Update: November 2018
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance from which
mainly formed atherosclerotic plaques, guilty of
development of atherosclerosis, the most dangerous disease of human arteries.
Cholesterol, translated from Greek, is hard bile.
This substance belongs to the class of lipids, and possibly many
It seems strange, but only 20% of it is obtained from products
food, in particular, with animal fats, meat, some species
proteins, and other products. And the remaining 80% cholesterol
produced in the human liver.
Cholesterol, an important building block for our cells
organism, it participates in the metabolism at the cellular level,
entering into the composition of cell membranes. It is important to develop
most important sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogens, and
cortisol In its pure form, there is not much cholesterol in the body,
it is mainly present in particular compounds, so
called lipoproteins. These compounds are of low density,
what is simply called bad LDL cholesterol, and high
density, that is a good HDL.
Common, Good and Bad Cholesterol
Everyone talks about the dangers of cholesterol for a person, and it develops
the impression is that the smaller it is in our body, the better.
However, be aware that cholesterol is very important for normal
functioning of all systems and organs of the human body. Everything
depends on the level of this substance in the blood, from its norms. The reasons
high blood cholesterol we described in detail in our
Cholesterol in women and men in medicine can be distinguished by
bad and good. The one that settles inside the walls of the arteries, forming
те самый бляшки — это «плохой» холестерин низкой
or very low density, it binds to apoproteins (special
types of protein) and forms giroprobkov complexes – LDL. Dangerous for
Health is raising precisely this cholesterol. Norms
in women and men, as well as cholesterol testing results
expressed in various laboratory methods in mmol / l or in
mg / dl.
- In a healthy person, the amount of LDL cholesterol is normal
It is considered at a level of less than 4 mmol / L (160 mg / dL). Exceeding this
values should be considered the pathology that follows
adjust diet or medication. But
whether to drink pills for cholesterol – this question is ambiguous,
because statins don’t eliminate the cause of high cholesterol
(diabetes, obesity, sedentary lifestyle), but simply
inhibit its production by the body and have a lot of serious adverse
action. Many cardiologists believe that the potential danger
statins covers the possible risk of cardiovascular accidents
against the background of high cholesterol.
- In ischemic heart disease or in people who have had a heart attack
myocardial, stroke or suffering from angina, this result
должен быть меньше 2,5 mmol / l или 100 mg / dl.
- People who are not suffering from heart disease, but who have more than
two risk factors must maintain this cholesterol
ниже 3,3 mmol / l или меньше 130 mg / dl.
Противостоит плохому холестерину — «хороший»
or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL. Unlike
protein-fat complex forming atherosclerotic plaques,
�”Good” cholesterol, performs an essential function in the body, it
collects “bad” cholesterol from the inner walls of blood vessels and removes
him in the liver for destruction. Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels
(symptoms and treatment) may develop not only with increased
bad cholesterol, but when healthy cholesterol is lowered
Therefore, the most negative option in the interpretation of the norm
cholesterol in women and men is an elevated level of bad and
low levels of good cholesterol. It is this combination
observed in almost 60% of patients, especially over the age of 50
Unlike плохого, хороший холестерин вырабатывается только
by the body itself, it cannot be replenished by food,
since the person gets only bad cholesterol with food (and
that only 20-30% with food, the rest is also produced
by the body). The norm in women for “good” cholesterol a little
differs from the norm in men, it is slightly higher. Boost this
indicator can only physical activity – medium and
moderate exercise on the body can increase it
In addition, exercise reduces the accumulation of harmful
cholesterol from food. That is, if you took food with
high cholesterol, what to do? To help the body
his withdraw – need active muscle work. Therefore for
increase beneficial cholesterol and reduce harmful (especially
people who have had a stroke or heart attack should move more,
do moderate exercise or intense (if not
It is also possible to increase the concentration of good cholesterol.
taking a small amount of spirits, not more
50 gr. per day or one glass of natural dry wine. Not more!
This limitation applies to very intense workouts or
excessive physical labor, as well as the use of alcohol – in
all should observe measure and caution. Any tension
body over norm, on the contrary, inhibits the synthesis of beneficial
cholesterol in the body.
- Under normal condition of the cardiovascular system norm
cholesterol in women and men in HDL should be greater than 1 mmol / l.
или 39 mg / dl.
- In patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke or
heart attack this level should be 1-1.5 mmol / l or 40-60
mg / dl.
The analysis also takes into account the concentration in the blood of the total
cholesterol, which consists of the sum of good and bad
- Blood cholesterol levels in women and men in terms of –
cholesterol is the general norm – a healthy person should not have more
5,2 mmol / l или 200 mg / dl. If a young man shows up
slight excess of the norm, it should be considered as
Even with a fairly high level of cholesterol, unfortunately, not
there are special warning bells, symptoms or signs, and
a person does not realize that his vessels are narrowed (clogged) and
Not controlling the rate of cholesterol women and men do not
think about it until there is pain in the heart or
a heart attack or stroke occurs.
You should regularly check your cholesterol and try to
to prevent its growth, in order to avoid formidable
complications of atherosclerosis leading to serious diseases.
Who needs to control cholesterol
A person who is generally healthy and does not feel any
ailments, very rarely wonders about their condition
blood vessels, and in particular the level of cholesterol. Those who suffer
hypertension – high blood pressure, has problems with
cardiovascular system, should monitor the level
cholesterol to prevent its negative effects. Same
attend to this problem is:
- Those who smoke
- Overweight people
- People with hypertension
- Persons with heart failure, diseases of the cardiovascular system
- People with a sedentary lifestyle
- Men over 40
- Menopausal women
- Everythingм пожилым людям
To find out your cholesterol levels should be done
blood chemistry. The analysis can be passed in almost any
clinic, for this take about 5 milliliters of blood from
ulnar vein. It is important to know that before testing for cholesterol
should eat nothing for 12 hours, limit yourself to physical
loads. However, it is not always possible, time and desire
every time go to the clinic, take a direction, take an analysis.
Therefore, you can get a home device for measuring the level
cholesterol with disposable test strips. It is quite small, and
not very complicated to use.
Deciphering blood test for cholesterol
It’s only possible to find out if your cholesterol level is elevated.
using a blood test. As we said, in the results
biochemical blood test will be present three indicators
for cholesterol – total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and cholesterol
Norms для каждого из них различны, кроме того, в последнее время
began to distinguish between the norms of people of different ages, as well as norms
cholesterol in women and normal cholesterol in men. Should also
know that there is no exact number denoting the norm
cholesterol. There are recommendations in which range should
to be cholesterol in a healthy man or woman, deviation
from this range up or down can be
consequence of any disease.
Can you trust the result of the analysis? In our laboratories
Polyclinics experts evaluated the accuracy of
blood cholesterol. The result was that in 75% of laboratories
errors are allowed. Therefore, it is better to pass the analysis in
сертифицированных лабораториях Everythingроссийским центром
Norm cholesterol in women
- Total cholesterol: the norm in women – from 3.6 to 5.2 mmol / l,
moderately elevated 5.2 – 6.19 mmol / l significantly increased – more
6.19 mmol / l
- LDL cholesterol: the norm is 3.5 mmol / l, it is considered more than 4.0
mmol / l.
- HDL cholesterol: norm from 0.9 to 1.9 mmol / l, at a level less than
0.78 the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis increases threefold.
|Age||Total (mmol / l)|
|up to 5||boundaries 2.90-5.18|
|70 и>||boundaries 4.48-7.25|
Norm cholesterol in men
- Total cholesterol: the norm in men is the same as in women.
- The rate of “bad” cholesterol in men is different: 2.25 – 4.82
mmol / l.
- HDL cholesterol in men: normal from 0.7 to 1.7
mmol / l.
|Age||Total (mmol / l)|
|up to 5||boundaries 2.95-5.25|
|70 и >||boundaries 3,73-6,86|
Also important in assessing the state of lipid metabolism are
triglycerides, their norm for men and women is about the same:
- The rate of triglycerides in women and men: up to 2 mmol / l (less than 200
mg / dl.)
- Maximum but permissible rate: up to 2.2 mmol / l (200 – 400
mg / dl.)
- The high level of triglycerides: 2.3 – 5.6 mmol / l (400 – 1000
mg / dl.)
- Очень высокий: от 5,7 mmol / l и более (свыше 1000 mg / dl.)
Вывод: Чтобы нормализовать жировой обмен,
You should strive for the following cholesterol test result:
|Total cholesterol||up to 5 mmol / l|
|Atherogenic coefficient||less than 3 mmol / l|
|LDL||less than 3 mmol / l|
|Triglycerides||less than 2 mmol / l|
|HDL||more than 1 mmol / l|
Test results in various laboratories
It should be borne in mind that the methods and tests for determining
biochemical indicators in various medical laboratories
- Total cholesterol: норма у мужчин и женщин 3,0 — 6,0
mmol / l
- LDL у женщин: норма 1,92 — 4, 51 mmol / l, у мужчин 2,25 — 4,82
mmol / l
- HDL у женщин: норма 0,86 — 2,28 mmol / l.у мужчин 0,7 —
1,73 mmol / l.
Laboratory norms may vary accordingly, therefore
ideally, you need to be guided by the norms of the laboratory where you
did the analysis. Remember, normal blood cholesterol is
the health of your vessels. To regulate cholesterol levels, you can
assistance in making certain changes in the diet, reducing, or
increasing the amount of fats, meat products, etc. But all these
changes should be agreed with the doctor.
There is such an indicator of the ratio in the body
harmful and useful cholesterol is a coefficient
КАТ = (Total cholesterol – HDL)/HDL
- 2-2,8 — нормальный показатель для молодых людей 20–30
- 3-3,5 — обычно бывает у лиц старше 30 years old, но без
signs of atherosclerosis
- 4 and above – that is, the prevalence of bad cholesterol
usually with coronary heart disease.
Other analyzes at high risk of atherosclerosis
In addition to cholesterol testing, with age and at high risk
Atherosclerosis is necessary to watch and the results of a coagulogram. it
assessment of blood clotting system. And there is such an indicator as
PTI (prothrombin index) and INR (international normalization
attitude) are important and determine the risks of bleeding.
Also from the general blood test is important hemoglobin index.
Analysis of thyroid hormones, in particular with CT4 (thyroxin
free) can also be prescribed by a doctor in a comprehensive
examining a patient because this hormone is produced
щитовидной железой, способствует снижению cholesterol.