Measles in children: first symptoms, treatment andprevention (measles vaccination)

Measles is an infectious disease that is transmitted
by airborne droplets. Unvaccinated child with
contact with an infected person is 100% likely. This percentage
almost no other susceptibility
diseases.

The content of the article

  • 1 Causes of Measles
  • 2 Symptoms and stages of the disease
    • 2.1 Non-standard forms of measles
  • 3 Diagnosis of the disease
  • 4 Treatment
    • 4.1 Disease complications
    • 4.2 Prevention
    • 4.3 Video: how to protect yourself and children from measles
  • 5 Graft

Корь у ребенка


Measles in children is acute, especially between the ages of 2
до 5 years old. The disease virus enters the body through respiratory
path, and then spreads the bloodstream. With this disease
mainly affects the mucous membranes of the eyes, oral cavity and
органы дыхания, появляется характерная сыпь, конъюнктивит,
the temperature rises.

Causes of Measles

The cause of the spread of infection is always sick
person. The virus enters the air through droplets of saliva released
when coughing, sneezing or talking, and then “moving” in
respiratory tract of a nearby child. The patient is considered
contagious during the last two days of the incubation period of the virus and
right up to the 4th day of the rash.

Measles in children under one year is extremely rare, because they are still few.
contact with the outside world and strangers. Besides
новорожденные пребывают под защитой материнских антител. Have
infants may not normally occur, and
отличаться следующими признаками: отсутствие
температуры, незначительный насморк, несильные
redness in the mouth.

At the same time, babies in the first year of life may experience
complications that are more severe than measles and
primarily affects the respiratory and cardiovascular
system.

Have переболевших детишек иммунитет к заболеванию сохраняется до
the end of life. If the mother has had measles in the past, the child will
resistant to the disease until the age of 3 months. Exactly like this
a period of time maternal antibodies are contained in the baby’s blood.
Также и после vaccinations развивается иммунитет и ребенок будет
Measles protected.

Symptoms and stages of the disease

Symptoms of measles: 1 and 4 - rash; 2 - symptom Belsky-Filatov-Koplik; 3 - enanthema in prodromal периоде

Symptoms of measles: 1 and 4 – rash; 2 – symptom
Belsky-Filatov-Koplik; 3 – enanthema in prodromal
периоде

Корь – коварное заболевание, развивающееся поэтапно. First
days the disease can not manifest itself at all, kids remain
fun and playful. Virus spreading through the body
child, still completely invisible to the sensitive eyes of parents. AT
this is the cunning of the very first period of flow
diseases, and there are four of them.

1. Incubation period

This is the time interval that starts at the moment
infection and continues until the first signs
diseases. It is believed that this period in children is
7-14 days. At this stage, the virus in the body multiplies
�“Quietly,” no measles symptoms, absolutely nothing for a child
worried. In this case, the baby becomes infectious to others only
in the last 5 days of the incubation period.

2. Catarrhal period

AT этот период у ребенка появляются симптомы, сильно напоминающие
cold:

  • general malaise, weakness, lack of appetite;
  • increase in body temperature to 40 ° C;
  • headaches;
  • dry cough;
  • runny nose and hoarse voice;
  • increased tearing, swelling and redness of the eyelids, conjunctivitis
    (drops and ointments for conjunctivitis);
  • abdominal pain and loose stools;
  • runny nose with purulent mucous discharge from the nose;
  • слезотечение, светобоязнь;
  • babies may experience weight loss.

Documentary

The catarrhal period of the disease lasts no more than four days, in
the course of which all the symptoms of measles gradually turn into more
severe forms. AT тот момент, когда все проявления достигают самых
high rates, rash begins to appear.

3. Period of rash

As already noted, a rash appears at the time of peak
состояния всех признаков diseases. Dark red spots
shades appear primarily on the head. Gradually
expanding and merging with each other, they form large foci
rashes. It is for this reason that the child’s face swells and the lips
become dry and often crack.

On the second day of this period, the rash begins to appear on
руках и upper torso. The third day is characterized
the appearance of lesions on the entire body of the child. Duration
the whole period is 4 days.

The period of rash is characterized by a decrease in body temperature,
weakening of cough and appetite. Baby becomes
mobile and active. About a week after the start
rashes catarrhal signs pass completely.

4. Stage of pigmentation

Rash leaves pigmentation, the appearance of which
occurs in the same sequence: first on the face, then on
whole body. These spots gradually begin to peel off and over time
pass completely.

At the pigmentation stage, the baby’s condition gradually comes to
full rate sleep and appetite are restored, and the temperature
body does not exceed normal values.

Non-standard forms of measles

If a child has measles, you will not always be able to notice
the development of this disease. Measles may not occur as usual, but in
another form. Such forms of the disease are called
atypical.

Mitigated form

Children who have been in contact with an infected child
receive for the prevention of immunoglobulin. These kids have a total
the picture of the disease becomes blurred:

  • the incubation period lasts 21 days;
  • in the catarrhal period there is a slight cough and runny nose;
  • all periods of the disease, except for incubation,
    are reduced;
  • rashes are not abundant and appear without compliance
    phasing;
  • cheeks are no characteristic spots;
  • pigmentation is less dark.

Abortive measles

With such an atypical form, all signs of disease appear.
according to the standard scheme. But after about 2-3 days all the symptoms
Diseases disappear dramatically. Rashes focus on the face and
upper torso.

Blurred shape

This form of measles is strongly reminiscent of mitigated. Here
catarrhal signs of the disease are also minor. But,
unlike the mitigated form, the erased is characterized by
lack of rash. This factor greatly prevents the formulation
correct diagnosis.

Памятка - Осторожно Корь!

Памятка — Осторожно Корь!

Диагностика заболевания

Often recognize the disease only by external manifestations
difficult or even impossible. This is especially true of atypical forms.
diseases. In addition, the first signs of measles strongly resemble a cold,
that can be misleading anyone.

To make a reliable diagnosis of your child
should send to the following types of laboratory tests:

  • general blood analysis;
  • general urine analysis;
  • serology (detection of antibodies to measles in the blood);
  • detection of measles in the blood.

Additionally, a child may be sent to a chest x-ray,
and in the presence of complications from the nervous system – on
electroencephalography.

In most cases, with the standard development of the disease
diagnosis does not cause difficulties and laboratory
research is simply superfluous.

Treatment

There are no special treatments for measles, the body
cope with the infection on their own. Treatment здесь применяется
symptomatic, which will facilitate the general condition of the patient
child:

  • antipyretic drugs at elevated body temperature;
  • cough medicine depending on its type (for wet and
    dry apply different medications);
  • remedies for rhinitis and sore throat;
  • heavy drinking and bed rest.

During the period of illness it is also important to provide the child with the necessary
vitamin complexes to maintain immunity, and
chapped lips smeared with vaseline.

Symptomatic treatment is carried out at home under
pediatrician supervision. In the hospital department of the child is placed in
if complications begin to develop. In the presence of
Complications therapy supplemented with antibacterial drugs.

Disease complications

Complications develop, as a rule, in children under 5 years old or in
adults “who are over 20”. The most common ones are:

  • otitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • stomatitis;
  • encephalitis;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck;
  • bronchopneumonia.

Complications occurring in young children can hardly be called rare
a phenomenon. That is why the baby should be treated under the strict control.
district pediatrician. Ideal if the doctor will visit your
child at least once every three days.

Why are there such consequences? Everything is very simple. Measles virus
able to depress the immunity of a small patient, and this is excellent
circumstance for bacteria surrounding the child. They are provided
�”Free entry” into the body of the baby, and they do not slow down
take advantage of. Depending on the type of bacteria entering the
the body of the child may occur not only the above
complications. It is quite possible that stool disorder, conjunctivitis and even
problems from the central nervous system.

The immunity of the baby is reduced at the stage of rash and may not
recover earlier than a month. Therefore, the treatment is important
observe basic hygiene procedures, and be observed by a doctor
do not stop even after recovery.

Prevention

The first step in preventing disease is to limit contact with
sick children. A child with signs of this infection should be
isolated from other (not ill) children for the entire period when he
contagious. The patient’s room should be regularly ventilated.
her and wet cleaning.

Children in contact with the patient, in the first 5 days after
contact introduces a special immunoglobulin that helps them
don’t get sick Such a measure is taken in relation to kids who
not previously been vaccinated.

It is important to know! Immunoglobulin is administered only to children with
immunocompromised and under three
years old.

But the most reliable assistant in the prevention of measles –
vaccination.

Video: how to protect yourself and children from measles

Graft

We have already said that the vaccine is the most effective method in
measles prevention. Graft представляет собой artificial
virus infection. But its concentration is so low that the body
child cope with the infection on their own and at the same time
produces protective antibodies.

After vaccination possible:

  • slight increase in temperature;
  • the appearance of conjunctivitis;
  • small rash on the body.

All this is completely safe and takes place in 2-3 days.

Note! The vaccine is contraindicated in children with
immunocompromised and having a blood or heart condition.
A vaccine is live measles bacteria. You can only vaccinate a child
in the absence of contraindications.

The first vaccination is carried out in children aged one year,
ревакцинация – в 6 years old. Then you can hope for
long-lasting effect to protect your child from
вируса на протяжении 15 years old. Смотри календарь
vaccinations

Measles is not a pleasant disease. Moreover, in small children she
often complicated by other unpleasant diseases that may
do much more harm than measles itself. At the same time, babies,
recover from this sore once, get life
immunity.

Graft от кори – надежный метод профилактики заболевания, но и
she is not a panacea. Before agreeing to a vaccination, you must
make sure the child has strong immunity and no other
contraindications.

doktor


We also read:

  • The jaundice of newborns
  • Frequent skin diseases in children
  • Other common childhood diseases

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