Mini-abortion: terms, indications and contraindications,post-abortion discharge, complications

Update: December 2018

Unfortunately, not every pregnancy becomes desirable for
women. Sometimes circumstances make life interrupt, which
only originated despite attempted contraception.
And, of course, it is desirable to do this as early as possible, since
the frequency of complications and consequences depend on the duration of pregnancy (than
it is less, the lower the risk).

Mini-abortion: we define the concept

Abortion is called abortion,
which is carried out at the request of a woman up to 12 weeks, and later (until
22 weeks) for social and medical reasons. Mini abortion
is the early removal of the ovum in the early stages
gestation by vacuum suction (suction).

For the procedure, the hospital must have
a special apparatus – a vacuum excretory or so-called
suction, under the action of which in the uterine cavity is created
negative pressure, and the egg of egg effortlessly
The doctor exfoliates from the uterine wall. Vacuum aspiration in early
gestational age and is based on the fact that up to 6 weeks chorionic villi
(future placenta) is not deep enough in the muscle layer
uterus, and remove the embryo is not difficult.


As it becomes clear from the name, during the production
mini-abortion gestation period is quite small. When referring to
the gynecologist with a request for the procedure, the doctor will ask
the number of days during which the menstruation is not
has come (that is, delayed menstruation).

You can make a mini-abortion with a delay of up to 21 days, but optimally
perform this manipulation on the 14th – 15th day of the absence of menstruation,
as with the earlier conduct of vacuum aspiration, you can simply
�”Not to notice” and not to remove the ovum, and later increases the risk

�”How many weeks can you do aspiration?”
women. According to the delay of menstruation, from three weeks of pregnancy.
Again, a new question arises: “And for how long?”. Mini abortion
held up to 5, maximum (with the consent of the doctor) up to 6 weeks

Indications for mini-abortion

For the production of this procedure, there is no
special indications. The leading and sufficient indication is the desire
women abort pregnancy (in Russia medical interruption
unplanned pregnancy is optional up to 12 weeks).
In addition, there are a number of indications for interrupting early
terms of gestation (if, of course, terms allow):

  • missed abortion;
  • anembryonia;
  • childbearing poses a threat to the health and life of a woman
    (diabetes mellitus, severe hepatic and renal pathology,
    malignant tumors and others);
  • rubella, flu and other infections during the period
  • social indications (rape, stay in places
    imprisonment and others).

Vacuum aspiration is not only used to interrupt
pregnancy in small terms, but also to solve other
gynecological problems:

  • the need for endometrial biopsy;
  • residues of the ovum after the pharmacological or
    surgical abortion;
  • delay of parts of the placenta after delivery or cesarean
    cross sections;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle (bleeding);
  • accumulation of blood (hematometer) or serous fluid
    (serosometer) in the uterine cavity;
  • incomplete spontaneous abortion.

Contraindications for the procedure

Because mini-abortion refers to invasive interventions and
considered minor surgery, it has the same
contraindications for its conduct, as well as abortion

  • ectopic pregnancy;
  • fever;
  • infectious process of any localization (including
    �”Cold” on the lips);
  • acute or exacerbation of chronic organ diseases
    located in the pelvis;
  • bleeding disorders;
  • less than six months after the previous interruption
    of pregnancy.

In addition, a mini-abortion vacuum is not performed and “according to one’s own”,
specific contraindications:

  • pregnancy exceeds 5 weeks (confirmed by data
  • uterine malformations;
  • tumors of the uterus, due to which its cavity is deformed.

Inspection before manipulation

Before performing a mini abortion, a woman should go through the following

  • medical examination on the gynecological chair (clarification
    likely signs of pregnancy: cyanosis and softening of the cervix,
    enlarged and softened uterus));
  • delivery of vaginal, cervical, and urethral smears,
    determination of vaginal purity;
  • pregnancy test and compulsory ultrasound with a vaginal sensor
    для исключения эктопической pregnancy;
  • if necessary, testing for genital infections
    (chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and others);
  • general blood and urine tests;
  • blood for syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV infection.

In some clinics, a patient can be sent for consultation to
to the therapist, blood donation for biochemistry, clotting
blood, group and Rh factor (this test is not
mandatory and not approved by order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation).

Technique of a mini-abortion

Almost all women are interested in the question: “How do
mini abortion? Manipulation is usually done on an outpatient basis.
conditions and under local anesthesia. If desired, the patient may
require general anesthesia, although it is not fully justified.
Women are informed of the need for preparation for the procedure.
on the eve of:

  • shave off hair in the pubic area – they contribute
    spread of infection and make it difficult to produce abortion
  • to take a shower
  • when performing the procedure under general anesthesia warn about
    banning food and liquids on the day of abortion).

The woman is placed on the gynecological chair, and after treatment
external genital organs with antiseptic solutions are injected into
Simps gynecological speculum vagina (spoon-shaped mirror
or “spoon”). The cervix and vaginal walls are also processed
alcohol antiseptic solution (iodine, chlorhexidine).

Then the cervix is ​​fixed with bullet forceps (forceps with long,
thin and sharp teeth at the ends) in order to straighten the angle
between the cervix and the body of the uterus. The uterine cavity is measured uterine
probe that allows you to set its length and position of the uterus
(rejected anteriorly or posteriorly, right or left).

A plastic tube is attached to the vacuum exclaper
with a diameter of 5, maximum 12 mm, which through the cervical canal without
prior to its expansion, it is introduced into the uterine cavity. Doctor
performs rotational and reciprocating motion on all
the walls of the uterus, trying to find and remove the fertilized egg (sucked
the contents of the uterus is clearly visible through the translucent plastic
the tube and passage of the chorionic tissue through the cannula indicates
removal of the ovum).

After completion of the procedure, the cervix and vaginal walls
re-treated with an antiseptic solution and a woman at 30 –
40 minutes laid on a couch with ice in the lower abdomen. Already through
a couple of hours after the mini abortion, the patient returns to normal
of life. All manipulation takes 5, maximum 10 minutes.

Local anesthesia is performed after cervical fixation.
bullet forceps, while in the side vaults of the vagina with a syringe
solutions of local anesthetics (lidocaine, dikain) are introduced.

Benefits of a mini abortion

Termination of pregnancy by the method in the early stages
vacuum aspiration has a mass of positives compared to
with surgical abortion at a later date:

  • a short period of interruption practically does not cause psychological
    injury to a woman;
  • you can use both local and general anesthesia;
  • short duration of manipulation (maximum 10
  • does not require performing curettage of the uterine cavity, which is not
    only very painful, but also traumatic;
  • by using a flexible plastic cannula, the risk is reduced
    damage to the uterine cavity and cervix (risk of perforation of the uterus and
    development of isthmic-cervical insufficiency is minimal);
  • shorter recovery period;
  • there is virtually no risk of infertility;
  • rapid recovery of the menstrual cycle.

Discharge and menstrual cycle after a mini-abortion

After the production of a mini-abortion will surely appear bloody
highlight. In the first few days, bleeding will
insignificant, smearing, and only for 3-5 days they become
more intense and characterized by a woman as moderate. Most
�”Clients” of abortion, such bleeding is taken for
menstruation, which is absolutely wrong. Strengthening secretions in
Specified dates are associated only with hormonal changes
the body after a violent abortion and the answer
hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system to a sharp drop in level
progesterone in the blood.

In order for menstruation to occur after interruption
It takes the body at least a month to get pregnant.
time a proliferative and secretory transformation will occur
endometrium (that is, it will grow and be ready for desquamation –

Therefore, the first menstruation after a mini-abortion should be expected not
earlier than 28 – 35 days (depending on the duration of the menstrual
cycle, if the cycle is 32 days, then menstruation will come through
32 days, counting from the date of abortion). About full recovery
menstrual cycle (regularity and appearance of ovulation) in
birthless women are told after 7 – 9 months, and for giving birth after 3
– 4. Certainly, a series of

  • the presence of gynecological and somatic diseases;
  • term of termination of pregnancy (the less, the less
    effect on hormonal levels);
  • the number of pregnancies and childbirth in history;
  • age of the patient;
  • nature of the menstrual cycle before the interruption (regular or

Possible complications

The risk of complications and consequences after the
mini-abortion is almost zero, but, of course, the possibility of their
the occurrence is not excluded (see the effects of abortion). And, of course, what
the greater the amount of vacuum aspirations in history, the higher
вероятность развития complications.

Perforation of the uterus

Puncture of the uterus with vacuum aspiration happens quite rarely,
So like metal tools that can damage the uterus
not used (except for the probe). This is a complication that
happens during the procedure and is characterized by a sudden acute
�”Dagger” pain.

Inflammation of the uterus and / or appendages or exacerbation of chronic

As a rule, this complication occurs 4 to 5 days after
procedures and is associated either with violations of the asepsis rules and
neglect of examination, or in violation of a woman’s rules
behavior in the postoperative period.

Hormonal disbalance

Especially often hormonal disorders occur in young
nulliparous women, due to the hormonal changes
после прерывания of pregnancy. Hormonal disbalance может привести к
ovarian dysfunction, menstrual disorder and even to

Incomplete removal of the embryo

Since abortion is a “blind” operation, it is not
eliminates the possibility of not removing the entire gestational sac, which leads
to bleeding and development of a placental polyp and requires curettage
uterine cavity.

Progressive pregnancy

In the production of vacuum aspiration in too early a time is high
the likelihood that the ovum will not be detached from the uterine
walls and, as a result, further progression
of pregnancy.


In women who have not given birth, the cervical canal is narrow enough that
is fraught with blockage of its blood clot and accumulation of blood in
uterine cavity – Hematometra. If the effect of medication
there is no therapy, artificial expansion of the cervical canal with
subsequent curettage.

Recommendations after the procedure

After undergoing a mini abortion procedure, a woman needs to
follow simple rules (see rehabilitation after abortion):

  • exclude sex life within 2 weeks (optimally 4
  • decide on contraception (oral recommended
    hormonal pills that the doctor picks up the patient at the reception
    before the manipulation);
  • avoid pregnancy for at least six months;
  • control check at the gynecologist and on ultrasound after 10 days;
  • do not overheat (exclude bath visits, saunas and reception
  • avoid hypothermia;
  • in case of pain after the procedure, immediately contact
    a doctor;
  • immediately after the vacuum aspiration to start receiving the infusion of water
    pepper (reducing) and antibiotics (if indicated);
  • in case of preservation of subjective signs of pregnancy
    (nausea and vomiting, engorgement of the mammary glands) as quickly as possible
    visit a gynecologist.

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