Obstructive bronchitis – what is it, symptomsin adults, causes, treatment of acute and chronic forms

Obstructive bronchitis – diffuse inflammation of the small and bronchi
medium caliber, occurring with a sharp bronchial spasm and
progressive impairment of pulmonary ventilation.

Next, we will look at what the disease is, what
The first sign in adults that is prescribed as a diagnostic for
detection of obstructive bronchitis, and what methods
treatment and prevention are most effective.

What is obstructive bronchitis?

Обструктивный бронхит

Obstructive bronchitis is an inflammatory disease.
bronchial tree which is characterized by the occurrence
unproductive cough with sputum, shortness of breath and in some cases
broncho-obstructive syndrome, which in its etiology is similar to
bronchial asthma.

The word “obstruction” is translated from Latin as an “obstacle” that
fairly accurately reflects the essence of the pathological process: because
narrowing or blocking the lumen of the respiratory tract air is difficult
seeps into the lungs. And the term “bronchitis” means inflammation.
small respiratory tubes – bronchus. Obstructive bronchitis is
violation of the patency of the bronchi, which leads to accumulation in them
mucus and difficulty breathing.

The disease is characterized by the fact that it does not develop in the bronchi.
only inflammation, but also mucosal damage
shell that causes:

  • spasm of the bronchial walls;
  • tissue swelling;
  • accumulation in mucus bronchus.

Also obstructive bronchitis in adults causes significant
thickening of the vessel walls, which leads to a narrowing of the bronchial
lumen. In this case, the patient experiences difficulties with the implementation
breathing, difficulty with normal ventilation of the lungs, lack
rapid discharge of sputum from the lungs.

Forms of development

There are 2 forms of the disease:

Acute obstructive bronchitis

Characteristic for children under the age of four, but sometimes
occurs in adults (in which case it is called the primary
obstructive bronchitis). In order to develop
bronchial obstruction in adults, it is necessary that
inflammatory process in the airways joined one or
at the same time several predisposing factors. For example,
obstructive syndrome may develop in the background:

  • banal bronchitis or ARVI with improper treatment
    diseases,
  • allergen contact,
  • staying in polluted air conditions.

Chronic obstructive form

Chronic form of the disease is characterized by prolonged
no symptoms of obstructive bronchitis. The disease proceeds
with periods of remission and exacerbations, most often caused by
hypothermia and acute respiratory infections. Clinical
symptoms occur during periods of exacerbation of the disease and depend on its
stage and level of lesion of the bronchial tree.

Chronic obstructive bronchitis, among others
diseases with progressive obstruction
respiratory tract (emphysema, bronchial asthma), taken
refer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

The reasons

The reasons возникновения обструктивной формы бронхита у
adults:

  • Frequent colds.
  • Chronic nasopharyngeal diseases.
  • Bad ecology.
  • Smoking.
  • Harmful conditions in the workplace. Man inhales with air
    particles of substances that contribute to the development of the disease.
  • Heredity. If someone in the family has obstructive
    bronchitis, the pathology may develop in relatives.

Chronic obstructive bronchitis is a disease that often
just starting to progress in people who smoke throughout
long time working in production with various chemical.
substances and stuff.

It is also worth highlighting the internal factors that contribute
development of obstructive bronchitis in adults and children:

  • second blood group;
  • hereditary immunoglobulin A deficiency;
  • deficiency of the enzyme alphaone-antitrypsin.

Stages

Progressive development of chronic obstructive bronchitis
characterized by a gradual decrease in the volume of forced breath in
one second (OVF-one), expressed as a percentage of the regulatory
quantities.

Stage
one ОВФ-one от 50% и выше. The disease does not cause significant
deterioration in the quality of life.
2 ОВФ-one снижается до 35–49%, появляются признаки дыхательной
failure. Systematic observation shown
pulmonologist.
3 ОФВ-one менее 34% от должного значения. It is celebrated
a sharp decrease in tolerance to stress, requires stationary and
outpatient treatment in pulmonary departments and
cabinets.

Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in adults

Doctors argue that even at the initial stage can be suspected
obstructive bronchitis in adults. Symptoms and treatment патологии
best to discuss with your doctor. After all, independently diagnose
and even more so to select therapy, it can be very dangerous.

Of course, the main complaint of the patient with obstructive bronchitis
– it is strong, long, cutting and unpleasant
cough. However, this does not mean that the victim develops
it is bronchitis. Therefore, it is important for anyone to know everything. the symptoms
diseases, чтобы успеть вовремя спохватиться и посетить
the doctor.

It is worth noting that acute obstructive bronchitis affects
преимущественно детей до пяти лет, у взрослых же the symptoms
only occur when the acute current passes into
chronic. But sometimes the primary can begin to progress.
acute obstructive bronchitis. As a rule, it happens on the background
Colds

Symptoms:

  • temperature rise;
  • сухой cough. It usually develops with seizures, intensifying
    in the morning or at night;
  • частота дыхательных движений в минуту увеличивается до one8 раз.
    A child will have this indicator slightly higher;
  • during expiration, wheezing is noted, which can be heard even
    on distance.

Обратите внимание: если больной при появлении симптомов
acute obstructive bronchitis does not begin to carry out medical
мероприятия, то у него может появиться одышка. It is connected with
the accumulation of a large amount of sputum in the bronchi. In addition to shortness of breath,
severe course of the acute disease can be
note wheezing when breathing, whistling air.

If there is chronic obstructive bronchitis in adults,
the symptoms патологии следующие:

  • persistent cough, worse in the morning;
  • body temperature is mostly normal;
  • developing shortness of breath that is treatable only on
    early stage.

Over time, patients begin to complain of daily harassment.
утренний cough. Some seizures are repeated daily.
time. Their provocateurs are irritating odors, cold
drinking, frosty air.

Sometimes bronchospasms are accompanied by hemoptysis. Blood
appears due to rupture of capillaries with strong strains.

На поздних этапах заболевание во многом напоминает астму.
Patients hardly breathe. Exhale with wheezing and whistling.
Their expiration duration increases.

The remission period of the disease is characterized by a slight
sweating, moderate shortness of breath and the presence of a wet cough only
morning after waking up.

There is a particular form of the disease – often recurrent
obstructive bronchitis, which is characterized by almost
constant periods of exacerbation with the presence of short
remission. This form of the disease most often leads to
complications.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis of acute obstructive bronchitis is usually made on
the basis of the pronounced clinical picture and the results of the physical
inspection. During auscultation, wet rales in the lungs are heard,
the frequency and tonality of which change when coughing.

The laboratory research package includes:

  • general blood and urine tests;
  • blood chemistry;
  • immunological tests;
  • determination of blood gas composition;
  • microbiological and bacteriological examination of sputum and
    lavage fluid.

In doubtful cases of exacerbation of chronic obstructive
bronchitis should be differentiated from pneumonia, tuberculosis,
bronchial asthma, bronchiectal disease, pulmonary embolism and cancer
lung.

Instrumental examination:

Spirometry – examination of volume and velocity indicators
inhalation and exhalation using the device – spirograph. Main
criteria for assessing the severity of the disease are such indicators
as:

  • ЖЕЛ – vital capacity of the lungs;
  • ОФВone – объем форсированного выдоха за one секунду;
  • Индекс Тиффно – отношение ЖЕЛ к ОФВone;
  • PIC – peak volumetric rate.

X-ray of OGK (chest organs) where you can see
dilated bronchi and a uniform increase in pulmonary airiness
fields.

Treatment

При диагнозе обструктивный бронхит выявленные the symptoms и
prescribed treatment allows you to quickly put a person on his feet,
however, it requires long and careful treatment that will help
prevent another seizure, and also restore bronchi with
phlegm blockage.

In acute obstructive bronchitis is assigned to:

  1. rest, heavy drinking, humidifying the air, alkaline and
    medicinal inhalation.
  2. Etiotropic antiviral therapy (interferon,
    ribavirin, etc.).
  3. In severe bronchial obstruction, antispasmodic medications are used.
    (papaverine, drotaverin) and mucolytic (acetylcysteine, ambroxol)
    means, bronchodilator inhalers (salbutamol, ortsiprenalin,
    fenoterol hydrobromide).
  4. To facilitate the discharge of sputum, percussion massage is performed.
    chest, vibratory massage, back muscle massage, breathing
    gymnastics.
  5. Antibiotic therapy is prescribed only when joining
    secondary microbial infection.
Medications
Mucolytics Expectorant drugs, mucolytics, thinning
viscous secret, which is easier derived from the bronchi. Medication this
groups start to treat the disease not immediately, but after a day or two and
even a week.

  • Bromhexine;
  • ACC (Acetylcysteine);
  • Ambroxol (Lasolvan);
  • Bronhikum.
Antibiotics
  • Amoxicillin;
  • Amoxiclav (Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid);
  • Levofloxacin or Moxifloxacin;
  • Azithromycin (Sumamed, Hemomycin).
Antihistamines
  • Loratadine (Claritin);
  • Cetirizine (Zyrtec);
  • Desloratadine (Erius, Desal);
  • Dimetinden (Fenistil).
Hormonal drugs
  • aerosols: budesonide, fluticasone, Ingakort, Beclason Eco;
  • tablets: Prednisolone, Triamcinolone;
  • injection solutions: Prednisol, Dexamethasone.

Emergency care is needed if there is
the risk of complete blockage of the respiratory tract – in this case, than
The longer a person is delayed, the faster he will need help.
What to do when the condition worsens?

The patient should consult a doctor who will prescribe treatment in
hospital, namely:

  • dropper;
  • reception of mucolytics (Sinekod);
  • antibiotics (if the pathology is contagious, because bacteria and
    viruses are transmitted instantly).

How to treat chronic obstructive bronchitis in adults?

Therapeutic tactics for the chronic form of the disease
different from that in acute bronchitis. Treatment scheme for the patient
может подобрать только врач, учитывая стадию diseases, возраст
patient and the presence of concomitant diseases.

General principles of therapy for the disease in question are reduced
to the next:

  1. It is necessary to eliminate the factor that led to the aggravation
    chronic obstructive bronchitis – cure acute
    respiratory viral infection, sore throat.
  2. The doctor must prescribe medications with
    bronchodilatory effect, for example: Salbutamol, Eufillin,
    Atrovent and others.
  3. To liquefy sputum and ensure its rapid withdrawal of the patient
    must take mucolytic drugs – for example,
    Bromhexine or Ambrobene.

For the prevention of exacerbations of the disease during periods of remission
patients are encouraged to perform procedures aimed at
immunity strengthening:

  • hardening,
  • physical exercise,
  • proper nutrition
  • периодические курсы витаминотерапии.

How to treat obstructive bronchitis if home treatment
conditions do not help? Most likely, the doctor will recommend
hospital treatment. Besides the ineffectiveness of outpatient treatment,
indications for inpatient treatment are as follows:

  • acute, sudden respiratory failure;
  • pneumonia;
  • development of heart failure;
  • the need for bronchoscopy.

Prevention

With obstructive bronchitis in adults is of great importance
prevention.

  1. Primary prevention involves quitting smoking.
  2. It is also recommended to change the working conditions, place of residence on
    more favorable.
  3. Eat right. Food should be enough
    vitamins, nutrients – it activates defenses
    organism.
  4. It is worth thinking about hardening.
  5. Fresh air is important – daily walks are required.

Secondary prophylaxis measures imply timely
contacting a doctor if the condition worsens, passing examinations.
A period of wellbeing lasts longer if rigorously
doctors’ orders are followed.

At the first signs of obstructive bronchitis – necessarily
go to the appointment of a pulmonologist. Only a doctor can deliver
accurate diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment. Stay healthy and
take care of yourself!

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