Norms of the general analysis of blood in children and adultstranscript of the result

Update: December 2018

Complete blood count is perhaps the most common
examination at the hospital. Whatever pathology the patient has
went to the doctor, the first thing the doctor prescribes is

The results of the general blood test are very informative.
From this study, you can gather information about the state
the patient as a whole, determine whether the body has inflammatory
or tumor process.

After studying a complete blood count, a competent doctor can, if
Do not make a final diagnosis, so at least suspect it.
In order for the study to be informative for a specialist,
he needs to be thoroughly prepared. Alcohol intake or medication
on the eve may distort the results of the analysis, prevent the identification of
causes of disease.

How to prepare for the delivery of material?

  • blood must be donated in the morning on an empty stomach. there is
    allowed the night before to pass about 10-12 hours after
    the last meal;
  • dinner before the study should be light, not recommended
    eat fatty or spicy dishes, smoked meats, canned foods;
  • it is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol the day before
  • It is not recommended to smoke, drink tea or
    coffee. Patients can only drink non-carbonated water;
  • you can not donate blood after medical gymnastics, massage,
    acupuncture, sports, physiotherapy, some
    examinations (x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, radionuclide techniques);
  • before taking the material you should try not to be nervous if
    the patient was getting to the hospital for a long time, we must give him time
  • If possible, do not take medications the day before and
    on the day of the study;
  • when medication is vital for the patient
    (for example, insulin or antihypertensive drugs), it should
    notify the laboratory doctor about this;
  • to be tested in dynamics is desirable in the same

How to take blood for general analysis?

For this manipulation, blood is drawn from a finger or
veins. Asepsis rules must be strictly observed in the laboratory.
(cleaning of premises with disinfectants, quartz treatment). Laboratory assistant is required
take blood in sterile gloves, after having processed them 70%
ethyl alcohol. When taking material from a finger, the technician usually
pierces the end phalanx with 4th disposable scarifier
(unnamed) finger. In infants for this purpose use the lobe
ear or big toe.

Blood sampling from a vein (usually the elbow) is performed either
sterile syringe or special vacuum blood collection system
– vacutainer. The vacutainer consists of a needle, a cylinder and special
test tubes that vary in color depending on the desired
studies (for the general analysis of blood use purple
test tube, it contains a special anticoagulant – EDTA).
Vakutayner, compared with a conventional syringe, has large

  • First, this method of taking material is safer for
    laboratory assistant, as there is no contact with blood.
  • Secondly, with a vacuum intake, blood cells are smaller.
    damaged and not in contact with air.

Normal blood count

Indicator International designation Norm of indicators
Hemoglobin Hb or HGB

Men – 132-153 g / l

Women – 119-141 g / l

Red blood cells RBC

Мужчины – 4,1-5,07 *1012

Женщины – 3,68-4,59*1012

Hematocrit HTC or HTC

Men – 40-48%

Women – 36-42%

Reticulocyte RTC 0.7-1.12%
Color indicator Mchc 0.85-1.05
Average red blood cell volume MCV 76 – 96 femtoliter
Average hemoglobin content MCH 27 to 32 picagrams
Platelets PTL 210-409*109

Men – 1.05-10.1 mm / h

Women – 2.12-15.7 mm / h

White blood cells WBC 4,05-9,15*109

Leukocyte formula

Band neutrophils 0-6.5%
Segmented neutrophils 46.75-72.3%
Eosinophils EOS 1.1-2.15%
Basophils BAS 0.59-1%
Monocytes Mon 3.85-10.2%
Lymphocytes Lym 19.25-37.5%


Hemoglobin является главным дыхательным белком в организме, так
as responsible for the transport of oxygen. It consists of two main
components: non-protein (heme) and protein (globin). Main
part of the heme is iron. When the red blood cell enters the lung,
heme iron combines with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin.
Then the blood moves to all the cells and tissues of the body.
Oxyhemoglobin gives the cell oxygen, taking carbon dioxide.
The combination of hemoglobin with carbon dioxide is called

However, hemoglobin can connect not only with oxygen and
carbon dioxide. There are special poisons that attach to
respiratory proteins form persistent compounds. Modified
hemoglobin is not able to carry oxygen, which leads to
oxygen starvation of the body. To such compounds

  • methemoglobin (nitric oxide, aniline, benzene derivatives);
  • carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide);
  • sulfmethemoglobin (sulfonic).

Norms of hemoglobin:

Norm in children Adults
  • Newborns – 211-216 g / l;
  • 1-3 месяцы of life – 131-133,5 г/л;
  • 4-6 месяцы of life – 128.7-129.4 g / l;
  • 7 месяц – 1 год of life – 126,3-127,6 г/л;
  • Older than 2 years – 117-133 g / l;

Males – 132-153 g / l;

Women – 119-141 g / l.

There are two main types of hemoglobin: Hb A (in adults) and Hb
F (mostly in newborns). They differ in structure
globin and degree of affinity for oxygen. Globin – protein part
hemoglobin, consists of 4 polypeptide chains. Hb A contains 2
alpha and 2 beta chains, Hb F includes 2 alpha and 2
gamma chains.

Due to gamma chains, Hb F combines better with oxygen;
compared with Hb A. The blood of an adult contains approximately
1.2% fetal hemoglobin. Increasing it says development
such pathologies:

  • leukemia (symptoms);
  • hypoxia (inflammation of the lungs, anemia);
  • lead poisoning;
  • hereditary hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell

Change in hemoglobin amount:

Increased rate (hyperchromemia) Reduction rate (oligochromemia)
  • with a decrease in atmospheric pressure (stay in the high
  • people like professions like pilots
  • after excessive exercise;
  • true polycythemia (Vázez disease);
  • erythrocytosis (congenital and acquired).
  • acute blood loss;
  • malignant tumors;
  • chronic bleeding (heavy menstruation, hemorrhoids);
  • hemolysis (decay) erythrocytosis;
  • fluid retention (heart failure);
  • pregnancy (with low hemoglobin)
  • poisoning with heavy metal salts, anticonvulsants and
    anticancer drugs.

Red blood cells

Red blood cells – это красные кровяные тельца. They are shaped
biconcave disc that allows them to increase their
surface. The total surface area of ​​all human red cells
составляет около 3000 м2. Normal red blood cell size
– 6.8-7.55 microns.

The main function of red blood cells is the transfer of oxygen due to
hemoglobin contained in them. Reducing the number of red
cell called anemia. However, oxygen deprivation can
develop in a patient not only with a decrease in the number of cells, but also
changing their physical properties.

In addition to the respiratory function, red cells are involved in the regulation
acid-base balance, blood coagulation systems, can
adsorb toxins on its surface. Red blood cell content
in adults and children:

Children Adults
  • Новорожденные – 6,12 *1012
  • 1-6 месяцы of life – 4,4-5,89*1012/л;
  • 7 месяц – 2 год of life – 4,15-4,76*1012/л;
  • Старше 2х лет – 4,09*1012/л;

Мужчины – 4,1-5,07 *1012/л;

Женщины – 3,68-4,59*1012/л.

How can red blood cells change?

  • in shape (poikilocytosis) – in addition to normal biconcave
    disks can also meet target-shaped, spherical cells,
    planocytes (flat);
  • size (anisocytosis) – reduced (microcytes), increased
    (macrocytes, megaloblasts);
  • by color (anisochromia) – depending on the content

Types of anemia:

  • iron deficiency – due to lack of iron in
    организме (см. препараты железа при anemia). Characterized by
    reducing the diameter of red blood cells, changing their shape;
  • vitamin-B12-deficient – occurs when there is a shortage of vitamin B12
    (cyanocobalamin) or B9 (folic acid). Occurs with
    atrophic gastritis (when these vitamins are simply not
    digested) or when fasting;
  • hypo-and aplastic – such anemia develops due to
    lesions of red bone marrow stem cells when
    red blood cells are simply not formed. There are many reasons for this, for example
    tumor process (leukemia), toxic damage;
  • hemolytic – appears with increased decay of red
    blood cells due to increased spleen function or
    DIC syndrome.

An increase in the number of red cells (erythrocytosis) may be
physiological and pathological. Physiological erythrocytosis
occurs during exercise, increased perspiration,
psycho-emotional stress.

Pathological increase in the number of red blood cells can talk about
blood diseases (Vaca disease, initial stages of myeloid leukemia)
or about hypoxia in the body (mountain sickness, heart defects, smoking,
chronic lung disease).


Human blood consists of a liquid part (plasma) and floating in
her cells (uniform elements). Hematocritное число является
ratio of blood cells to the amount of plasma. Normal values

  • Males – 40–48%;
  • Women – 36-42%.
An increase in hematocrit above normal indicates: Снижение гематокрита бывает with:
  • leukemia;
  • polycythemia vera;
  • kidney diseases (hydronephrosis, polycystic,
  • fluid loss (excessive sweating, vomiting);
  • burn disease;
  • diabetes;
  • peritonitis.
  • water retention in the body (chronic renal
  • anemia;
  • fasting;
  • pregnancy;
  • избыточном содержании белков в плазме (миеломная disease);
  • plentiful drink or the introduction of a large number of solutions


These are immature, young forms of red cells that penetrate
normal in a small amount in the blood. The main difference of reticulocyte
from the erythrocyte is the presence of the nucleus.

Increase their number (reticulocytosis) talks about:

  • enhanced hematopoiesis (with blood loss);
  • erythroleukemia;
  • hemolytic anemia;
  • lack of oxygen;
  • reticular crisis (it happens in the treatment of B12-deficient

Reduction of reticulocytes in the blood occurs when:

  • anemia (hypo-and aplastic, B12-deficient);
  • radiation sickness;
  • therapy with glucocorticosteroids and cytostatics.

Color indicator

This is a relative value that represents the saturation of red.
blood cells hemoglobin. Calculated CPU in relation
hemoglobin concentration to the number of erythrocytes in 1 μl of blood. Fine
color index ranges from 0.85 to 1.05 (normohromia).
CPU changes:

  • an increase of more than 1.06 (hyperchromia) indicates an increased
    hemoglobin content in the cells (vitamin-B12-deficient anemia,
    gastric polyposis, liver cirrhosis);
  • a decrease below 0.84 (hypochromia) indicates anemia with
    pregnancy or lead poisoning.

But today the Mchc indicator is average
hemoglobin in the erythrocyte for the patient and the general practitioner is not
informative, except for the differential diagnosis of rare
types of anemia. The concept of color indicator is abolished. Instead
This use two values:

  • MCV is the average erythrocyte volume, normally from 76 to 96 femtoliter.
    It is of practical importance, helping to navigate with
    red blood cell size. If less than 76 – microcyte, if more
    96 – macrocytic. It is useful for diagnosing the type of anemia.
    Microcytosis is more often with iron deficiency, macro – with deficiency
  • MCH is the average hemoglobin content in the erythrocyte, this is the second
    the indicator that replaced the color indicator. Norm from 27 to 32
    picagram (if hemoglobin is counted in grams per liter). If less
    27 – hypochromia, if more than 32 – hyperchromia.


Platelets не являются клетками в известном смысле этого слова.
These are rather blood plates that do not have a nucleus and organelles, but
have the ability to move. The main function of these cells
is involved in blood coagulation. When integrity is violated
vessel, platelets rush first to the place of damage,
closing it with you. Only after that the system is activated.
blood coagulation.

Platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, and
their increase – thrombocytosis (see the causes of thrombocytopenia). Why
does platelet count change?

Reasons for raising Reasons for the decline
  • myeloproliferative pathologies (myelosclerosis, chronic
    myeloid leukemia);
  • chronic inflammatory processes (tuberculosis,
  • acute infections (ARVI);
  • anemia of Minkowski-Chauffard;
  • after removal of the spleen;
  • Burkitt’s lymphoma.
  • aplastic anemia;
  • paroxysmal night hemoglobinuria;
  • alcoholism;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura;
  • DIC syndrome;
  • Gaucher disease;

The degree of reduction of platelet count:

  • умеренная – до 100*109/л – возникает при
    pregnancy, liver disease, taking certain medications
    (diuretic, vikasol, heparin, analgin);
  • выраженная – до 30*109/л – встречается у больных с
    systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic disease of newborns,
    DIC, heart failure;
  • резко выраженная – менее 29,9*109 /л –
    life-threatening condition arising from acute radiation sickness,


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate shows how fast the blood is
it is divided into two layers – upper (plasma) and lower (uniform
elements). This indicator depends on the number of red blood cells
globulins and fibrinogen. That is, the more man has red
cells, the more slowly they settle (see more about the causes
повышения ESR). Increasing the amount of globulins and fibrinogen
on the contrary, it accelerates the erythrocyte sedimentation.

Повышение ESR Снижение ESR
  • acute and chronic infections;
  • systemic connective tissue diseases;
  • sepsis;
  • intoxication;
  • amyloidosis;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • хронический гепатит и cirrhosis of the liver;
  • malignant neoplasms;
  • hemoblastosis (Waldenstrom’s disease);
  • after operations;
  • tuberculosis;
  • with abundant blood loss.
  • Vacaise’s disease;
  • chronic hypoxia;
  • obstructive jaundice;
  • an increase in the amount of protein in the plasma (hyperproteinemia);
  • taking certain drugs (acetylsalicylic
    acid, calcium chloride).

Leukocytes and leukocyte formula

Leukocytes or white blood cells are the main ones.
defenders of the body. They provide the immune system,
forming cellular and humoral immunity.

Leukocyte formula is the percentage
all types of white blood cells. White blood cells are divided into two main
categories: granulocytes and agranulocytes (this separation is due to
the presence of special granules inside the cell). Granulocytes include
neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Neutrophils depending on
degrees of maturity are divided into segmented (young) and
stabbed (adults). Agranulocytes include lymphocytes and

Age-related changes in white blood cell count:

Age Total white blood cell count Leukocyte formula
Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils
Until the first year of life 10,23-12,56*109 26-31% 58.5-60.25% 11.7-12.6% 3.5% 0.55%
1-5 years 10,05-11,2*109 36.5-45.5% 40.2-47.3% 10.4-10.9% 3.0% 0.55%
6-8 years 10,10*109 44.59% 45.3% 9.9-10.3% 2.5% 0.35-0.65%
9-12 years old 7,97-8,69*109 51.25-52.26% 36.75% 8.88-9.1% 2.0% 0.55%
13-18 years old 5,58-8,63*109 55.3-68.9% 28.9-35.6% 19.25-37.5 8.1-8.3% 1.5% 0.8-0.57%
Adults 4,05-9,15*109 48.5-79.5% 19.25-37.5% 3.85-10.2% 1.1-2.15% 0.59-1%

Increase in white blood cell count

Leukocytes in general Neutrophils Lymphocytes Eosinophils Basophils
Увеличение свыше 10*109/л (лейкоцитоз) наблюдается

  • physical overvoltage;
  • after eating;
  • after bathing;
  • during pregnancy;
  • any inflammatory processes in the body;
  • acute and chronic leukemia;
  • extensive burns;
  • myocardial infarction, lung, spleen;
  • infectious mononucleosis;
  • uremia;
  • after removal of the spleen;
  • diabetic hyperosmolar coma;
  • abundant blood loss.

  • acute inflammatory process;
  • blood loss;
  • chronic myeloid leukemia;
  • leukemoid reaction (with sepsis, tuberculosis);

  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia;
  • viral infections;
  • tuberculosis;
  • after removal of the spleen;
  • thyrotoxicosis.

  • bronchial asthma;
  • allergies;
  • helminthiasis;
  • scarlet fever;
  • chronic myeloid leukemia;
  • lymphogranulomatosis;
  • taking medications such as PAS, sulfonamides.


chronic myeloid leukemia;

Leukocyte count reduction

Leukocytes in general Neutrophils Lymphocytes Eosinophils, Basophils
Лейкопения (менее 3,98*109/л лейкоцитов):

  • when exposed to radiation (radiation
  • chemical poisoning (benzene);
  • treatment with sulfonamides, NSAIDs, cytostatics;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • some infectious diseases (malaria, measles, typhoid fever,
    rubella, brucellosis, viral hepatitis);
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • hypo-and aplastic anemia.

  • agranulocytosis;
  • hypo-and aplastic anemia;
  • when exposed to radiation (radiation
  • chemical poisoning (benzene);
  • treatment with sulfonamides, NSAIDs, cytostatics;
  • chronic infections.

  • malformations of the lymphoid system;
  • when exposed to radiation (radiation
  • chemical poisoning (benzene);
  • treatment with sulfonamides, NSAIDs, cytostatics;
  • AIDS and HIV;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Cushing’s disease.
  • malformations of the lymphoid system;
  • when exposed to radiation (radiation
  • chemical poisoning (benzene);
  • treatment of NSAIDs, cytostatics;

Degrees of leukocytosis:

  • умеренный – от 9,5 до 69,9*109/л;
  • выраженный – от 70 до 99,9*109/л;
  • резко выраженный – более 100-109/л.

How does a complete blood count change in pregnant women?

  • повышается ESR, что не означает наличие воспалительного
    process in the body of the future mother. The reason for the increase is
    change in the ratio of albumin and globulins in the blood plasma;
  • red blood counts decrease (hemoglobin, red blood cells and
    hematocrit) – this is due to the redistribution of female blood between
    its body and fetus. As a result, anemia and liquefaction
  • повышение уровня лейкоцитов – до 11-12*109/л не
    is a pathology. Also during pregnancy there is a shift
    leukocyte formula to the left that is associated with active
    blood formation.

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