Metabolic disorders: symptoms, causes,diseases

Update: October 2018

The metabolism carried out in the human body is
a series of successive chemical reactions. Constantly
the ongoing transformation of energy and various substances is
the basis of the normal functioning of the body.

About disbolism can safely say any doctor, to
which the patient addressed, since all the diseases in one way or another
least occur with impaired metabolism.

Disbolism in the body can be protein
carbohydrate, fat, mineral, etc. character, but the division is
is conditional and based on the prevailing
pathogenetic process – all types of metabolism are interrelated between
themselves and significantly affect each other. Pathogenetic basis
metabolic disorders – a change in harmonious
interactions of substances involved in metabolism, excess or
lack of these substances, as well as violations of the reactions of transformation,
leading to accumulation of intermediate products and
disproportionate formation of end products of exchange.

The causes of metabolic disorders are varied, the leading role
among which are heredity and pathology of organs and systems,
regulating metabolic processes.

Protein metabolism disorders

Proteins are known to be the main building material.
for the human body and play a leading role in the implementation of its
life activity. Without exception, pathological processes
occur in violation of protein metabolism, which is possible on any
from the stages of its transformation in the body:

  1. Violations of protein absorption processes that lead to
    alimentary insufficiency (intestinal tissue dystrophy,
    fasting, unbalanced composition of food amino acid
    component).
  2. Violation of the processes of synthesis of proteins acquired and
    hereditary nature leading to a change in the amount
    synthesized protein or to the formation of a protein with altered
    molecular structure (hormonal changes, dysfunction of the nervous
    and the immune system, genomic errors).
  3. Disorders of amino acid metabolism leading to an imbalance of processes
    transamination (formation) and oxidative deamination
    (destruction) of amino acids (pregnancy, treatment with sulfonamides,
    голодание, тяжелые diseases печени, панкреатит, инфаркт
    myocardium, hypoxia, fasting, injury).
  4. Violations of the terminal stages of protein metabolism, leading to
    accumulation of nitrogenous decomposition products and slowing their removal from
    организма (diseases печени и почек, гипоксия, лейкозы, геномные
    errors).
  5. Violations of the protein composition of the blood, leading to changes in their
    total or imbalance ratio of their fractions
    (almost all pathological conditions, congenital anomalies
    protein formation, fasting, blood loss, protein loss with
    urine).

Signs of protein metabolism disorders

Symptoms of metabolic disorders of a protein nature
manifest as with an excess of this nutrient, and with its
disadvantage:

Excess protein Protein deficiency
  • Decrease or lack of appetite
  • Intestinal dysfunction (constipation and diarrhea)
  • Pathology of the kidneys, renal failure
  • Increased excitability of the central nervous system
  • Saline deposits in tissues
  • Osteoporosis
  • Arthritis
  • Fatty degeneration of the liver
  • Increased plasma protein in the blood
  • Muscle weakness and hypotonia
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Drowsiness, weakness
  • Degradation of performance
  • Fragility of hair and nails, skin flabbiness
  • Weight loss up to dystrophy
  • Lag in physical development in children
  • Reduced intelligence and cognitive functions in children
  • Increased ketone bodies in the urine
  • Частые инфекционные diseases, как правило, при недостатке
    protein develops pulmonary tuberculosis and its extrapulmonary forms
 Diseases arising in violation of protein metabolism
substances
Excess protein Protein deficiency
1. Gout 1. Kvashiokor
  • sudden pain, swelling and redness in the first area
    metatarsophalangeal joint
  • hyperthermia up to 39 C
  • gouty arthritis
  • gouty nodes (tophi) on the elbows, feet, ears,
    fingers
  • underweight
  • weakness, lethargy, depression
  • swelling down to ascites
  • mental retardation and physical development
  • deficiency of protein, lipoproteins, potassium, phosphates, magnesium in
    of blood
  • immunodeficiency states
2. Obesity 2. Alimentary dystrophy
  • weight gain
  • dyspnea
  • hypertension
  • bone fragility
  • diseases внутренних органов на фоне их жировой
    dystrophy
  • underweight
  • puffiness
  • пограничный уровень белка, липопротеинов, глюкозы в of blood
  • increase in ketone bodies in urine
  • immunodeficiency states

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrates provide the most important energy function and nourish
brain cells. That carbohydrates instantly compensate for the loss
energy under various loads and stressful situations. Organism
a person responds strongly to both an increase in glucose and
на падение глюкозы of blood, а diseases, к которым приводят
нарушения exchange substances углеводного характера, зачастую
accompany a person for life. Moreover, critical values
сахара of blood могут обернуться fatal.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism возможны по следующим типам:
  1. Violation of the hydrolysis (digestion) of carbohydrates and their absorption,
    which ultimately leads to carbohydrate starvation of the body
    (enzymatic deficiency, childhood, inflammation
    small intestine, poisoning with poisons, hypoxia, liver dysfunction,
    hypovitaminosis B1).
  2. Violation of glycogen synthesis – increased degradation or
    reduction of its synthesis, resulting in energy due to
    protein and intoxication of the body (over-excitation of the CNS, severe
    physical labor, hepatitis).
  3. Violation of glycogen metabolism, which occurs
    pathological accumulation of glycogen in the tissues (congenital
    enzymatic deficiency).
  4. Violations of the intermediate carbohydrate metabolism, the result
    which is acidosis and impaired enzymatic processes
    (hypoxia, B1 hypovitaminosis, liver failure).
  5. Повышение уровня глюкозы в of blood, которое протекает в
    several options – nutritional hyperglycemia on the background
    eating large amounts of sugar, hormone hyperglycemia
    with endocrine pathology, emotional hyperglycemia in the background
    strong emotional experiences, pancreatic and
    extrapancreatic insulin-deficient hyperglycemia, leading to
    diabetes, hyperglycemia on the background of some types of anesthesia
    (ether, morphine, chloroform).
Signs of impaired carbohydrate metabolism

Симптомы нарушения exchange substances углеводного характера имеют
place with a shortage and excess of sugars:

Excess Carbohydrate Carbohydrate deficiency
  • Increase in body weight up to obesity
  • Hyperactivity
  • Involuntary shivering in the body
  • Hypertension (amid obesity)
  • Cardiovascular pathology (on the background of obesity)
  • Увеличение уровня глюкозы в of blood
  • Lack of body weight
  • Depression, apathy
  • General weakness
  • Drowsiness
  • Tremor of the hands and feet
  • Ketoacidosis
  • Уменьшение уровня глюкозы в of blood
 Diseases that occur in violation of carbohydrate
exchange
Excess Carbohydrate Carbohydrate deficiency
1. Diabetes 1. Hypoglycemia
  • general weakness
  • constant thirst
  • dry mouth
  • increase in daily urine volume
  • pruritus
  • cracks in the corners of the mouth
  • increase or decrease in body weight
  • weakness
  • drowsiness
  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • hunger
  • sweating
2. Obesity 2. Girke disease
  • weight gain
  • dyspnea
  • hypertension
  • absence or extremely short period of saturation
  • diseases внутренних органов на фоне их жировой
    dystrophy
  • dyspnea
  • hyperthermia
  • bleeding
  • enlarged abdomen
  • growth retardation
  • lipid deposition in the skin (xanthomas)
  • puberty delay

 Нарушения жирового exchange

Fats play no less important function in the body than others.
nutrients. All human hormones have a fatty basis – thanks to
fats maintain internal homeostasis. There are fats and in
nervous tissue, ensuring the stability of cellular structures and
normal transmission of nerve impulses.

Нарушения жирового exchange может происходить вследствие:
  1. Insufficiency of fat absorption in the small intestine (dysfunction
    pancreas, bile acid deficiency, enteritis,
    hypovitaminosis, pancreatitis).
  2. Reduced lipoprotein lipase activity (hyperlipoproteinemia I
    and V type).
  3. Impairment of the pituitary, thyroid and genital functions
    glands.
  4. Damage to the autonomic centers of the hypothalamic-pituitary system
    and adrenal cortex (pituitary cachexia, Addisonova
    disease).
  5. Changes in the trophic function of the nervous system (lipodystrophy,
    lipomatosis).
  6. Increased formation of ketone bodies (ketosis).
  7. Actions ionizing radiation.
  8. Overeating, in which the total caloric intake of food prevails over
    energy costs.
Признаки нарушения жирового exchange

Симптомы нарушения exchange substances жирового характера клинически
manifest with deficiency and excess lipids:

Excess fat Lack of fat
  • Obesity
  • Fatty tissue degeneration
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Stone formation (liver, gallbladder)
  • Hypertension
  • Увеличение свертываемости of blood
  • Избыток холестерина в of blood
  • Lack of body weight
  • Hypovitaminosis A, D, E, K
  • Воспалительные diseases кожи
  • Hair loss
  • Kidney pathology
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Immunity drop
Заболевания, возникающие при нарушении жирового exchange
substances
Excess fat Lack of fat
1. Fatty hepatosis 1. Depletion of the nervous system
  • acute pain in the liver
  • heaviness in the right hypochondrium
  • skin deterioration
  • falling vision
  • dysbacteriosis
  • nausea
  • flatulence
  • повышение СОЭ of blood
  • insomnia
  • nervousness
  • loss of appetite
  • memory impairment
  • headache
  • повышенная sweating
  • hypersensitivity to external stimuli
2. Atherosclerosis 2. Sexual dysfunction
  • IHD and its complications (stroke, heart attack)
  • dyspnea
  • fast fatiguability
  • hypertension
  • dizziness
  • noise in the head
  • lower limb temperature
  • failure of the menstrual cycle
  • decrease in libido
  • ovarian pain
  • impossibility of conception
  • miscarriages

Нарушения водного exchange

Water is an essential and essential fluid of homeostasis, a component
just over half the body weight of an adult. Normal
water balance means about the same amount (about 2.5
liters) received in the body and excreted water.

Нарушение водного exchange может протекать в виде обезвоживания и
abnormal fluid retention in the body. Both states are dangerous
and seriously violate human health: so, when dehydration
возникает сгущение of blood, страдают все органы и ткани, особенно ЦНС
and the digestive tract, with edema, the function of the excretory system
cardiac output decreases and pressure rises.

Dehydration Water retention
With insufficient intake of fluid in the body:

  • emergency, lack of water to drink
  • difficulty in swallowing due to the pathology of the esophagus (atresia,
    tumor)
  • diseases ЦНС, для которых характерно отсутствие жажды
    (microcephaly, severe mental deficiency)
  • premature babies, seriously ill children and adults (coma,
    hmt)
In case of water poisoning:

  • renal hydronephrosis
  • state of shock
  • postoperative period
  • diabetes insipidus
With a lack of electrolytes:

  • loss of electrolytes through the digestive tract (gastroenteritis, intestinal
    infections, toxicosis of pregnant women, biliary and intestinal fistula)
  • loss of electrolytes through the kidneys (nephritis, addisonova)
    disease)
  • loss of electrolytes through the skin (excessive sweating)
With edema:

  • intracellular edema
  • dropsy
  • ascites
  • hydrothorax
  • hydropericardium
  • anasarca
  • hydrocele
  • allergic edema
При гипервентиляции легких- гипервентиляционный синдром у
children
With polyuria:

  • diabetes
  • хронические diseases почек (пиелонефрит, нефрит)
  • congenital polyuria

Нарушение минерального exchange

Minerals are structural components of cells and
are present in enzymes, vitamins, hormones, pigments. it
biocatalysts for most physiological reactions and stabilizers
acid-base state of the body.

The mineral exchange in one degree or another is disturbed in practice.
eighty percent of the population. There are many reasons for this violation:
stress, accelerated pace of life in megacities, unfavorable
environment, dieting, unbalanced nutrition,
nervousness, вредные привычки. Mineral imbalance
приводит к нарушениям exchange нутриентов, гиповитаминозам и
enzymes, weakening of the immune system and damage to organs and tissues.
Нарушение exchange substances - симптомы, diseases

Нарушения минерального exchange проявляются следующими
symptoms:

  • hair loss
  • brittle nails
  • acne and acne
  • insomnia
  • falling vision
  • reduced immunity
  • allergic reactions
  • reduced immunity
  • stool disorders
  • decreased libido

Нарушение минерального exchange может происходить по каждому
micro or macro, the most common
pathological conditions:

  1. Кальциноз – нарушение exchange кальция. The basis of pathology is
    отложение солей кальция в клетках или межклеточном substancesе. it
    can lead to functional impairment of those organs and structures
    organism where calcium deposition occurs.
  2. Болезнь Вильсона – нарушение exchange меди. Increases
    copper content in cells, especially in hepatocytes and basal nuclei
    brain, and dystrophy of the affected structures.
  3. Гиперкалиемия – увеличение уровня калия в of blood. Often
    occurs when the adrenal cortex is damaged and leads to violations
    functions of the cardiovascular system.

Распространены и нарушения exchange substances, связанные с дефицитом
Go with an excess of certain vitamins in the body (see vitamin deficiency and
hypovitaminosis – symptoms, causes). Hypovitaminosis and avtiminozy
часто диагностируются у children, гипервитаминозы – более редкие
pathologies characteristic of people mindlessly using vitamins
or non-compliant dosage applications.

Лечение нарушения exchange substances, особенно неосложненного, не
having a congenital nature associated with alimentary factor,
can only be done by adjusting the diet and regime
power supply. Однако диагностировать нарушения exchange substances в начале
its development is difficult. But it is easy to prevent such
conditions, leading a healthy lifestyle and following the principles of healthy
food!

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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