Update: October 2018
Obstructive bronchitis in adults – диффузное поражение бронхов,
caused by prolonged irritation and inflammation, in which
narrowing of the bronchi occurs, accompanied by difficulty exiting
outward accumulating mucus, sputum. With bronchospasms that
inherent in this disease, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath,
wheezing that is not associated with damage to other systems and organs.
Progressive inflammatory process leads to a violation
ventilation of the lungs.
Causes of bronchial obstruction
Factors affecting the development of obstructive bronchitis:
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system and
violation of nasal breathing, foci of infection in the upper respiratory tract
ways – bronchitis, pneumonia
- Recurring viral infections and diseases
- Tumors of the trachea and bronchi
- Airway hyperreactivity
- Genetic predisposition
- Propensity to allergic reactions
- Injuries and burns
- Smoking, passive smoking (see video of what they do
- Alcohol abuse
- Adverse living conditions
- Elderly age
- Long-term effects on the bronchial mucosa of the physical
irritants in the environment – allergens such as
some plant pollens, house dust, animal dander, and
- The presence of chemical irritants in the air at work or
in everyday life – inorganic and organic dust, vapors of acids, ozone,
хлор, аммиак, кремний, кадмий, сернистый газ и etc. (см. влияние
household chemicals for health).
Types of obstructive bronchitis
Острый обструктивный бронхит — острая
a form of bronchial obstruction for adults is not typical, as more often
only acute obstructive bronchitis occurs in children under 4 years of age. But,
adults have primary obstructive bronchitis – due to
joining several risk factors described above
inflammatory process develops. Against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, flu,
pneumonia, with inadequate treatment and other provoking
factors may begin the development of obstruction. With acute
obstructive bronchitis, the main symptoms in patients are as follows:
- First, there is catarrh of the upper respiratory tract.
- Strong dry cough, with sputum difficult to separate.
- Coughing attacks especially worse at night.
- Difficult breathing, noisy expiration
- Temperature is low-grade, not higher than 37.5 – it is distinguished by acute
obstructive bronchitis from simple acute bronchitis, in which
usually high fever.
Acute bronchial obstruction is curable, but if it acquires
chronic form, it can become progressive irreversible
Хронический обструктивный бронхит — это
progressive bronchial obstruction in response to various
irritants. Violation of bronchial patency conditionally
divided into: reversible and irreversible. Signs with which
patients usually go to the doctor:
- Intense cough, with scanty mucus in the morning.
- Shortness of breath, first appears only during physical activity
- Wheezing, shortness of breath
- Phlegm may become purulent during the period.
accession of other infections and viruses and is regarded as a relapse
Over time with an irreversible chronic disease process
progresses, and the intervals between relapses become shorter. With
chronic course follows
How to treat obstructive bronchitis
Treatment of obstructive bronchitis should be with active participation.
patient in the treatment process. If possible, it is worth eliminating
negative factors provoking the progression of the disease –
first of all, it is quitting smoking;
healthy lifestyle if the main reason for the development of obstruction
bronhova industrial harm – change of work is desirable.
Bronchodilator therapy. It consists of three
groups of drugs:
- Anticholinergic drugs. The most effective and well-known of
Ipratropium bromide in metered aerosols – Atrovent.
The action of inhalation drugs occurs slowly over
about an hour and lasts 4-8 hours. Daily dosage 2-4
inhalation 3-4 times.
- Beta – 2 agonists. These medications are recommended.
apply 3-4 times a day. If the patient is not pronounced
symptoms of the disease, they can only be used as
Prevention immediately before exercise. Most
Famous drugs: Berotec, salbutamol.
- Methylxanthines Widespread use
prolonged theophyllines, they are used 1-2 times a day.
The most famous of these drugs is Teopek. Solution of aminophylline
it is entered only in hospitals according to indications. Required
caution in the treatment of patients with cardiac methylxanthine
Mucoregulatory agents. For improvement
sputum discharge, in cases of violation of its discharge apply
Acetylcysteine, Ambroxol or Lasolvan (see list of all
expectorants for cough).
Antibacterial therapy. In cases
bacterial attachment infections with purulent sputum and
signs of general intoxication prescribed antibiotics for bronchitis
broad-spectrum for 7-14 days. Inhaled antibiotics do not
are using. If a patient has chronic obstructive bronchitis,
treatment with antibiotics prophylactically, in order to avoid exacerbations, not
Кортикостероиды. Their use is limited and
systemic corticosteroids are prescribed only for severe
respiratory failure. May use inhaled
hormones because side effects with this use
Therapeutic breathing exercises. Training
respiratory muscles indicated for all patients with chronic
obstructive bronchitis. This and gymnastics on
Strelnikova, and Buteyko’s breath, and the use of respiratory
Indications for inpatient treatment
- Exacerbation of chronic obstructive bronchitis that is not
stoped with outpatient treatment (cough with purulent
sputum, shortness of breath, increasing signs of respiratory
- Respiratory failure, developed acutely.
- Withсоединение воспаления легких.
- Withзнаки сердечной недостаточности при развитии легочного
- The need for bronchoscopy.
The advantages of nebulizers with the introduction of drugs
Medicines for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis
It is advisable to use in the form of inhalation. Most often in everyday life with
Nebulizers are used for this purpose. Their advantages are
- The drug is sprayed in the form of small particles in the composition of the aerosol,
whereby the depth of substance penetration increases.
- Ease of use in children and old people (no need
to coordinate inhalation with a breath, which is difficult to teach a little
child or elderly).
- The nebulizer allows you to enter high doses of medication and can
used to relieve asthma attacks.