid hormones intraarticular. Patients indicated
also spa treatment. With the inefficiency of
treatment if the patient is young and arthrosis with severe
pain and restriction of movement, it is possible
joint replacement with subsequent rehabilitation period
within 3-6 months.

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