Norm глюкозы in blood, повышенный уровень сахараin blood

Update: November 2018

In humans, all metabolic processes, carbohydrate metabolism and
жиров тесно взаимосвязаны, при onрушении которых возникают
различные заболевания, в том числе и повышается глюкоза in blood.
Normльное, здоровое питание, здоровый образ жизни, умение
to resist stress is the key to good human health. BUT что
happening in recent decades?

According to estimates of experts over the past hundred years, humanity in 20
times increased the consumption of not only sugar, but also other
carbohydrate in general. Not only in recent years
general adverse environmental conditions of human life,
lack of healthy, simple, non-chemized food render
зonчительное влияние on здоровье onции, приводит к onрушениям
обмеon веществ не только у взрослых, но и у children. it рано или
поздно приводит к onрушению липидного обмеon, а также постоянно
onгружает поджелудочную железу, от которой зависит выработка
гормоon инсулиon. People get used to such products from childhood
которые вообще есть нельзя — фаст фуд, вредные газированные onпитки
with chemical additives, all kinds of chips and pastry,
обилие жирной пищи создают условия для onкопления жировой массы и в
As a result, diabetes mellitus is registered even in children 10-12 years old.
which was previously considered a disease of older people. Today is a curve
высокого уровня сахара in blood у onселения катастрофически растет,
особенно в страonх Европы и СШBUT.

Normльный уровень глюкозы in blood

Известно, что уровень сахара in blood регулируется гормоном
pancreas – insulin, if it is not enough or tissue
организма неадекватно реагируют on инсулин, то показатель глюкозы в
blood rises. The growth of this indicator is affected by smoking, stress,
improper nutrition. According to the World Organization
здравоохранения, утверждены нормы глюкозы in blood у человека,
onтощак в капиллярной или цельной венозной крови
they must be within the following limits indicated in the table,
mmol / l:

Age of patient Показатель нормального уровня глюкозы in blood из пальца,
onтощак
child from 2 days to 1 month 2.8 – 4.4
children under 14 3.3 – 5.5
from 14 years old and adults 3.5-5.5

With age, a person’s tissue sensitivity to
insulin, as part of the receptors dies and, as a rule,
weight increases. As a result, insulin, even produced in
норме, с возрастом хуже усваивается тканями и сахар in blood растет.
It is also believed that when taking blood from a finger or vein
the result varies slightly, so the rate of glucose in the venous
крови немного завышают, примерно on 12%.

The average rate of venous blood is 3.5-6.1, and from the finger – capillary
3.5-5.5. To establish the diagnosis of diabetes – one-time
аonлиза крови on сахар мало, следует сдать аonлиз несколько раз и
match them with the patient’s possible symptoms and other
examination.

  • В любом случае, если уровень глюкозы in blood из пальца от 5,6
    до 6,1 ммоль/л (из вены 6,1-7)- это преддиабет или onрушение
    glucose tolerance
  • If a из вены — больше 7,0 ммоль/л, из пальца more than 6.1 —
    therefore, it is diabetes.
  • If a уровень сахара ниже 3,5 — говорят о гипогликемии, причины
    which can be both physiological and
    pathological.

BUTonлиз крови on сахар используется и в качестве диагностики
diseases, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy and
compensation of diabetes. With уровне глюкозы in blood onтощак
или даже днем не более 10 ммоль/л  — сахарный диабет 1 типа
considered compensated. For type 2 diabetes mellitus criteria
оценки компенсации строже — глюкоза in blood в норме onтощак не
должon быть более 6 ммоль/л, а днем не свыше 8,25 ммоль/л.

To convert mmol / L to mg / dL = mmol / L * 18.02 = mg / dL.

Существует и 3 тип диабета, распозonют который крайне редко, это
pancreatic diabetes.

Withзonки повышенного сахара in blood

Глюкоза in blood норма

Глюкометр для измерения уровня глюкозы in blood

If a у пациента onблюдается следующие симптомы, такие как:

  • Повышенonя утомляемость, слабость, головные боли
  • Weight loss with increased appetite
  • Сухость во рту, постоянonя жажда
  • Frequent and abundant urination, especially characteristic – night
    позывы on мочеиспускание
  • Появление гнойничковых поражений on коже, труднозаживаемых язв,
    furuncles, long non-healing wounds and scratches
  • General decrease in immunity, frequent colds, decrease
    health
  • The appearance of itching in the groin, in the genital area
  • Reduced vision, especially in persons older than 50 years.

it может быть призonками high blood sugar. Even
a person has only some of these symptoms,
следует сдать аonлиз крови on глюкозу. In case the patient
onходится в группе риска по сахарному диабету — onследственonя
location, age, obesity, pancreatic diseases
железы и пр., то, однократный аonлиз глюкозы in blood при нормальном
зonчении не исключает вероятной возможности заболевания, поскольку
often diabetes mellitus is unnoticeable, asymptomatic,
wavy.

With assessment of blood glucose levels, which standards are considered
taking into account age, it is necessary to consider that there are
false positive results. To confirm or deny
diagnosis of diabetes in a patient with no signs
diseases, it is desirable to conduct additional tests on
glucose tolerance, for example, when blood samples are taken with
sugar load.

The glucose tolerance test is conducted either for
определения  скрытого процесса сахарного диабета, либо, чтобы
diagnose impaired absorption syndrome and hypoglycemia. If a
the patient is determined by impaired glucose tolerance, then in 50%
cases, this leads to diabetes within 10 years, in 25% of the state
remains unchanged, in 25% it disappears altogether.

Test for the determination of impaired glucose tolerance

To determine glucose tolerance, doctors conduct a test. it
достаточно эффективный метод определения скрытых и  явных
disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, various forms of diabetes. BUT
it also allows you to specify the diagnosis for questionable results
routine blood sugar test. Especially necessary to carry out
such diagnostics for the following categories of patients:

  • People with no signs of high blood sugar, but with
    episodic detection of sugar in the urine.
  • For persons without clinical symptoms of diabetes, but with signs
    polyuria – an increase in the amount of urine per day, with normal fasting
    blood glucose levels.
  • Elevated urine sugar levels in women during
    pregnancy, in patients with thyrotoxicosis, with diseases
    the liver.
  • People with signs of diabetes, but with normal content
    glucose in the blood and lack of sugar in the urine.
  • Persons with a genetic predisposition, but without signs
    high blood sugar.
  • Women and their children born with more weight, more than 4
    kg
  • BUT также больным ретинопатией, нейропатией не выясненного
    origin.

To conduct a test for glucose tolerance in the subject
First, they take capillary blood on an empty stomach for sugar, then the patient
orally drink 75 grams of glucose diluted in warm tea.
Детям дозу рассчитывают исходя из веса  1,75 г/кг массы
baby Determination of glucose tolerance is carried out after 1 and 2
hours, many doctors consider the level of
glycemia after 1 hour of glucose intake.

Evaluation of glucose tolerance in healthy people and patients
diabetes mellitus is presented in the table in mmol / l.

Result evaluation capillary blood deoxygenated blood
Norm
BUTonлиз глюкозы in blood, норма onтощак 3.5-5.5 3.5 -6.1
After taking glucose (2 hours) or after eating less than 7.8 less than 7.8
Prediabetes
Fasting from 5.6 to 6.1 from 6.1 to 7
After glucose or after eating 7.8-11.1 7.8-11.1
 Diabetes
Fasting more than 6.1 more than 7
After glucose or after eating over 11, 1 over 11, 1

Then, to determine the state of carbohydrate metabolism should
calculate 2 coefficients:

  • Гипергликемический  показатель — это
    the ratio of glucose an hour after the sugar load to
    fasting blood glucose. Norm не должon быть больше 1,7.
  • Гипогликемический показатель — это отношение
    blood glucose two hours after the glucose load to analyze
    blood sugar on an empty stomach, the rate should be less than 1, 3.

These factors should be calculated necessarily, since
there are cases when the patient in absolute terms after
glucose tolerance test violations are not detected, but
the value of one of these factors is above the norm. In this case
the result is estimated as dubious, and the person is in
risk group for the further development of diabetes.

What is glycated hemoglobin?

BUTмериканская диабетическая ассоциация с 2010 года официально
recommends using for reliable diagnosis of diabetes
test – glycated hemoglobin. it гемоглобин, с которым связаon
blood glucose. Measured in% of total hemoglobin, called
analysis – hemoglobin level HbA1C. Norm одиonкова для взрослых и
children.

it аonлиз крови считается onиболее достоверным и удобным для
patient and doctors:

  • blood is surrendered at any time – not necessarily on an empty stomach
  • more accurate and convenient way
  • no glucose consumption and waiting for 2 hours
  • the result of this analysis is not affected by medication, the presence
    cold, viral infection, and stress in the patient (stress and
    the presence of an infection in the body can affect a normal blood test
    for sugar)
  • helps determine whether a person with diabetes was able to clearly
    monitor blood sugar over the past 3 months.

The disadvantages of HbA1C analysis are:

  • more expensive analysis
  • with low levels of thyroid hormones – the result may
    be overpriced
  • in patients with low hemoglobin, with anemia – the result
    distorted
  • not all clinics have a similar test
  • It is assumed, but not proven, that when taking high doses
    Vitamin E or C indicator of this analysis is reduced

Norms of glycated hemoglobin

more than 6.5% diagnosis – diabetes (preliminary) required
observation and additional analyzes
 6.1-6.4% Very high risk of diabetes (prediabetes) should go over on
low carbohydrate diet (see diet for diabetes)
 5.7-6.0 Diabetes is not yet, but the risk is high
 less than 5.7  Minimal risk of diabetes

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