Mumps: symptoms, causes, treatment,diagnostics, vaccination

Update: December 2018

Mumps (syn. Mumps or mumps) is acute
viral infection, which is considered to be “childish”. According to statistics
children are more likely to have mumps, and suffer it much more easily. Adults
can also tolerate parotitis if they were not vaccinated in childhood
or the vaccination period is out.

Interesting facts about parrot

The name “mumps”, “mumps” got the disease because
with parotitis, there is a formation of strong edema in the neck and
behind the ears. The appearance of the patient resembles a pig. Known
a disease since antiquity, Hippocrates gave its first descriptions,
but then nobody knew what caused the disease.

In the diagnosis and treatment of mumps appeared progress during
epidemics of 17-19 centuries among the soldiers of the regular army. Because of the high
population density barracks, due to low hygiene soldiers
one after another got sick with mumps. Sometimes at the time this disease
began to be called “trench or soldier’s disease.” And only in
In the last century, they discovered the nature of the infection, isolating the virus and infecting it
laboratory animals (monkeys). By 1945, was developed and
the first mumps vaccine that gave rise to the mass era from him
vaccination.

Although attempts have been made to infect the virus of animals in conditions
laboratories, but in the natural environment, parotitis is typically
human disease. Therefore, to become infected when contacting with
wild or domestic animals is impossible. Only people can transmit
her to each other. Prior to vaccination, parotitis was
serious danger in terms of the spread of epidemics. Today
there are isolated cases of mumps among those children whose parents
do not give them vaccinations, and adults who have
vaccination immunity disappeared, and they did not receive repeated vaccinations.

How does the infection occur?

Mumps virus is a special group of RNA viruses.
rubulavirus, it is not very resistant in the external environment. To infect them
possible only with long and close contact with patients. With
this people, the sources of infection, may still be unaware that
that sick with parotiditis.

  • Airborne droplets – the virus is secreted with saliva and mucus
    nasopharynx, and if the patient spoke to you, coughed, blew his nose or
    sneezed near you, kissed you, was with you in one
    indoors – the risk of infection is very high
  • Contact way – it will also be dangerous for children to use
    common toys, licking your fingers, objects touched
    the hands of an infected baby that he had previously pulled into his mouth.

The disease is characterized by seasonality – in the spring has a peak
incidence, and in August-September the disease is almost not
is registered. The disease is widespread, widespread, but
due to the fact that children are now actively vaccinated, the epidemic is now
time arise infrequently.

According to numerous studies found that infectious
people become:

  • за неделю до воспаления слюнных glands
  • 7-17 days may pass from the moment of infection
  • they remain infectious for about 8–9 days after the first
    manifestations of the disease.

Especially a lot of viruses emit patients and they maximize
заразны при воспалении слюнных glands. At this time they should be
strictly isolated from others to prevent spread
infections.

Incubation period (from the moment of virus infection until
manifestations of the disease) is:

  • children have an average of 12 to 22 days.
  • in adults it is from 11 to 23-25 ​​days, usually it is 14-18
    days 

Who can have mumps?

Anyone who does not have immunity to it can get a mumps
suffered earlier or not vaccinated), due to weakened immunity more often
children are ill. Adults suffer those who have no antibodies in their blood.
mumps is no more than 10-20% of the population (the rest have blood in
antibodies to infection are detected). Noticed that boys and
men are twice as likely and harder to have partita.

Can a mumps pig? Correctly carried out
KPC vaccination protects almost all people from parotitis
(98%), only a small number of people vaccinated with one or even
двумя дозами вакцины, могут давать проявления mumps. But течение
mumps in these people is mostly mild and not complicated.

What happens inside the body

The virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the nose and
pharynx It settles on the surface of cells, destroys them and penetrates
into the blood vessels, then spread throughout the body,
проникает в наиболее излюбленные ими места – это glandsистые ткани и
нервная ткань (прежде всего слюнные glandsы). Inside them reproduction
virus occurs most actively.

At the same time, the prostate and testicles can be affected.
мальчиков и мужчин, яичники у девочек и женщин, щитовидная glandsа,
поджелудочная glandsа. Наряду с glandsами, одновременно, или
later, the nervous system may be affected, as
peripheral nerves and ganglia, and the brain and spinal cord (with
creating special conditions or aggressive flow of parotitis).

As the virus multiplies in the body, the immune
the system starts produce antibodies to viruses that bind
and remove the virus, promoting healing. Antibody data
remain inside the body for the rest of their lives, creating
lifelong immunity. Due to these antibodies does not occur
re-infection with mumps.

However, with this, there may be a general allergy
organism which can be observed throughout long
time – up to several years. Due to it may occur in
further allergic reactions, which prior to the illness
child or adult was not observed – dermatitis, asthma,
pollinosis.

Can the mumps run unnoticed?

Most often, this phenomenon is observed in adolescents or adults.
About 20-30% of people infected with mumps suffer from this disease.
without special typical symptoms, in the form of ARVI, or it proceeds
completely asymptomatic. With this type of infection are not dangerous complications,
but man himself is the source of the spread of viruses among
children and adults.

Symptoms of mumps in children

In the incubation period, the child looks normal and feels
good, there are no external signs that he is already sick.
With the accumulation of viruses in the body, there are first signs
mumps. In children it is:

  • temperature increase within 38.0-38.5 ° C,
  • weak signs of ARVI. There may be a light cold, red arches
    throat, tickling and coughing.

After one or two days, the edema in the area of ​​one
parotid gland. In this case, the iron itself becomes
painful. The second gland can also inflame, their functioning
disturbed, leading to dry mouth, bad breath
and discomfort.

Saliva performs not only moisturizing and disinfecting functions
in the mouth, it also takes part in the digestive process,
wetting the food lump and partially splitting in it some
Components. By reducing saliva production may be impaired
digestive functions with the development of nausea, abdominal pain and
impaired stool, and stomatitis or
gingivitis infectious nature.

In addition to the parotid, the submandibular and
sublingual salivary glands. With inflammation and swelling of the face
the child becomes moonlike, puffy, especially in the area
jaw and ears. Due to the similarity with the “pork muzzle” disease and
got a similar name.

If other glandular organs are involved in the process,
complicated parotitis:

  • Boys of school age with testicular lesions usually
    there is one-sided swelling of the scrotum, the skin turns red, hot on
    touch, painful. When prostate pain occurs in the area
    perineum, rectal examination shows edematous
    education with soreness.
  • In girls, damage to the ovaries can be with the development of pain in the bottom.
    stomach and nausea, malaise.

With the defeat of pancreatic tissue problems
digestion:

  • feeling of heaviness in the stomach
  • pain in the left subcostal area,
  • nausea with vomiting
  • bloating
  • diarrhea (diarrhea).

Parotitis in children can occur not only as a classic
option, but also with erased forms, or even asymptomatic. With
the erased form slightly rises the temperature, not higher than 37.5 ° C,
no characteristic damage to the salivary glands, or it is not strong
expressed and takes place in two or three days.

Asymptomatic form does not give any signs of infection and
dangerous only because such a child can attend children
collective and infect there other children.

Symptoms of mumps in adults

In principle, the course and main symptoms of parotitis are similar to
such in children, but often parotitis in adults tends to be more
severe course with complications (especially in young men and
girls).

Before the onset of typical mumps manifestations, some adults
note the state of prodroma of the disease:

  • there are chills
  • muscle or joint pain
  • headache
  • runny nose and cough
  • malaise like cold
  • dry mouth, discomfort in the projection of salivary
    glands
  • discomfort in the neck.

By the height of the disease, adults are seeing a gradual increase
temperatures from numbers in 37.2-37.5 to 38.0 ° С and higher. Duration
The febrile period is generally about a week. Often,
in adults, parotitis can occur without a rise in temperature, which
speaks of a weak resistance of the immunity to the introduction of viruses.
In parallel with a fever, weakness with ailments can manifest
and headache, insomnia.

The main manifestation of mumps in adults is inflammatory.
процесс в околоушных слюнных glandsах, часто затрагиваются и
подъязычные с подчелюстными glandsы. They swell, feeling them
painful, practically no saliva separates. Due to edema and
воспаления glands лицо больного приобретает отекший вид, напоминая
pork snout, with pronounced swelling along the bottom of the jaw and
behind the ears. Кожа в области отека glands лоснится, сильно натянута и не
going to folds, but its color does not change. In adults, typically
initially bilateral defeat.

Также, сильнее выражены боли и дискомфорт в слюнных glandsах:

  • pain occurs when chewing and drinking
  • typical pain with talk
  • at night it is difficult to choose a position for sleeping due to pain
    glands
  • сдавдение слуховой трубы воспаленной glandsой дает шум в ушах и
    pain inside the ear
  • If you press on the tissue behind the lobe of the ear, a strong
    soreness Это один из ранних типичных симптомов mumps.
  • in severe cases, it is difficult to chew food at all;
    spasms of masticatory muscles (trizm) occur.
  • saliva is removed very little, which is why the condition arises
    severe dryness (xerostomia).

The acute period of inflammation in adults lasts no more than 3-4 days,
sometimes pain at the beginning of the process can be given to the ear or neck,
gradually fading by the end of the week. Along with them, swelling
glands.

Параллельно с симптомами со стороны слюнных glands развиваются
also catarrhal phenomena – runny nose, cough, sore throat, and
digestive disorders with diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain. They
наиболее выражены в период максимального отека слюнных glands и
gradually fade away as the local inflammation converges
phenomena.

In adults with mumps can additionally be:

  • rash on the body, having the appearance of thick and bright red spots.
    Localized in the face, hands, legs and torso.
  • about 30% of boys and men suffer from orchitis – inflammation
    testicles. Withчем, процесс может начаться как одновременно с поражением
    слюнных glands, так и спустя пару недель после начала свинки.
    Manifestations of orchitis can not be confused with anything, with him sharply jumps
    temperature almost 39-40 ° C, there is a strong and sharp pain
    in the scrotum, it turns red and swollen – usually on the one hand,
    but both testicles can be affected at once.

Is Parotitis Dangerous?

Most of the mumps occurs in children and most
adults without any complications and is not dangerous. But
in 5 people out of 1000 cases, especially with reduced immunity,
piggy takes an aggressive course. With этом она может давать
serious complications:

  • spread to the tissue of the spinal cord or brain with
    the formation of meningitis and encephalitis. They относительно хорошо
    are treated, only rare cases are fatal or give
    paralysis, hearing loss.
  • about 5% of all patients give the development of pancreatitis (affected
    поджелудочная glandsа). Most often this type of pancreatitis flows
    lightly and completely passes. Previously believed that after the mumps
    Type 1 diabetes may form, but today
    opinion refuted!
  • about 30% of men or boys who tolerate mumps with orchitis
    (inflammation of the testicle), become infertile (more about infertility
    men).
  • Complications of the internal organs may also occur.
    in the form of pneumonia, myocarditis, joint damage, thyroid
    glandsы, зрения.

Withзнаки агрессивного течения паротита

If you or your child get parotitis, you should immediately
consult a doctor if there are aggressive symptoms or complications
in the form of such as:

  • severe headaches
  • various visual impairment
  • nausea and vomiting
  • severe pain in the abdomen or left side
  • numbness, weakness in certain parts of the body
  • convulsions or loss of consciousness
  • hearing loss or severe tinnitus
  • discoloration of urine (it is dark and not enough)
  • pain in the scrotum in men.

How to diagnose?

With типичном течении диагноз ясен при осмотре пациента. But, для
confirmation of the viral nature of inflammation is carried out:

  • PCR blood test to detect the mumps virus
  • detection of antibodies to mumps
  • complex of analyzes to assess the functions of internal organs.

Especially important is the determination of antibodies to mumps in atypical or
asymptomatic course.

Quarantine measures

Mumps prevention includes quarantine measures with strict
isolation of a sick child or adult from not ill or not
vaccinated people.

  • Adults or children with mumps should be isolated from
    other people for 9 days from the start
    inflammation.
  • In the children’s team, when identifying a person with parotitis
    impose a quarantine for a period of 21 days since the last
    sick
  • All contact and unvaccinated babies daily
    Doctors examine, if there are symptoms of parotitis – they are immediately
    isolate.
  • In the children’s institutions, they are disinfected according to all the rules.
    processing dishes, toys and bed linen.
  • The room where the patient was located should be carefully checked and
    to carry out general cleaning and disinfection of all items in it, with
    which the patient could touch.

At the time of quarantine requires elementary methods of hygiene –
washing hands with soap, especially after contact with the patient and his things.
Also need isolation of the patient, the allocation of individual funds
hygiene, bed linen and towels.

Treatment methods

Specific drugs for mumps is not developed, treatment
conducted on the basis of severity and symptoms. If there are no complications,
treat mumps at home, subject to the terms
quarantine.

  • Strict bed rest up to 7-10 days from the beginning
    symptoms so that there are no complications
  • Диета – из-за болезненности слюнных glands, а также
    Pancreatitis warning food should be light, semi-liquid and
    warm, without fat, spicy and fried (cabbage is excluded,
    the animals fats, pasta and white bread, it is worth choosing
    milk and vegetable table).
  • Withменяют сухое тепло к месту воспаления glands.
  • Gargling with boiled water or weak solutions
    антисептиков, лечение простудных phenomena.

Withменение медикаментов показано только при наличии осложнений,
this is usually done in a hospital. All treatment with parotitis should
prescribe and monitor the doctor.

Mumps prevention

Vaccination of children and adults is specific prevention.
от mumps. Mumps vaccine is administered as part of the CPC trivaccine.
(measles, parotitis, rubella) or in the form of a separate live weakened
vaccines.

  • According to the national vaccination calendar, it is administered at the age of 1
    years and then at 6-7 years old, before going to school. Drug put
    under the shoulder blade or shoulder area.
  • If a child did not receive a vaccine in childhood due to a medical case
    or refusal of parents, it is possible to vaccinate already in adolescence
    or adulthood. This is done according to epidemic indications (in the outbreak
    infection) or optional.

Vaccination is carried out only healthy children who do not have
contraindications:

  • with a cold
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases or weakness of her child
    do not do
  • vaccination is contraindicated in children with diseases of the system
    blood formation
  • immunodeficiency
  • if treated with hormones.

Read about post vaccination behavior.

According to individual indications may be an emergency.
vaccination. It must be completed in a period of 72 hours, and better
the first day from the moment of contact with the patient. This will lead to
antibodies and the course of the disease in mild and sometimes complete
prevent its development.

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