Measles – symptoms in children, photo, treatment,prevention and the first signs of measles

Measles (morbilli) – highly contagious acute viral infection,
manifested by a high (febrile) temperature, specific
exanthema, general intoxication symptoms, generalized
inflammatory lesions of the pharyngeal mucosa, conjunctiva and organs
breathing. The source of infection is considered to be a sick person, a form
кори, у которого могут протекать не только с типичной
picture, but also atypical. The disease is also dangerous due to the possibility
development of various complications, which is especially dangerous with a weakened
immunity. Let’s find out how the measles looks like in children in the photo,
what causes and symptoms of the disease, as well as treatment and methods
prophylaxis that must be followed.

What is measles?

корь у детей

Корь — это остро протекающее вирусное заболевание
infectious, usually transmitted
by airborne droplets. This disease only get sick once. After
human immunity is produced. However, not only is dangerous
pathology itself, but also the consequences that it can
provoke.

A sick person is always a source of infection.
Often it is dangerous for other people from the 7th day of infection.
и в особенности при появлении сыпи. The measles virus stops
enter the environment on the 4th day from the moment of appearance
elements on the skin and from that day a person becomes non-infectious.

Measles depletes the immune system and for several
months after illness, protection against infection is weakened. In this period
the child is often sick. So try not to go with the baby.
mass crowds. Feed it protein and vitamin food,
walk more outdoors.

The reasons

The cause of the spread of infection is always sick
person. The virus enters the air through droplets of saliva released
when coughing, sneezing or talking, and then “moving” in
airways of a nearby child. The patient is considered
contagious during the last two days of the incubation period of the virus and
right up to the 4th day of the rash.

Often measles sick children under 5 years. Adults not past
vaccinations, get sick less often, but their risk of infection is very high.
high, with the disease proceeding in a more severe form than that of
children. In the spring-winter period, the peak of incidence is observed, and
The decline is in August and September. After выздоровления
persistent lifelong immunity persists with blood retention
measles antibodies.

Infants up to 1 year old can barely get measles, since
their mother’s antibodies are stored in their blood, but
gradually by the year their number decreases, respectively increasing
risk of developing the disease without vaccination. When infected
pregnant women can transmit the virus through the placenta to the fetus and
development of congenital measles.

Incubation period

This is the time interval that starts at the moment
infection and continues until the first signs
diseases. It is believed that this period in children is
7-14 days. At this stage, the virus in the body multiplies
�“Quietly,” no measles symptoms, absolutely nothing for a child
worried. At the same time, the baby becomes infectious for others.
in the last 5 days of the incubation period.

For prevention in preschool it is necessary to limit
children with measles symptoms up to 5 days after the first
rashes.

How is measles: a photo of children with rash

Measles can be distinguished from other diseases by the nature of the course.
Initially, the temperature appears up to 39 degrees, then red,
eyes begin to water and fester.

корь: атипичная и типичная форма

Pay attention to the photo – a symptom of measles in children at the initial
Stages are also the spots of Velsky – Filatov on the mucous
cheeks shell:

Symptoms of measles in children

Oddly enough, but how measles begins, even the most
shrewd parent. This insidious disease develops by
stages, and the initial period can last for weeks and completely
do not show yourself. The child will continue to have fun and play, and
the malicious virus thereby will undermine its body
from the inside.

The first signs of measles are very similar to the symptoms of ARVI. The child has
appears:

  • cough,
  • runny nose
  • the temperature rises.

This period is considered the first and is called incubation.

The most characteristic sign of measles disease are spots
at the base of molars. They arise from the fact that the virus
destroys the mucous membrane. It becomes thinner. White spots
surrounded by red swollen border. By this sign, measles can be
distinguish from other diseases that have similar manifestations.

The flow of measles in a child is a successive change of 3
stages:

  • catarrhal period;
  • stage of rash;
  • recovery period.

Each of them has its own time range and
corresponding symptoms.

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In the table we consider how measles manifests itself in different
stages

Symptom Description
Catarrhal period Lasts in children from 3 to 5 days. At this time a row appears.
symptoms similar to the common cold that due to
circulation of the virus in the blood (viremia):

  • body temperature in some cases increases to 39 degrees,
  • появляется runny nose
  • сухой cough,
  • redness of the eyelids,
  • there is insomnia
  • sometimes vomiting, loss of consciousness and short-term
    convulsions.

In this period активность у детей снижается. They become
lethargic, moody and sedentary due to weakness. Disturbed sleep
and appetite deteriorates.

Rash A measles rash appears 3-4 days after the onset of the disease.
The period of rash lasts 4-5 days.

  • The beginning of the period of rash due to raising the maximum
    temperature A typical measles begins to form on the skin.
    and mucous membranes.
  • On the first day, bright spots of burgundy can be detected only
    on the head, face and neck of a child.
  • On the second day, the rash can be seen on the arms, chest and
    back.
  • On the third day the measles spreads to the whole body,
    legs and feet. In this case, the rash on the face and head is already brightening.
Pigmentation From about the fourth day of the period of rash condition
the crumbs begin to improve. Baby already ceases to be contagious.
The pigmentation stage can last 7-10 days. Stains gradually
brighten, fade:

  • first, the skin of the face, neck, hands is cleansed,
  • then the torso and legs.

After сыпи не остаются следы и шрамы на коже.

Any of these symptoms should be a reason to address
to the doctor.  If necessary, a pediatric therapist
направит маленького пациента к узкопрофильным
specialists for additional examination.

Complications

Various effects result from weakening
immunity, which is why viral infection is complicated
joined bacterial. In measles patients often
диагностируется вторичная бактериальная пневмония. Rare but
возможны стоматиты.

Most often it is:

  • otitis
  • laryngitis;
  • bronchopneumonia;
  • stomatitis;
  • glossitis;
  • blindness;
  • encephalitis;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes of the neck;
  • tracheobronchitis;
  • polyneuritis;
  • CNS damage.

Complications, возникающие у маленьких детей, сложно назвать редким
a phenomenon. That is why the baby should be treated under the strict control.
district pediatrician. Ideal if the doctor will visit your
child at least once every three days.

Diagnostics

To make a reliable diagnosis of your child
should send to the following types of laboratory tests:

  • general blood and urine tests;
  • serological examination (detection of measles virus antibodies in
    serum of the child);
  • isolation of virus from blood;
  • chest radiography (done only in exceptional
    cases);
  • electroencephalography (performed only if there are complications
    on the nervous system).

Despite the severity of the disease, the prognosis of childhood measles
favorable.

Если у ребенка корь, участковый педиатр должен осматривать
пациента как можно чаще, хотя бы раз в два дня. it
will help prevent dangerous consequences. Most complications
require immediate hospitalization of the child.

Measles treatment

The disease is quite difficult at any age,
therefore, parents have a logical question, how to treat
measles in a child, which methods are today considered the most
effective.

Measles is usually treated on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization in
an infectious disease department is required for severe illness with
complications. Compliance with bed rest is necessary on
throughout the entire fever period and in the next two days after
нормализации temperature

The symptomatic treatment may include the appointment of such groups.
drugs:

  • antipyretic;
  • antitussive;
  • eye drops for conjunctivitis (for example, Albucid or
    Retinol);
  • vasoconstrictor nasal drops from a cold;
  • expectorants;
  • antivirals (Arbidol, Interferon, Gripferon);
  • anti-inflammatory drugs for sore throat;
  • antihistamines (Loratadine, Cetirizine,
    Levocetirizine)
  • immunomodulators;
  • antiseptics for gargling.

Antibiotic therapy for measles
детей не назначается, потому что болезнь имеет вирусную,
а не бактериальную природу.

Interestingly, children who experience
vitamin A deficiency. Therefore, WHO recommends taking it for 2 days.
during treatment to speed recovery.

The following procedures will also be of great benefit.
however, do not cancel the drug treatment:

  • rinsing the oral mucosa with a weak solution of soda (1 tsp.
    glass of water);
  • rinsing eyes with boiled water;
  • cleaning the nose with cotton flagella soaked in warm
    petroleum jelly;
  • the use of moisturizers for treating dry skin
    lips

Compliance with the regime

High-quality care for children with measles
parents and other household help greatly enhance
the effectiveness of therapy prescribed by the doctor, and therefore
will speed up the recovery of the child, will prevent
development of complications, sometimes life-threatening.

  1. A child with measles needs bed rest for the time being.
    temperature. If possible, give him a separate room.
    Wet cleaning should be carried out at least 2 times a day. Highly
    it is important that the air always remains fresh, so more often
    air the room.
  2. If bright light causes unpleasant sensations, then close.
    curtains, and in the evening instead of the chandelier turn on the desk lamp.
  3. Protect the mucous membrane of the lips from cracking
    regular lubrication with petroleum jelly or baby cream; can also
    use animal greases for lubrication;
  4. Gargling with soda solution is performed at home.
    or decoctions of chamomile, calendula. They can also be used for
    eye wash.
  5. When measles shows abundant warm fortified drink:
    freshly squeezed vegetable and fruit juices, compotes, fruit drinks, alkaline
    mineral waters, tea, infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants.
  6. Food should be warm, but not hot. Best cook
    child cleaned and semi-liquid dishes. Such food is the least
    irritates sore throat.
  7. Highly важная профилактическая мера – ежедневная смена
    underwear and bed linen. it необходимо для того, чтобы сыпь
    the child did not arise again. It should also be regularly
    to air the room in which the sick kid spends time, and
    wet cleaning every day.
  8. Observe the daily regimen. Although sleep is disturbed and insomnia develops,
    Try to go to bed on time. Особенно это касается children.

Prevention

The main role in the prevention of measles in children belongs to active
immunization. The basis of vaccination is the process of artificial
creating an immune response to infections, through the introduction of
organism of protein components of bacteria and viruses causing
development of infectious processes.

When the first signs of the disease appear, parents are obliged
isolate the child from other children, call the district police officer
pediatrician; if the child attended an institution (kindergarten,
school), the mother must inform the institution of the disease
baby

General recommendations for the prevention of measles:

  • isolation of children with measles from the team;
  • compliance with quarantine measures in groups for 21 days;
  • regular airing and wet cleaning of the rooms, especially
    if there was a sick child;
  • timely introduction of immunoglobulin to contact children is not
    after 3-5 days from the moment of contact;
  • routine vaccination and revaccination of children according to the calendar
    vaccinations.

Повторное заболевание корью встречается в крайне
rare cases. After перенесенного заболевания иммунитет
life. After прививки сохраняется стойкий иммунитет
на протяжении 15 лет. Noticing the appearance of a rash
child should consult a doctor, he will help you with his
explanations. It is important to remember that it is not the virus itself that is dangerous, but those
negative consequences in the form of complications which he often
It has.

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