Notврозы — функциональные нарушения высшей нервной деятельности
psychogenic origin. Clinic of neurosis is different
diversity and may include somatic neurotic
frustration, vegetative disturbances, various phobias, dysthymia,
obsessions, compulsions, emotional-mnestic problems.
Notврозы относятся к группе заболеваний, имеющих затяжную картину
leakage. People affected by this disease
constant overwork, lack of sleep, feelings, grief, etc.
What is neurosis?
Notвроз – это совокупность психогенных, функциональных обратимых
disorders that tend to last. For
clinical picture of neurosis characteristic obsessive, asthenic or
hysterical manifestations, as well as a temporary weakening of the physical and
mental performance. Это расстройство ещё называют
psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder.
Notврозы у взрослых характеризуются обратимым и не очень тяжелым
over, which distinguishes them, in particular, from psychosis. According to
statistics data from various neurotic disorders suffers
up to 20% of the adult population. The percentage may vary in different
The main mechanism of development is brain disorder
activities that normally provide for human adaptation. AT
As a result, both somatic and mental
The term neurosis in medical terminology introduced in 1776
a doctor from scotland by william cullen
Notврозы и невротические состояния считаются полифакторной
pathology. To their occurrence leads a large number of reasons
who act together and launch a large complex
pathogenetic reactions leading to central and
peripheral nervous system.
The cause of neurosis is the action of the psycho-traumatic factor.
or a traumatic situation.
- AT первом случае речь идет о кратковременном, но сильном
negative impact on a person for example death
- In втором случае говорится о длительном, хроническом
the impact of a negative factor, for example, household
conflict situation. Speaking of the causes of neurosis, great importance
it is precisely traumatic situations and above all family
To date, emit:
- psychological factors of development of neurosis, under which
understand the features and conditions of personal development, as well as
education, level of aspirations and relationships with society;
- biological factors, which means functional
deficiency of certain neurophysiological as well
neurotransmitter systems that make patients susceptible to
Equally often in all categories of patients, regardless of their
place of residence, there is a psychoneurosis due to such tragic
- death or loss of a loved one;
- severe illness in relatives or in the patient;
- divorce or separation from your loved one;
- dismissal from work, bankruptcy, business collapse and so
Not совсем правильно говорить о наследственности в данной
situations. The development of neurosis is influenced by the environment in which a person grew and
brought up. A child looking at parents prone to
hysteria, adopts their behavior and he himself exposes his nervous
According to данным Американской Психиатрической Ассоциации частота
incidence of neurosis in men ranges from 5 to 80 cases per
1000 population, while women – from 4 to 160.
Kind of neurosis
Notврозами называют группу болезней, которые возникают у человека
due to the impact of mental injury. As a rule, they
accompanied by a deterioration in human well-being, differences in
mood and manifestations of somato-vegetative manifestations.
Notврастения (нервная слабость или синдром усталости) – самая
common form of neurosis. Inзникает при длительном нервном
overstrain, chronic stress and other similar conditions,
causing fatigue and “disruption” of the protective mechanisms of the nervous
Notврастения характеризуется следующими симптомами:
- increased irritability;
- high excitability;
- loss of ability to self-control and self-control;
- tearfulness and touchiness;
- absent-mindedness, inability to concentrate;
- reduced mental capacity
- loss of normal physical endurance;
- severe sleep disorders;
- loss of appetite;
- apathy and indifference to what is happening.
ATегетативные проявления истерии проявляются в виде спазмов,
persistent nausea, vomiting, fainting. Are characteristic
movement disorders – tremors, tremors in the limbs,
blepharospasm. Sensory disorders are impaired
sensitivity in different parts of the body, pain,
hysterical deafness and blindness may develop.
Patients seek to attract the attention of relatives and doctors to their
state, they have extremely unstable emotions, changing dramatically
mood, they easily move from sobbing to wild laughter.
There are specific types of patients with a tendency to
- ATпечатлительные и чувствительные;
- Self-suggestible and suggestible;
- With instability of mood;
- With a tendency to attract external attention.
Hysterical neurosis нужно отличать от соматических и психических
diseases. Similar symptoms occur in schizophrenia, CNS tumors,
endocrinopathy, encephalopathy on the background of injuries.
Notвроз навязчивых состояний
The disease, which is characterized by the occurrence of obsessive
ideas and thoughts. The man is overcome by fears from which he cannot
get rid of. AT подобном состоянии часто у больного
проявляются фобии (данную форму называют еще фобическим
Symptoms of neurosis of this form manifest as follows:
a person feels the fear that manifests itself during repeated unpleasant
For example, if a patient faints on the street, then in the same
next time it will be pursued by obsessive fear. With
time a person has a fear of death, incurable diseases,
Depressive neurosis – develops on the background of protracted psychogenic
or neurotic depression. The disorder is characterized
poor sleep quality, loss of ability to rejoice, poor
chronic mood. The disease is accompanied by:
- heart rhythm disorders
- increased sensitivity
- stomach problems
- sexual dysfunction.
Symptoms of Neurosis in Adults
Notвроз характеризуется нестабильностью настроения, импульсивными
actions. Mood variability affects all walks of life.
the patient. It affects interpersonal relationships, setting
Patients have memory loss, low concentration.
attention, high fatigue. A person is not only tired of work,
but also from favorite activities. Intellectual activity becomes
difficult. ATследствие рассеянности больной может совершать
a lot of mistakes that causes new problems at work and at home.
Among the main signs of neurosis are:
- unreasonable emotional stress;
- increased fatigue;
- бессонница или постоянное желание спать;
- closure and obsession;
- lack of appetite or overeating;
- weakening of memory;
- головная боль (продолжительная и внезапно
- головокружения и обмороки;
- darkening of the eyes;
- pains in the heart, abdomen, muscles and joints;
- hand shake;
- frequent urination;
- excessive sweating (due to fear and nervousness);
- reduced potency;
- high or low self-esteem;
- uncertainty and inconsistency;
- incorrect prioritization.
In people with neuroses, it is often noted:
- instability of mood;
- lack of self-confidence and correctness
- overly emotional reaction to minor stresses
(aggression, despair, etc.);
- increased touchiness and vulnerability;
- tearfulness and irritability;
- suspiciousness and exaggerated self-criticism;
- frequent manifestation of unwarranted anxiety and fear;
- contradictory desires and changes in the system of values;
- excessive obsession with the problem;
- increased mental fatigue;
- decrease in ability to remember and concentrate
- high degree of sensitivity to sound and light
irritants, reaction to slight temperature drops;
- расстройства сна.
Signs of neurosis in women and men
Signs of neurosis in women have their own
features to be negotiated. First of all, for women
characterized by asthenic neurosis (neurasthenia), causing
irritability, loss of mental and physical ability, and
also leading to problems in sex life.
For мужчин характерны следующие виды:
- Depressive – symptoms of this type of neurosis more often than others
occurs in men, the reasons for its appearance are the impossibility
to realize oneself at work, inability to adapt to abrupt
changes in life, both personal and public.
- Male neurasthenia. Usually appears on the background
overvoltage, both physical and nervous, most often to him
subject to workaholics.
Signs of menopausal neurosis that develops as in
both men and women are beginning in the period from 45 to 55
years of increased emotional sensitivity and irritability,
reduced stamina, sleep disorders, general problems with work
Notврозы — это заболевания принципиально обратимые,
functional, without organic brain damage. But they
often take a protracted course. This is due not so much to the
a traumatic situation, how many with character traits
the person’s attitude to this situation, the level of adaptation
body capacity and psychological defense system.
Notврозы делятся на 3 стадии, каждая из которых имеет свои
- The initial stage is characterized by increased excitability and
- Intermediate stage (hypersthenic) is characterized
increased nervous impulses from peripheral nervous
- The final stage (hypostenic) is manifested by a decrease
mood, sleepiness, lethargy and apathy due to strong
manifestations of inhibition processes in the nervous system.
A longer course of neurotic disorder, change
behavioral responses and the emergence of assessments of one’s disease say
about the development of a neurotic state, i.e. neurosis itself. Not
stopped neurotic state for 6 months – 2 years leads
to the formation of neurotic personality development.
So which doctor will help cure neurosis? Doing this either
psychologist or psychotherapist. Accordingly, the main tool
treatment is psychotherapy (and hypnotherapy), most often
The patient must learn to objectively look at the world around.
him, to realize their inadequacy in some matters.
Diagnosing neurosis is not an easy task, which is only by virtue of
experienced specialist. As mentioned above, the symptoms of neurosis
manifest differently in both women and men. Also needed
take into account that each person has his own character, his features
personalities that may be confused with signs of other
frustrations. That is why the diagnosis should
deal only with a doctor.
The disease is diagnosed using color methods:
- All colors are involved in the technique.
а неврозоподобный синдром проявляется при выборе и
повторении фиолетового, серого, чёрного и коричневых
- Hysterical neurosis is characterized by the choice of only two colors:
red and purple, which is 99% said low self-esteem
To identify signs of a psychopathic nature spend
special test – it allows you to detect the presence of chronic
fatigue, anxiety, indecision, uncertainty in
own forces. People with neurosis rarely set themselves
long-term goals, do not believe in success, they often have complexes
about their own appearance, they find it difficult to communicate with people.
Treatment of neurosis
There are many theories and methods of treatment of neurosis in
adults. Therapy takes place in two main directions –
pharmacological and psychotherapeutic. Application of funds
pharmacological therapy is carried out only in extremely severe
forms of the disease. In many cases it is enough
In the absence of somatic pathologies, patients must
recommend changing lifestyles, normalizing work patterns and
rest, sleep at least 7-8 hours a day, eat right,
give up bad habits, spend more time fresh
air and avoid nervous overloads.
К сожалению, очень немногие люди, страдающие неврозами,
ready to work on yourself, change something. Therefore wide
medications are used. They do not solve problems, but are intended only
to remove the sharpness of the emotional reaction to the stressful situation.
After them, it just becomes easier for the soul – for a while. May be,
then you should look at the conflict (within yourself, with others or with
life) from a different angle and finally solve it.
With the help of psychotropic drugs, stress, tremor,
insomnia. Their assignment is permissible only for short periods.
period of time.
For neurosis, the following groups are usually applied.
- транквилизаторы – алпразолам, феназепам.
- антидепрессанты – флуоксетин, сертралин.
- снотворные – зопиклон, золпидем.
Psychotherapy for neurosis
Currently, the main methods of treatment of all types
Neuroses are psychotherapeutic techniques and hypnotherapy. In
During psychotherapy sessions, a person gets the opportunity to build
the whole picture of your personality, establish the cause-and-effect
communication, which gave rise to the emergence of neurotic reactions.
Treatments for neurosis include color therapy. Right
the selected color for the brain is useful, as are the vitamins for
- For extinguishing anger, irritation – avoid red
- At the time of the onset of a bad mood, exclude from the wardrobe
black, dark blue tones, surround yourself with light and warm
- Look at blue, greenish tones for stress relief.
Replace the home wallpaper, pick the decor appropriate.
Before using any folk remedies for neurosis,
We recommend to consult a doctor.
- With restless sleep, general weakness, sick with neurasthenia
should a teaspoon of grass verbena pour a glass of boiling water, then
insist hour, take small sips throughout the day.
- Melissa tea – mix 10 g of tea leaves and leaves
herbs, pour 1 liter of boiling water, drink tea in the evening and before bedtime;
- Mint. Pour 1 cup boiling water 1 tbsp. spoonful of mint. Give
infuse for 40 minutes and strain. Drink a cup of warm broth
in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before bedtime.
- Bath with valerian. Inзьмите 60 грамм корня и прокипятите 15
minutes, leave to infuse for 1 hour, strain and pour into the bathroom with
hot water. Take 15 minutes
Forecast невроза зависит от его вида, этапа развития и
duration of the flow, timeliness and adequacy of the provided
psychological and medical assistance. In most cases
therapy started on time leads, if not to a cure, then to
значительному улучшению состояния the patient.
The prolonged existence of neurosis is dangerously irreversible changes
personality and suicide risk.
Notсмотря на то, что невроз поддается лечению, его все же лучше
prevent than cure.
Prevention methods for adults:
- The best prevention in this case will be the normalization of your
emotional background as possible.
- Try to eliminate annoying factors or change your
attitude towards them.
- Avoid overwork at work, normalize the work regime and
- It is very important to give yourself a good rest, eat right,
sleep at least 7-8 hours a day, make daily walks,