Neutrophils: Norm, Causes of Elevated andreduced results in a child or adult

Update: December 2018 Blood is not only from the liquid part
(plasma) – it also includes a large number of different
cells. Some of them are leukocytes, which are responsible for
formation and preservation of strong immunity, protection of the body against
microbes, viruses and tumors. Leukocytes are divided into 5 main
subspecies, the most numerous of which are represented by cells
neutrophils.

No clinical blood test is complete without determining their
quantity. This is one of the most simple and informative surveys,
which can be conducted by any laboratory in the Russian Federation, even an AFP point in
small town. Why this study deserves such
close attention? The answer is simple – it accurately reflects
the work of one of the human systems, without which it would be impossible
a life. The immune system.

Cell functions

As already noted, all white blood cells are involved in the formation of
full immune response. Different types of them are divided between
“duties”, so the body is able to fight
with almost any harmful factor. In the “duties”
neutrophilic link includes the following tasks:

  • Destroy
    harmful bacteria and fungi;
  • Control the growth of the natural microflora of our body:
    on the skin, in the digestive system, in the genital tract, etc .;
  • To delimit the focus of inflammation. Since the inflammatory process
    occurs not only with infections, but also with various injuries
    organs (trauma, myocardial infarction, severe poisoning, some
    autoimmune processes, etc.), elevated neutrophils may
    determined and against the background of these states.

In men and women, cells perform the same functions and do not
controlled by sex hormone levels. Therefore, the rate of neutrophils
adults will be the same, regardless of gender.

How do neutrophils appear

To suspect any pathology on the analysis, it is necessary
know how cells are formed. This will help identify changes in
indicators that should not be normal, and assess how
they are dangerous.

All neutrophils undergo several stages of their development, before
than take final form and begin to perform its functions.
For convenience, select the 3 most important stages of their maturation:

  1. Myelocytes and myeloblasts. This is the first stage of ripening,
    which occurs in the red bone marrow – special
    hematopoietic organ located inside human bones. Extremely
    It is important that there are no leukocyte precursors in the blood. ABOUT
    what can their appearance say and as far as a dangerous sign, we
    discuss later;
  2. Young forms and band neutrophils. After
    ripening of myelocyte occurs, it goes into the bloodstream and
    begins a new phase of his life. Circulating through the body
    its maturation continues – the core is divided into several parts, and
    antimicrobial granules appear inside the cell
    substances;
  3. Сегментоядерный нейтрофил – последний этап формирования.
    Its structure is adapted specifically to repel attacks from
    microorganisms and destruction / delimitation of dead tissue.
    The average lifespan is a little over a week, which allows
    the body regularly update the pool of this blood component.

ABOUT чем говорят повышенные нейтрофилы каждого из этих классов?
Almost always, it indicates the presence of any
diseases, like their deficiency. To understand which disease
hiding behind the change in the analysis, it is necessary to evaluate the value
each indicator.

Neutrophil Norm

Currently, almost every modern laboratory
prints on the form with the results of the survey normal
indicators for a particular patient, given his age. This measure
is necessary because when using different
equipment, consumables and various calibrations
tools may differ this data.

In the event that the rate of neutrophils in a child or adult
is absent on the document with the analysis, you can use
the table below. It contains relevant data for
people of different ages and pregnant women.

Group of patients Neutrophils, NEU% Absolute number, NEU cells / µl Myelocytes / myeloblasts Young forms
Segmento nuclear Sticks nuclear
In children of the first 3 days of life 48-70 3-14 More than 1000 In a healthy person, should be absent in the peripheral
blood flow. The appearance of these cells in the background of well-being,
is an indirect sign of leukemia and requires
additional diagnostics.
A child up to a year 15-46 1-5
2-3 years 28-48 More than 1500
4-6 years 31-54
7-10 years 40-61
11-16 43-60
Adults (over 16 years old) 46-70
Pregnant 40-8 1-7

Degrees of neutropenia

To assess how dangerous neutrophil deficiency is in humans,
4 severities of this condition were identified. ABOUTсновной критерий
classification – the absolute number of cells in the blood of the patient.
Fundamentally, the indicators differ in two groups of the population. TO
The first includes all adults and children older than 12 months. For
young child multiple grades
different (down).

Group of patients Степени Adults and children older than a year, cells / µl Children under 12 months, cells / µl
Norm More than 1500 More than 1000
I (light) 1500-1000 999-500
II (average) 999-500 499-100
III (heavy) 499-100 Less than 100

ABOUT чем говорят пониженные нейтрофилы менее 100 клеток/мкл? it
the condition is dangerous enough for a person as his
the body is virtually defenseless against any bacterial or
fungal infection. ABOUTпределение таких изменений в результатах
examinations – a reason to immediately contact a hematologist and begin
therapy.

The reasons for the increase in indicators (neutrophilia)

Elevated neutrophils in the blood can be determined not only by
diseases, but also in a completely healthy person. Such a situation may
due to improper preparation for the analysis or reception
some drugs. ABOUTднако необходимо акцентировать внимание на
next – in a healthy body, this figure will be increased
very slightly and only due to mature forms
(band).

If the analysis showed an increase in more than 1.5-2
times (even with improper preparation), you must suspect
the presence of the disease and conduct re-examination.

Physiological

If neutrophils are elevated, first of all should be excluded
non-disease related causes. To help suspect the false
The result of the study may well-being of a person. If he doesn’t
feels any symptoms, he has no chronic inflammatory
diseases and body temperature is not elevated – it is recommended to
re-study.

Changes in the blood picture can be caused by the following
physiological reasons:

  • Прием пищи. Virtually any food product contains
    small amount of germs with which local immunity
    have to cope daily. ABOUTсновная роль в этой защите
    belongs precisely to neutrophilic cells and other macrophages.
    That is why their number in the bloodstream can
    increase after a meal;
  • Интенсивная физическая нагрузка. TOлетки иммунитета не
    just constantly “floating” through the circulatory system – some of them
    temporarily attached to the wall of blood vessels. TOогда человек активно
    moves, the pool of parietal leukocytes leave their “occupied spots” and
    begin to circulate through the body;
  • Стресс накануне обследования – еще один фактор, который
    can cause parietal leukocytes to start moving along
    blood flow;
  • TOурение. Cigarettes contain a huge amount of substances
    besides nicotine: phenol formaldehyde resins, hydrocyanic acid,
    styrene, a small amount of arsenic and radioactive isotopes. Everything
    these components of tobacco smoke are alien agents and
    cause a local inflammatory process in the bronchial tree;
  • Употребление алкоголя. It’s no secret that ethanol
    can directly damage various organs, including the stomach,
    pancreas and liver tissue. It is this damage and
    causes a small focus of inflammation and activates
    the work of the neutrophilic link;
  • Прием фармакопрепаратов: любых иммуномодуляторов, в том
    interferon inducers, lysates of bacteria (Imudon) and parts
    vaccines. Some people may take�

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