Melanoma – skin cancer: stages of the disease, signs andthe symptoms

Melanoma - skin cancer: stages of the disease, signs and the symptomsOncological diseases
– the scourge of modern times. WITH каждым годом количество пациентов растет, и
statistics scares not only the average man, but also doctors.
It is known that oncological diseases are insidious, as they affect
human rapidly and unexpectedly. But самым «хитрым» онкопроцессом
considered melanoma. По данным ATсемирной организации
health, over the past 50 years, the number of cases
increased by 600%. The number is truly scary, and it’s better to know about
illnesses everything to react in time if you ever have to
face her.

Treatment of the term

Melanoma of the skin – a malignant disease, takes its development
from melanocytes. These are cells that produce pigment,
coloring and protecting the skin. WITHчитается, что начинается
the disease is only from the rebirth of moles, but in fact it is not
quite like that. Not more than 30% of cases are recorded when
melanoblastoma was associated with nevi. AT остальных случаях были
affected clean skin areas, as well as the mucous membranes and retina.
Often первые образования появляются на руке или лице.

WITHтрашна опухоль тем, что имеет агрессивное течение, ее клетки
spread rapidly through the bloodstream and lymphatic system
worsening the forecast and significantly reducing the likelihood of
recovery of the patient.

Experts give the worst prognosis for melanosarcoma.

It is also worth noting that the onset of the disease is difficult to track, therefore
often the patient asks for help when neglect is observed
process. With this scenario, doctors have to urgently
develop treatment tactics to help the patient.

WITHимптоматика меланомы

WITHимптомы и признаки меланомы легко распознать, если знать, что
look for. Melanoblastoma is always a pigment spot on the body. Need to
be attentive and track any changes occurring on
skin. A large number of moles on the body is a risk factor
so you should watch the nevi and carry out an independent
control. Signs of melanoma at an early stage
think:

  • WITHимптоматика меланомыthe formation of new moles in mature
    age;
  • changes in the color, shape and density of nevi;
  • the structure is heterogeneous, there are light and darker
    plots;
  • pain, burning, itching;
  • birthmarks with a diameter of more than 5 mm;
  • release of a liquid from a nevus of any color and a consistence.

If you find these symptoms, you need to go to the hospital.
at the place of residence, the therapist will give a referral to an oncologist who
determine whether education is dangerous and what to do with it next. If a
откладывать посещение врача, то прибавятся и другие the symptoms
skin melanomas:

  • damage by pigmentation of healthy tissues adjacent to
    education;
  • bloody discharge and necropsy;
  • pain and discomfort at the site of injury.

Such manifestations suggest that the disease is already running.
In this case нельзя медлить, потому что меланома начинает
spread throughout the body, which means there is a high risk
formation of metastases. Skin metastatic melanoblastoma
gives other signals:

  • Skin metastatic melanoblastomamigraine or chronic
    headache;
  • multiple seals of the skin;
  • cramps and confused consciousness;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • the person looks “gray”;
  • sudden loss of weight and appetite;
  • respiratory failure and cough.

Usually such a condition manifests itself in the last stage, the general
state of health is deteriorating.

The survey reveals a prevalence of
process. Forecasts are rated as negative.

Causes of disease

ATозникновение пигментной меланомы сопряжено с множеством
factors that trigger melanocyte degeneration in
malignant, mutational cells. Often специалисты связывают
melanoma with a gene mutation arising in human DNA. She is
causes the cells to change their appearance and internal structure, and
also to multiply uncontrollably, thereby triggering oncological
process. But «программе» требуется запуск, спусковым
The mechanism can serve:

  • Causes of disease раком кожиWITHолнечные лучи и УФ-излучение.
    It is known that sunbathing should be taken correctly. Oftenе
    exposure to UV rays on the skin spoils its structure, thereby
    making her grow old. In addition, there is a risk of
    заболеваний кожи, в том числе и melanomas.
  • Damage to nevi can cause inflammation, it is
    may become chronic and later contribute
    rebirth of healthy cells. ATрачи рекомендуют удалять родинки,
    which are often damaged, it will help protect
    man in the future.
  • Oftenе общение с компьютером и другими гаджетами. Some
    experts consider melanoma a professional disease of the system administrators,
    as any radiation can be dangerous for the body.
  • AT анамнезе имеются первичные, но залеченные меланобластомы.
    ATторичное возникновение называют рецидивом, а ранее перенесенное
    cancer always threatens to come back.
  • European type. People with fair skin are much more
    subject to the formation of such skin diseases. Especially those
    who has a lot of freckles and red hair.
  • Heredity. If a у предшествующих поколений бывали cases
    the occurrence of the disease, that is, a high risk of its manifestation and
    heirs.
  • Естественное возникновение пигментных пятенMore than 50 moles.
    The more pigmented areas on the skin, the higher the risk
    collisions with melanoblastoma.
  • Natural occurrence of age spots. In this case
    cite two examples: age-related changes and hormonal. WITH
    skin structure changes and becomes more susceptible with age
    to UV rays, which provokes the production of pigment, and this is how
    known risk. Hormonal nature is associated with pregnancy. AT
    risk groups are women over 30 and those who bear
    large children.
  • Some diseases. For example, provoke melanoma can
    нарушения в работе щитовидки и надпочечников, меланоз Дюбрея, WITHПИД
    и ATИЧ.

It is known that women get sick a little more often than men, and this is necessary
take account of.

Especially the fair sex who are over 50
years and have other risk factors. But men suffer the disease
harder, so you need to monitor health, not focusing on
gender.

WITHтадийность меланобластомы

Like any other cancer, melanoblastoma
also has a staging that allows you to predict
further course of the disease and select the necessary treatment tactics.
WITHтадии меланомы:

  • Первая. Detect more than 5 mm in formation
    diameter and towering over the skin in the range of 1-2 mm. WITH
    damage to the shell of a nevus or without them.
  • ATторая. The tumor is larger, thickness in
    within 4 mm. Often with signs of dissection of the upper layer, which means
    bleeding or other secretions.
  • Третья. Detect the spread on
    coming tissues, pigmentation increases, regional
    lymph nodes.
  • Четвёртая. Process spread to
    distant organs. Metastases affect the internal organs.

WITH увеличением стадии и распространенности недуга ухудшаются
general condition of the patient, prognosis and susceptibility to treatment.

AT случаях, когда метастазы обнаруживают в жизненно важных
organs, to reverse the process can be extremely difficult. Often
Targeted therapy is applied.

Diagnostic measures

The earlier the disease is detected, the better the prognosis. But
diagnostics often causes a number of difficulties because
the presence of melanoma is only possible for an experienced specialist. WITHейчас
active work is under way aimed at familiarizing the population with
the problem of skin cancer. WITHпециалисты призывают
conduct an independent examination of the skin for the presence of
changes. This contributes to early diagnosis. Diagnosis
put on the basis of the following actions:

  1. Phased examination of the patient’s skin with the naked eye.
  2. Detailed investigation of suspicious sites using
    magnifying devices.
  3. WITHтадийность меланобластомыGeneral blood counts and
    urine.
  4. Excisional biopsy. Nevus is surgically removed, and
    then explored.
  5. Partial sampling of a piece of tissue for research.
  6. Histological examination.
  7. CT scan, MRI of internal organs, brain, etc.
  8. Confocal microscopy. Allows to penetrate deep layers
    skin and track the germination of melanoma.

ATсе исследования являются важной частью диагностического
process, they allow a comprehensive study of the patient’s condition and
determine the diagnosis and establish the stage of melanoma.

Based on the collected history, a program is being developed
designed to help the patient. AT каждом отдельном случае тактика
treatment is selected individually.

Treatment tactics

If you find any primary signs of rebirth or
other suspicious manifestations, it is recommended to remove a mole or
pigment spot. And only then find out the causes of
situation like that and also continue to further explore
received material.

As already mentioned, treatment directly depends on neglect.
process. The more complicated the situation, the more integrated approach
required. Used to remove suspicious nevi
surgical methods:

  • scalpel;
  • laser;
  • radio waves.

ATсе варианты являются эффективными, но если требуется дальнейшее
studying, it is better to use a scalpel, it will help keep
material.

If a учитывать стадии, тактика врача будет выглядеть
in the following way:

  1. WITHтадия I. Проводится иссечение по здоровым тканям. AT среднем
    1-2 cm along the edge. Depth of operation depends on the degree of germination
    melanomas.
  2. Stage II Surgical intervention is performed in the same way as
    at the first stage. In addition, regional lymph nodes are examined on
    the subject of detection of malignant cells. If required, their
    also deleted. To stop the process of further distribution
    alpha interferons can be administered.
  3. Diagnostic measures при меланомеIStage II AT
    all melanomas are removed without fail, and
    близлежащие к первичному очагу lymph nodes. Operated plot
    subjected to radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is also prescribed.
  4. Stage IV. In this case процесс слишком запущен, но врачи
    will try to remove as many of the detected lesions, metastases
    also subject to excision if possible. Chemotherapy and radiation
    therapy is also shown.

To maintain the patient’s life and normal functioning
organism prescribed targeted therapy. It aims to soften
associated symptoms. Unfortunately, this tactic does not bring
recovery, but can save a person from pain and
discomfort.

Treatment depends on the part of the body, which appeared
melanoma, for example, on the face, neck, and in the eyes is often used
cryo-freeze. It destroys tissue, but only affects
affected area, thereby reducing the likelihood of
large scars after surgery.

Таргетная терапия при меланоме

Chemotherapy has a positive effect on recurrent
tumors and in general slows down the process, while the radiation
appointed less frequently. The reason is the resistance of skin cancer cells to
similar radiation. After all, it is harmful rays are trigger
mechanism to start the process.

It is still possible to use immunotherapy, it will serve
prevention of relapse of melanoblastoma, often used together with
chemistry In addition, the specialist will give instructions on nutrition,
physical activity and other preventive measures.

Forecast based on various factors

Treatment outcomes and future life projections depend on
the prevalence of the process and characteristics of cancer.
It is clear that the sooner the disease is detected, the higher
chances of staying alive and healthy. But experts also note
dependence of this factor on the form
diseases:

  • Thus, superficial melanoma is found in more than 70%.
    sick It is less aggressive because it does not germinate deep in
    tissue, and hence the prognosis in most cases
    positive.
  • Knotty form occurs in 15% of patients. She has more
    serious in nature and more common in men. With such a flow
    negative outlook.
  • Subungual. On average, about 15% suffer from this form, but it
    carries a minimum of negative consequences.

The latter is typical of African-American races. Europeans
occur more often the first two. But cases of an acroentiginous tumor
(neoplasm under the nail) are also.

Stage effects

The first stage is the easiest, respectively, and the treatment is not
causes difficulties that predicts survival, tending to
100%. There is usually enough surgery with a wide
excision and maintenance therapy.

The situation is slightly worse at the second stage, especially with the defeat
regional lymph nodes, but in this case it is possible to reach
full recovery if measures are taken on time.

The third stage threatens with the deep germination of melanoma in the dermis and
the presence of metastases or multiple foci. But even in this case
survival rate is quite high – from 24 to 68%.

Stage effects меланомы

With the fourth degree of severity, the first five-year period is experienced
15−20%, and the second – 10−15%. This means that you should not give up
in none of the situations, but is it worth fighting together with the doctor until
the end.

Primary metastasis of melanoma is usually noted in the lungs, but
possible damage to the bones, brain, liver. With this fight
with the disease is significantly complicated. But even in this case
experts will try to help maximize life and
improve its quality.

Prevention of skin cancer

Secure yourself completely fail, but accept possible
measures worth it. Since the skin is the largest human organ,
You need to watch him too carefully. Will help
in that:

  • Prevention of skin cancerregular self test;
  • restriction of interaction with radiation of a different nature;
  • physical activity;
  • healthy lifestyle;
  • regular visits to a dermatologist or oncodermatologist;
  • accurate handling of existing nevi;
  • tracking overall health.

Such measures will help keep the body healthy and on time.
react to the manifestation of any changes. In addition, it
It will positively affect the state of general well-being.

Skin cancer is a complex disease that requires an urgent response from
patient and doctor, timely diagnosis and positive attitude.
Only due to these factors, many sick continue to live and
enjoy your success. But the main thing – you need to have as much as possible
information. She will give an understanding of what to expect next and how to deal with
a disease.

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