Mange – symptoms, early signs, causes,diagnosis and treatment

Scabies is an anthropophilic parasitic disease, because
itch parasitizes only on man. Source of
infection is a sick person scabies transmitted
directly on contact or through infected objects
everyday life.

What is scabies?

чесотка

Scabies is a skin disease caused by parasitism.
scabies mite (Acarus scabiei) in surface areas
skin.

Чесотка передается при длительном прямом контакте
�”Skin-skin”, so the easiest way to get infected in bed at night. Children
are often infected when they sleep in the same bed with the sick
parents. This is due to the biological characteristics of the mite:

  • scabby mite is active in the evening and at night,
  • it takes about 30 minutes to penetrate the mite
  • in the external environment, the tick dies quickly (at 21 ° C and humidity
    40-80% – in 24-36 hours), and activity loses more
    earlier.

The main signs of scabies in adults are as follows:

  • Intense itching, worse at night
  • The appearance on the skin of a small, red rash
  • On closer inspection, you can see the scabby moves,
    that look like crimped gray-white stripes. Run out
    such moves by vesicles (nodules in which the female lays
    eggs).

Man with tick

It has an oval shape. On its front limbs are located
claws, there are suckers, and the rear ones are covered with bristles, which allows
move him fast. How many scabby mites live
depends on his gender and age.

Female It exceeds the size of the male and reaches 0.5 mm in length.
Her life is thirty days. During that time she
каждый день откладывает 2-3 яйца под роговым слоем skin.

However, her death may occur earlier if she leaves
host and be boiled or frozen. When plus
temperature, she can live on things and clothes for three more days.

Male The life of a male is very short: after his mission
done, he dies. Before turning into a tick, its
the larva goes through several stages from the time of hatching from the egg. But
already being larvae, parasites can move from one
person to another.

If we consider the characteristics of the life cycle of the mite
step by step, it happens like this:

  1. Male оплодотворяет самку непосредственно на коже человека,
    after which he dies.
  2. After mating, the female immediately penetrates the skin,
    break yourself laz.
  3. Then the itch forms new moves, each of which
    leaves 2-4 eggs.
  4. The larvae form about three days, then they leave the eggs and
    feed on blood.
  5. After a week, the larvae become sexually mature and climb
    surface.
  6. Then the cycle repeats: mating, male death and penetration
    females under the skin.

Scabies Ticks

However, it is worth noting that, despite the rather short
life of parasites, each of them has time to leave in the human body
about a hundred eggs, so it is very important to start treatment at the first
signs of scabies to stop the infection.

Causes of

Causes of the disease:

  • poor sanitation; poor hygiene;
  • contacts with infected people in a crowded way of life;
  • wearing other things;
  • many sexual partners;
  • use of other personal hygiene items.

Important! Mite is transmitted between people. Get scabies from
animals is impossible.

The most at risk of scabies infection are the following.
Population categories:

  • Children и подростки, находящиеся в коллективах (детских садах,
    schools)
  • Persons in prison
  • Persons living in cramped, unsanitary conditions
  • Persons leading active and promiscuous sex life.

Symptoms of scabies + photo rash

Typical symptoms in scabies:

  • Сыпь у взрослых и детей, локализующаяся на разных участках
    and worse at night. This is due to the fact that именно в ночные часы
    females are active in terms of their livelihoods.
  • The formation of significant moves scabies.
  • Polymorphism is characterized by the formation of papules and vesicles,
    which are covered with a crust of the hemorrhagic plan.
  • Favorite places of infection – the stomach, the folds between the fingers,
    lateral areas, thighs and gluteal muscles, in women – on the chest, in
    men – in the groin. Особенно заметной становится сыпь на
    hands.
  • Red spots are formed on the body during the disease, forever
    itchy, they are “covered”, “surrounded” by lines that have
    unattractive gray tone.

сыпь при чесотке

Типичные места сыпи при чесотке:

  • almost all have interdigital spaces and lateral surfaces
    fingers,
  • 50% – the area of ​​the wrist joints,
  • 50% of men have genitals,
  • 25% have feet,
  • 20% – the body,
  • 17% have arms and legs (except for hands and feet),
  • 10% of women have mammary glands.

Also: flexor folds of the forearms and shoulders, buttocks, thighs
and popliteal hollows.

Typical scabby rash is small nodules
red tint over time turning into small
bubbles, which will soon be opened, leaving behind a bloody or
purulent crust.

Signs of typical scabies

From the moment of infection to appearance of the first signs of scabies can
pass less than a day, sometimes a week or more. Incubation period
The disease may be different. It is determined at times of the year
the number of parasites on the skin.

  • The main symptom of the initial stage is itching. Intensity of it
    is growing. Especially strong this sign becomes in the evening and
    night time. This can be explained by increased activity.
    pathogen by the end of the day.
  • The presence of scabby moves. Itch moves represent
    slightly elevated straight or curved white, gray lines
    on skin less than one centimeter long. Blind end
    a vial in which the female tick is located is visualized. 
    Often the moves appear in those areas of the skin where the stratum corneum
    has the greatest thickness.
  • The waste products of scabies mites cause
    allergic reaction, manifested by skin rashes (papules,
    vesicles). Because of the itch, a person combs the elements of a rash, on
    the place of which appear erosion, and then bloody crusts.
    Spot bloody crusts in the elbow area are called symptom
    Gorchakova.

The appearance of scabies moves on hand

Симптомы норвежской формы

Butрвежскую чесотку открыли в середине позапрошлого века.
This is a rather rare species. It is also called cortical or
cruciferous. Mostly affects people who are severely impaired.
immune status.

Characteristic signs of scabies:

  • A variety of elements of the rash, having a drain character, from
    spots, before blisters, the presence of ulcerated cracks in the skin.
  • The appearance of crusts of various shades of yellow and brown.
    Increasing in thickness and merging, they can form
    peculiar “armor” over parts of the body.
  • In the crusts, when studying them, a huge amount of
    ticks at different stages of their life cycle. Sometimes, their
    The quantity reaches 200 per cm².
  • You can identify the parasite on the nail plates, which are under
    the influence of the fungal flora also thickens and becomes
    loose.
  • Attaching to the picture described extensive pustular
    skin lesions, furunculosis, due to the addition of secondary
    infections.
  • There is a long rise in temperature.

Nodular scab

The nodular form of scabies develops as a result
severe body response to waste products
the parasite. In response to the formation of toxic substances, the immune system
responds to allergic manifestations: the appearance of a red rash in
form of nodules and intense itching.

  • Small knots are located directly above the scab moves and
    when combing covered with rough, dry crusts.
  • Round nodules reach a diameter of 20 mm, they are few
    and are located in the groin area, on the inner thighs, in
    underarms, buttocks or chest.

Symptoms of scabies in clean people

Clean scabies is a blurred form of the disease that
occurs in people with normal immunoreactivity,
therefore, no allergic reaction to the presence of
ticks. Increased attention to personal hygiene when people are somewhat
once a day, take a shower and change the underwear and bedding so
also contribute to the erosion of clinical manifestations in scabies.

It is characterized by single eruptions on the chest and around the navel,
which practically do not macerate and do not cause discomfort,
only at night is itching.

Complicated Scabies

In this form of the disease there will be a clinic of complications in the form of:

  • dermatitis,
  • skin boils,
  • erysipelas,
  • abscesses and phlegmon of soft tissues.

Occasionally, the disease may occur in the form of light urticaria,
as a complex response of the body to a foreign antigen. On this and
the main treatment will be sent.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis is made based on the complaints of the person, the results of the examination,
epidemiological data, research results. Apply
following diagnostic methods:

  • Removing the tick from the stroke with a needle for further
    microscopic examination;
  • The method of thin sections of the skin in the area of ​​scabies;
  • The method of layer-by-layer scraping in the area of ​​the blind end
    scabies until blood appears with further
    material microscopy;
  • Express diagnosis using lactic acid;
  • Alkaline preparation method.

Scabies differentiates with diseases that also accompany
itchiness Such diseases include microbial eczema, nodular
prurigo However, unlike scabies, itching for these ailments
bothers the patient during the day. A sure sign of scabies – the moves of the females
tick.

Также чесотку необходимо дифференцировать с сифилисом,
because they have many common features. The diagnosis is clarified by
serological studies.

Treatment of scabies in adults

In the treatment of scabies, regardless of the regimen,
treat all skin, not just the affected areas,
except for the scalp (except when scabies
localized on the scalp). Body wash and change of body and
bed linen only before and after the treatment of scabies, during
therapy time body wash is prohibited.

Recommendations for the treatment of scabies:

  1. All patients living together are treated. at the same time
    since there may be reinfection even after cure.
  2. The patient is required to explain the obligation of strict compliance.
    treatment regimen.
  3. The prescribed drug is applied to the body with the hands of only the very
    the patient. This requirement is due to the presence of it on the palms.
    a large number of scabby moves. To get rid of
    parasites hands should be actively in contact with the means
    designated doctor. All rubbing is carried out in the direction of growth
    downy hair with limited intensity in areas with gentle
    skin
  4. Before using any product be sure to cut short
    nails and put a medicinal substance under them, because there when
    combing accumulates a lot of parasite eggs.
  5. The causative agent of the disease (female tick) day, as a rule,
    rests, begins to activate in the evening and at night. By this
    The reason is that the effective time for the procedure is evening.
  6. All clothes, pillows, blankets, linen, toys, objects
    use must undergo treatment for the destruction of itchy.
    Ways – hot iron, boiling up to 5 – 10 minutes, packing on
    3 days of all things in closed plastic bags, hanging
    items of clothing in the air for 2 – 4 days. Such processing is
    mandatory in order to avoid re-infection from ticks remaining
    on linen, surrounding objects or clothing.

Acaricidal preparations (scabicides)

Many chemical agents have tick-borne activity.
connections. However, for the treatment of scabies apply
limited number of scabicides. This is due to the fact that
drugs are applied to the entire skin.

Anti-scabies drugs should comply with the following
requirements:

  • be low toxic;
  • be allergic;
  • do not cause local irritation of the skin;
  • have a local effect, not resorptive, i.e.
    affect the location of the application, and not after getting into the general
    blood flow;
The effectiveness of basic acaricides against scabies
Drugs Efficiency in%
Sulfur-containing 95
Esdepalletrin 80-91
Crotamion 72-91
Thiobendazole 72-90
Benzyl benzoate 73-87
Lindane 60-80 *
* Depending on the percentage of active
substances

Sulfuric ointment

Sulfuric ointment (20 – 33% для взрослых, 3 – 5 % — для
infants from 2 months) is an effective and harmless remedy,
inexpensive and time-tested. Smear on the skin every evening
a course of no longer than 5–7 days.

Wilkinson Ointment

It has a composition that favorably affects the entire therapeutic process.
It has a good antiparasitic effect, and also has
antifungal and antiseptic properties. Rubbing the skin
carried out for three days. The minus is
unpleasant odor and the possible occurrence of dermatitis as
side effects.

Permethrin

Permethrin – препарат, который потребует 2 обработок тела. For
getting rid of scabies in each case is necessary
carry out the treatment according to the instructions marked on the insert
medication.

Spregal

Aerosol that kills ticks during all periods of maturation,
including eggs. Spregal используют однократно. Evening before bed
sprayed on the steaming body of the patient, excluding the head, with
distances of 30 cm. The mouth and nose should be closed with a napkin. Face in children
treated with cotton moistened with medicine. Puts on fresh
clothes changing bed Second washing and linen change
the next day before bed.

Benzyl benzoate

Effective potent remedy for scabies. Duration
therapy is determined by the doctor depending on the severity of the disease.
Minimum course – 2-3 days, according to the recommendation of a dermatologist treatment
repeat. Children need 10% of the drug, adults – 20% ointment. Before
with a cleanser, wash well, put on clean linen.
Some patients complain of burning, itching on treated
plots. Remember! During pregnancy and lactation
use of benzyl benzoate is prohibited.

Lindane

Lindane (лосьон) тампоном наносят на кожу, смывая средство
in 6 hours. For надежного уничтожения зудней лосьон применяют
twice – on the 1st and 4th day of treatment.

Метод Демьяновича от чесотки

The essence of this method is a single, but long
body treatment: when treating the skin, first rub the solution
sodium thiosulfate (60%), spending 2 minutes on 1 rubbing and
taking a break between them to dry the solution. After that into the skin
three times for 1 minute, rub the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (6%),
making a break for it to dry out. Three days later a person can
swim and change clothes.

Important! Any means applied in the wrong
concentration or in violation of the duration of treatment may
lead:

  • weak effects on itching, their eggs and renewal
    diseases with new force;
  • to the development of dermatitis, since many remedies are sufficient
    aggressively affect the skin, especially – the nursery;
  • to the occurrence of strong and unpredictable allergic
    manifestations.

Prevention

Prevention чесотки достаточно проста. At the end
treatment:

  • thoroughly wipe any surfaces that may have touched
    infected person;
  • throw away old bedding and underwear;
  • drink a course of vitamins for restoration of protective forces
    organism.

Preventing infection will help:

  • thorough hand washing after visiting public places;
  • maintenance of household hygiene;
  • reasonable approach to the choice of sexual partner.

Scabies is a contagious skin disease, therefore
the appearance of itchy rashes, as shown in the photo, necessarily
consult a dermatologist.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: