Multiple sclerosis – what is it, the reasonssymptoms, signs, treatment, life expectancy and preventionsclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological
disease based on nerve demyelination
fibers. The peculiarity of this disease is that it is associated with
failure of the immune system, resulting in
spinal cord and brain. The disease manifests itself in the form of violations,
associated with coordination, vision, sensitivity.

If you do not pay attention to the standard signs in time,
the disease will progress. The consequences are disability
inability to rationally and effectively make decisions like on
work, and in everyday affairs.

What is this disease, why does it develop more often in young
age and what symptoms are characteristic of her, consider further in
article.

Multiple sclerosis: what is it?

Рассеянный склероз

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system.
systems with a chronic course, characterized by destruction
миелиновых волокон и приводящее в конечном итоге к disability.
In multiple sclerosis, the white matter of the head and
spinal cord in the form of multiple, multiple sclerotic
бляшек, поэтому его еще называют многоочаговым.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. Wherein
condition, the body “sees” some of its own tissues, as
alien (in particular the myelin sheath covering
most nerve fibers) and fight them with antibodies.
Antibodies attack myelin and destroy it, nerve fibers
turn out to be “naked.”

At this stage, the first symptoms, which in
дальнейшем начинают только прогрессировать.

Multiple sclerosis has nothing to do with senile marasmus,
memory loss does not apply. Sclerosis refers to a scar
connective tissue, and disseminated – multiple.

The reasons

Причина возникновения рассеянного sclerosis все еще остается
unexplained. Believed to be a prerequisite for the formation of
diseases are features of a set of genes controlling
immune response. Already this factor is superimposed by all sorts of
external causes, which ultimately leads to the development of the disease.

Various causal factors, both external and internal,
capable of increasing the permeability of the blood-brain
barrier:

  • back and head injuries;
  • physical and mental stress;
  • stress;
  • operations.

Significant effects on biochemical and immunological reactions in
CNS has nutritional characteristics, such as a large proportion of the diet.
animal fats and proteins, forming a risk factor in the development
pathology.

There are risk factors that can trigger development.
рассеянного sclerosis:

  • Specific residence area or insufficient production
    vitamin D. More often multiple sclerosis affects people whose place
    the residence is far from the equator;
  • Stressful situations, strong neuropsychic
    voltage;
  • Excessive smoking;
  • Low levels of uric acid;
  • Hepatitis B vaccine;
  • Diseases caused by viruses or bacteria.

Признаки sclerosis

Первые признаки рассеянного sclerosis неспецифичны и зачастую
go unnoticed by both the patient and the doctor. Have
most patients debut disease manifested symptoms
pathologies in one system, later others are connected. On
throughout the disease exacerbations alternate with periods
full or relative well-being

Первый признак рассеянного sclerosis проявляется в возрасте 20-30
years old. But there are times when multiple sclerosis is manifested as in
older age and in children. According to statistics: in women
appear more often than men.

Признаки рассеянного sclerosis по частоте проявления представлены
in the table.

Symptoms % Kind of Pelvic Disorder %
Mimic muscle paralysis one Intermittent urination four2
Epilepsy one Sudden urge four3
Impotence one Feeling of incomplete emptying four8
Myokimiya (twitching of the century) one Urinary incontinence four8
Unsteadiness of gait, instability when walking one Difficulty urinating four8
Decreased cognitive activity, dementia 2 The prevalence of night urine

over daytime

62
Reduced vision 2
Pains 3
Sudden pain when tilting the head

ощущение прохождения тока по позвоночнику

3
Onрушение мочеиспускания four
Dizziness 6
Ataxia – impaired coordination of movement oneone
Diplopia – the doubling of visible objects one5
Paresthesia – goosebumps, skin numbness 2four
Weakness 35
Optic neuritis 36
Desensitization 37

Classification

Classification рассеянного sclerosis по локализации процесса:

  1. Cerebrospinal form – statistically more diagnosable –
    characterized by the fact that foci of demyelination are located in the head and
    in the spinal cord at the beginning of the disease.
  2. Cerebral form – on the localization process is divided into
    cerebellar, stem, eye and cortical, in which there is
    various symptoms.
  3. Spinal form – the name reflects the localization of the lesion in
    spinal cord.

There are the following types:

  • Primary progressive – characteristic constant deterioration
    states. Attacks may be mild or not pronounced. Symptoms
    there are problems with walking, speech, vision,
    urination, emptying.
  • Вторично-прогрессирующая форма характеризуется постепенным
    increasing symptoms. The appearance of signs of multiple sclerosis
    traced after a cold, inflammatory diseases of organs
    breathing. Increased demyelination can also be seen in the background.
    bacterial infections leading to increased immunity.
  • Recurrent remitting Characterized by periods
    exacerbations, which are replaced by remission. During remission possible
    full restoration of the affected organs and tissues. Not progressing
    with time. It occurs quite often and practically does not lead to
    disability.
  • Remittive-progressive multiple sclerosis, characterized by
    a sharp increase in symptoms during periods of attacks, starting with
    early stage of the disease.

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis

The signs of the development of multiple sclerosis depend on which
localized focus of demyelination. Therefore, the symptoms
different patients is diverse and often
unpredictable. It is never impossible to simultaneously detect
one patient the whole complex of symptoms at once.

Consider the main symptoms of multiple sclerosis:

  • Fatigue appears;
  • The quality of memory decreases;
  • Mental performance weakens;
  • There is a gratuitous dizziness;
  • Immersion in depression;
  • Frequent mood swings;
  • Appears involuntary vibrations eyes high
    frequencies;
  • There is inflammation of the optic nerve;
  • Ambient objects begin to split in the eyes or even
    erode;
  • Speech is getting worse;
  • When eating, there are difficulties in swallowing;
  • Spasms may occur;
  • Mobility and arm movement disorders;
  • Periodic pain, numbness of the limbs and
    body sensitivity gradually decreases;
  • The patient may suffer from diarrhea or constipation;
  • Urinary incontinence;
  • Frequent urging to the toilet or lack thereof.

In approximately 90% of patients, the disease is undulating
flow. This means that periods of exacerbation are replaced by remissions.
However, after seven to ten years of illness, a secondary
progression when the condition begins to worsen. In 5-one0%
cases, the disease is characterized by primary progressive
over.

Multiple sclerosis in women

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in women are expected when the immune
system is too weak. Body filters and cells that are not in
able to resist infection, give up, therefore immunity
destroys the myelin sheath of neurons, which consists of cells
neuroglia.

As a result, nerve impulses are transmitted through neurons.
slower, causing not only the first symptoms, but also severe
consequences – impaired vision, memory, consciousness.

Violation of sexual function in multiple sclerosis in women
develops due to sexual dysfunction. This sign
formed immediately after urination pathology.
It occurs in 70% of women and 90% of men.

Some women experience the following symptoms of scattered
sclerosis:

  • The impossibility of achieving orgasm;
  • Not enough lambing;
  • Soreness in intercourse;
  • Violation of the sensitivity of the genitals;
  • High tone leading femoral muscles.

According to statistics: women are sick several times more likely to have scattered
sclerosis than men, but they suffer the disease much
easier.

Обычно для классического течения РС характерно возрастание
severity of clinical manifestations, which lasts 2-3 years,
to give the expanded symptoms in the form of:

  1. Paresis (loss of function) of the lower extremities;
  2. Registration of pathological foot reflexes (positive
    Babins symptom, Rossolimo);
  3. Noticeable instability gait. Subsequently, patients in general
    lose the ability to move independently;
  4. Increased severity of jitter (the patient is not able to
    perform fingering test – reach the tip with your index finger
    nose, and knee-heel test);
  5. Decrease and disappearance of abdominal reflexes.

From all the above, it becomes clear that all the initial
manifestations of multiple sclerosis are highly non-specific. Many
symptoms may be a sign of another disease (for example,
increased reflexes in neurotic states or crumpy
violation of calcium metabolism) or even a variant of the norm (muscular
weakness after work).

Aggravation

Multiple sclerosis has a very large number of symptoms,
only one of them can be observed per patient or immediately
some. It proceeds with periods of exacerbations and remissions.

Any factors can provoke an exacerbation of the disease:

  • acute viral diseases,
  • injuries
  • stresses
  • error in diet
  • alcohol abuse
  • overcooling or overheating, etc.

The duration of periods of remission may be more than a dozen
years, the patient leads a normal life and feels absolutely
healthy. But the disease does not disappear, sooner or later necessarily
there will be a new aggravation.

Диапазон симптомов рассеянного sclerosis достаточно
wide:

  • from mild numbness in the hand or пошатывания при ходьбе до
    enuresis,
  • paralysis
  • blindness and difficulty breathing.

It so happens that after the first exacerbation the disease does nothing
does not manifest over the next one0 or even 20 years, a person feels
себя полностью healthy. But the disease in consequence takes
своё, снова наступает обострение.

Diagnostics

When the first symptoms of a breach of the brain or nerves
need to consult a neurologist. Doctors use special
diagnostic criteria to determine the scattered
sloleosis:

  • The presence of signs of multiple focal lesions of the CNS –
    white matter of the brain and spinal cord;
  • Progressive disease development with gradual
    the addition of various symptoms;
  • Symptom instability;
  • The progressive nature of the disease.

Further, additional examinations may be prescribed:

  • studies of the immune system;
  • biochemical analyzes;
  • MRI of the brain and spinal column (shows cluster
    plaques);
  • CT scan of the brain and spine (showing foci
    inflammations);
  • electromyography (for finding pathologies in the organs of vision and
    hearing);
  • diagnosis by an ophthalmologist (for examination for myopathy).

After all the necessary tests and tests, the doctor will deliver
the diagnosis on the basis of which treatment will be assigned.

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Patients whose disease is first diagnosed are usually
are hospitalized in the neurological department of the hospital for
detailed examination and prescription of therapy. Treatment is chosen
individually, depending on the severity and symptoms.

Multiple sclerosis is considered at this time not
curable. However, people are shown symptomatic therapy, which
able to improve the quality of life of the patient. He is assigned
hormonal drugs, means to increase immunity.
Positively on the state of such people affects
Spa treatment. All these measures allow you to increase the time
remission.

Drugs that contribute to the change in the course of the disease:

  • drugs group steroid hormones – this type of drugs
    used in acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, their
    the use reduces the duration of its period
    aggravations;
  • immunomodulators – with their help weakening is provided
    symptoms characteristic of multiple sclerosis increases
    time period of exacerbations;
  • immunosuppressive drugs (immunosuppressive drugs) – their
    use is dictated by the need to influence the immune system,
    damaging myelin during periods of acute illness.

Симптоматическое лечение применяется с целью облегчения
specific symptoms of the disease. Can be used
following drugs:

  • Mydocalm, Sirdalud – reduce muscle tone during central
    paresis;
  • Prozerin, galantamine – with urination disorders;
  • Sibazon, phenazepam – reduce tremor, as well as neurotic
    symptoms;
  • Fluoxetine, paroxetine – for depressive disorders;
  • Finlepsin, antelepsin – used to eliminate
    seizures;
  • Cerebrolysin, nootropil, glycine, vitamins of group B,
    glutamic acid – applied courses to improve performance
    nervous system.

A therapeutic massage will be useful for a patient with multiple sclerosis.
This will improve blood circulation and accelerate all processes in the problem.
place The massage will relieve muscle aches, cramps and improve coordination.
However, this therapy is contraindicated in osteoporosis.

Acupuncture is also used to alleviate the condition.
patient and speeding up recovery. Thanks to this procedure
relieves cramps and swelling, decreases muscle pain and
incontinence problems are eliminated.

With the permission of the doctor, you can take:

  • 50 mg of vitamin thiamine twice a day and 50 mg
    B-complex;
  • 500 mg of natural vitamin C 2-four times a day;
  • folic acid in combination with the B-complex;
  • twice a year for two months take thioctic acid –
    endogenous antioxidant, is involved in carbohydrate and fat
    exchange.

Onродные методы лечения рассеянного sclerosis:

  • 5 g of mummy is dissolved in one00 ml of boiled chilled water,
    Take on an empty stomach teaspoon three times a day.
  • 200 g of honey mixed with 200 g of onion juice, use for
    an hour before meals 3 times a day.
  • Honey and onions. Grate it is necessary to rub the onion and squeeze out
    her juice (you can use a juicer). A glass of juice is needed
    mix with a glass of natural honey. This mixture needs to be taken.
    three times a day one hour before meals.

Multiple Sclerosis Prediction

About 20% of patients are faced with a benign form.
multiple sclerosis, characterized by
slight progression of symptoms after
primary attack of the disease or lack of
progression. This allows patients to fully preserve
working capacity.

Many patients, unfortunately, are faced with malignant
формой течения заболевания, в результате чего deterioration состояния
occurs steadily and quickly, leading subsequently to a pronounced
disability, and sometimes fatal.

Patients often die from infections (urosepsis, pneumonia),
called intercurrent. In other cases, the cause of death
there are bulbar disorders in which swallowing suffers,
chewing, respiratory or cardiovascular function, and
псевдобульбарные, сопровождающиеся  также нарушением глотания,
facial expressions, speech, intelligence, however, cardiac activity and breathing
does not suffer.

Prevention

Prevention рассеянного sclerosis включает:

  1. Constant physical activity is required. They should be
    moderate, not exhausting.
  2. If possible, you should avoid stress, find time for
    recreation. Hobbies will help to distract from thoughts about the problems.
  3. Cigarettes and alcohol accelerate the destruction of neurons and can
    cause an impaired immune system.
  4. Tracking your weight, avoiding hard diets and
    overeating
  5. Refusal of hormonal drugs (if possible) and
    contraceptives.
  6. Rejection of large amounts of fatty foods;
  7. Avoid overheating.

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