Microstroke – symptoms and early signs,causes, effects, treatment and prevention

A microstroke is a brain damage that does not occur.
only in the elderly, but also in young people. In official medicine
there is no such thing. In another way it can be called “transient
cerebral blood flow disorder (PNMK) “.

As a result of the so-called microstroke, small
(point) damage to the structure of the brain. Because
these are very minor damages, characteristic of
stroke not saved. Set fact small point
cerebral hemorrhage is possible only as a result
autopsy research.

What is this disease, as manifested in adults, the first
signs and methods of treatment – further in the article.

What is a microstroke?

Микроинсульт

A microstroke is necrosis of the brain tissue due to a blood clot or
sharp narrowing (ischemic) small vessel. Due to
circulatory disorders in brain tissue develop
point damage. Since the pathological process affects
very small areas of the structure, no violations occur,
peculiar to the “classic” stroke.

A microstroke cannot be treated as a small stroke. This
the concept in medicine exists under the diagnosis of a transient disorder
cerebral blood flow (PNMK), which means a malfunction of the brain functions
vascular genesis that arose suddenly and is accompanied by
cerebral or focal neurological symptoms (as well as
stroke), but pass independently or under the influence of treatment on
throughout the first 24 hours.

The mechanism of a microstroke is:

  1. There is a sharp increase in pressure in the vessels of one of the sections
    brain, or the vessel clogged with a blood clot.
  2. Disrupted normal blood circulation, cells of the affected
    plot begin to experience a lack of oxygen and nutrient
    substances.
  3. This condition can last for about six hours if
    period the blood circulation is restored to the previous volume, will be able
    recover and brain tissue.
  4. If the pathological condition lasts longer, the cells die,
    necrosis develops, and the stroke area becomes
    more.

The main cunning of micro-strokes is worn
clinical picture – the first signs of microstroke manifest
later and slower so the onset of diagnostic and therapeutic
events significantly delayed. And the later started
specialized treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders
worse results and forecasts.

Causes

The list of phenomena that cause the occurrence of a microstroke,
quite “standard”, applicable to many diseases
of cardio-vascular system:

  • binge eating;
  • obesity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • sedentary work and constant hypodynamia;
  • frequent fatigue, stress;
  • smoking;
  • excessive physical activity;
  • bad ecology;
  • heart surgery (for example, replacement
    valves);
  • an excessively large amount of animal fat in the daily
    diet;
  • constant cold climatic conditions (provoke
    increase in blood pressure);
  • abrupt change of the usual climatic and weather conditions.

Provides a microstroke and some diseases:

  • Uncompensated diabetes mellitus (with drops
    glucose);
  • Atherosclerosis in the progression stage (decreases diameter
    lumen of blood vessels);
  • Disruption of cerebral blood flow, passing into the heart;
  • Damage to the heart valves infectious or rheumatic
    nature (contribute to their destruction);
  • Congenital heart defects;
  • Myocardial infarction – the cause of TIA complicating it
    diagnostics;
  • Arteritis (inflammatory process affecting the internal
    vascular walls);
  • Thrombosis;
  • Arrhythmias – in case of irregular heartbeat, microthrombs occur,
    clogging vessels of the brain (arrhythmia reduces pressure, worsens
    cerebral blood flow);
  • Oncological problems;
  • Hypertensive diseases overshadow their bright symptoms
    all signs of microstroke;
  • Apnea (stop breathing during sleep for 10 seconds and
    more).

Risk factors

Risk factors include people with:

  • constant nerve loads in occupations requiring
    increased attention;
  • atherosclerotic lesion of cerebral vessels, carotid
    and vertebral arteries;
  • heart disease, especially accompanied by arrhythmias,
    valve defects;
  • hypertension and symptomatic hypertension;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • autoimmune allergic vasculitis;
  • severe osteochondrosis, hernia in the cervical spine
    with pressure vessels;
  • germinating tumor, hematogenous small metastases;
  • head injuries suffered by concussion;
  • congenital vascular pathology.

Microstroke symptoms in adults

Just want to note that the symptoms of a micro-stroke directly
depend on the localization of the center and the caliber of the affected
vessel. Simply put, the smaller the vessel, the less reliable
first symptoms of the disease.

With a micro-stroke, symptoms are not always characterized.
specificity. Many patients write them off
atmospheric pressure, weather changes, physical or
психоэмоциональные стрессы и chronic
fatigue. The first signs of a microstroke are:

  • dizziness;
  • the appearance of “fly” before the eyes;
  • головная боль различной интенсивности;
  • general weakness and malaise;
  • nausea.

The main symptoms include:

  • Numbness of face and limbs;
  • Dizziness and sudden intense headache;
  • Sharp increase in blood pressure;
  • Violation of coordination of movements, problems when walking
    or balance retention;
  • Hypersensitivity to bright lights and loud sounds.

There may also be additional symptoms:

  • General weakness – a feeling of stupidity, weakness,
    sleepiness;
  • Possible, but not necessary – short-term loss
    consciousness;
  • Brief visual impairment;
  • Problems with speech, difficulty in pronunciation and understanding
    speech.

A number of signs of microstroke (asymmetry, visual impairment …)
will depend on the affected area of ​​the brain. If hurt left
hemisphere – symptoms appear on the right side of the body. AND
vice versa.

Memory loss is one of the most pronounced symptoms of a microstroke.
It allows you to determine the severity of brain damage.
If a person does not have full ischemic or hemorrhagic
stroke, then memory recovery occurs within 5-6
hours

How to recognize the first signs of a microstroke in a person?

The first signs and symptoms of microstroke vary widely.
range, which depends on the diameter and location of the affected
arterial vessel, as well as the mechanism of development of the violation
(thrombus, embolus, spasm, compression, disruption of cerebral autoregulation
blood circulation, etc.).

In some cases, a person may not even suspect that
he had a microstroke, for example, ordinary dizziness,
headache, numbness and tingling in the arm throughout
few seconds, blurred vision, muscle weakness can
be signs of a transient ischemic attack.

Symptoms of stroke and microstroke are quite similar, however
an attack of a microstroke lasts from 5 minutes to a day, more weakly
expressed.

It is important to know which indicative tests can be carried out before
treatment to physicians.

  • Smile. If you ask the patient to smile, it will be noticeable
    asymmetry of the mouth – one corner will be lower.
  • Speech – it is worth asking the patient to pronounce some simple ones.
    phrases – for example, proverb or saying. Speech will be more
    slow and fuzzy.
  • Motion. You need to ask the patient to raise his arms or legs. If a
    there are disorders of cerebral circulation – one of the limbs
    will lag or not obey the owner at all.

Even if a patient has only some symptoms.
microstroke of the above, it is urgent to call
ambulance Proper treatment during the first day
significantly increases the chance of a full recovery.

First aid

Rapid improvement in microstroke should not introduce
misleading those present.

  • Try to plant or lay in a comfortable position.
  • Find out phone relatives and call them.
  • If possible, apply a cold to the head.
  • Open the tight collar, tie, belt, belt.
  • If you vomit, turn the victim’s head to the side.
  • Be sure to call an ambulance.

Effects

Very often after transient disorders of cerebral circulation
no noticeable effects are observed. But some people
The following effects of microstroke are observed:

  • memory impairment
  • reduced concentration
  • absent-mindedness
  • irritability,
  • depressed state
  • tearfulness or vice versa aggressiveness.

Diagnostics

After visiting all the above symptoms
microstroke, you should go to see a doctor who
send you for examination to determine the state of the heart
and vessels. These studies should include:

  • Magnetic resonance diagnostics,
  • CT scan,
  • Angiography.
  • Doppler sonography.
  • Echocardiogram.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG).
  • Detailed blood count.

When symptoms of microstroke appear, you should call a doctor:
It should be remembered that these signs may indicate
macroscopic stroke or myocardial infarction. The main treatment will be
directed to the underlying disease. ANDногда требуется полное
survey (especially in young people) to find out exactly what
was the cause of short-term circulatory disorders of the head
the brain.

Treatment and recovery

Upon arrival at the hospital, the doctor prescribes a number of
laboratory and radiological examinations to confirm
preliminary diagnosis. As a rule, microstroke is detected
on MRI, where the darkened areas of damaged brain are clearly visible
tissues.

Medications

Further treatment regimen:

  • means to improve blood microcirculation and metabolic
    processes in vessels (angioprotectors): Nimopidin, Tanakan,
    Bilobil;
  • сосудорасширяющие медикаменты: ANDнстенон, Ксантинола никотинат,
    Pentoxifylline;
  • drugs to improve metabolism: Mexicor, Actovegin;
  • means for reducing the ability of red blood cells to form
    blood clots in the vessels (antiplatelet agents): Ticlopidine, Aspirin,
    Dipyridamole;
  • medicine to improve brain activity (nootropics):
    Cinnarizine, Vinpocetin, Cerebrolysin, Piracetam.
  • Vitamin remedies (quadvit, decamevit, corvitol) strengthen
    the immune system of the body, as well as contribute to the improvement of work
    головного the brain. These drugs need to be taken periodically 1
    t. 2 – 3 times a day after meals, for 1 month, then
    you need to take a short break for 1 – 2 weeks, and again
    resume reception.

It is necessary to treat a microstroke only under supervision.
medical specialist. Home treatment is
first aid before the arrival of specialists. The sick
should be laid, slightly lifting his head, calm, because
panic only exacerbates the course of the attack, provide access
oxygen.

Rehabilitation after a microstroke

Recovery of the patient after a micro stroke is best done in
home conditions. Rehabilitation complex non-drug
the minimum program consists of:

  • eliminate stressful situations;
  • quitting smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • diet therapy, nutrition correction, fight obesity;
  • herbal medicine;
  • physical therapy and massage, regular physical
    loads;
  • physiotherapeutic procedures, water and heat treatments,
    climatotherapy;
  • other non-traditional methods of treatment and rehabilitation
    (acupuncture, yoga, hirudotherapy, etc.).

After a microstroke, the patient is categorically
It is forbidden to eat salty, fatty, spicy foods that wake up.
only aggravate the general course of the disease. Food patients should be
high-calorie, high in vitamins (potassium and
magnesium), necessary for the normalization of cardiovascular
system.

Predictions for recovery from microstroke depend on his
reasons:

  • If a она на поверхности (лишний вес, стрессы), то устранение
    provocateurs will be the best prevention of relapses and
    complications;
  • If a причиной было конкретное заболевание, разрабатывается
    scheme for his treatment.

Prevention

Methods of prevention of microstroke at any age include:

  1. Blood pressure control is the most important
    preventive action. The main cause of microstroke is high
    blood pressure, or a sharp jump;
  2. Avoiding bad habits helps to significantly reduce risks.
    diseases;
  3. Proper nutrition, not conducive to obesity, is also included in
    the number of preventive measures;
  4. Constant moderate exercise will help not only
    make the body strong and fit, but also keep the vessels healthy
    brain;
  5. Reducing stress factors and healthy sleep – more
    one key to success in the prevention of microstrokes.

Microstroke – a very dangerous disease that breaks
performance of the brain causing unpleasant and
life-difficult symptoms. Treat the ailment you need
immediately so as not to expose your body to various
complications.

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