Lymphadenitis — причины, симптомы, лечение острой иchronic lymphadenitis

Lymphadenitis – это воспаление лимфатических узлов, возникающее в
as a result of ingress of various microorganisms and their toxins.
Characterized by an increase in lymph nodes in size and sharp
soreness in the affected area. Only in rare cases
Lymphadenitis is a distinct disease. More often
of all this is nothing more than a symptom signaling some kind of
malfunctions in the body.

What is this disease, what are its first signs,
reasons why lymphadenitis is dangerous to humans, if not treated –
consider further.

What is lymphadenitis?

Lymphadenitis – это воспалительное заболевание лимфатических узлов,
often purulent. Occurs when ingested staphylo and
streptococci.

The disease occurs after microorganisms, toxins, and
also the decay products of the tissues enter the lymphatic lymph
knots. Penetration can occur through damage to the skin,
mucous membranes, as well as by hematogenous.

Usually, lymphadenitis occurs as a complication of primary inflammation.
any localization. Infectious pathogens (microorganisms and
their toxins) penetrate the regional lymph nodes with lymph flow,
which flows from the primary purulent focus. Sometimes by the time
development of lymphadenitis, the primary focus is already being eliminated and may
remain unrecognized.

In other cases, lymphadenitis occurs with immediate
penetration of infection into the lymphatic network through damaged skin
or mucous membrane.

Withзнаки чаще появляются на шее, а также в подмышечной зоне и в
groin Swollen lymph nodes may be single or
observed simultaneously in different parts of the body.

Common symptoms are represented by local and general elevation.
body temperature, severe pain, skin hyperemia
cover, chills and itching. Lymphadenitis – патология, которая может
develop in any person, regardless of gender and age.

Более чем у 80% людей celebrated безболезненное увеличение
submandibular lymph nodes that is considered normal
a phenomenon. No other lymph node groups are normal.
are palpable.

Classification

For the duration of the course of the disease, lymphadenitis can occur, as
many other diseases, acute and chronic, by type
causative agents of infections – specific and nonspecific,
progression – purulent and non-purulent.

Classification лимфаденита в зависимости от интенсивности и
duration of the inflammatory process:

Acute lymphadenitis

The beginning of the development of the pathological process is acute. Main
causes of pathology progression: wound infection, presence
acute infectious disease in the body, carrying
surgical intervention.

Forms of acute inflammation:

  • catarrhal (simple inflammation);
  • hyperplastic (with active growth of lymphoid cells);
  • purulent.

Acute – manifested by bright symptoms and goes into purulent
form, if not treated. With гнойной форме лимфоузлы расплавляются и
the disease affects adjacent tissues.

Redness and swelling occur around the lymph node, the contours of the node
blurred, lymph node soldered to surrounding tissues, movements in this
zone pain. As pus accumulates and tissues melt
celebrated движение гноя внутри узла. If not happening
surgical treatment, an abscess in the area of ​​the node may break
outward or deep tissue.

Chronic lymphadenitis

This pathology is directly related to the progression
cancer or the presence of infectious
a process that has not subsided for a long time.

With хроническом неспецифическом лимфадените воспаление в
lymph nodes can be protracted. This inflammation wears
productive character. Its transition to purulent form is practically not
is found.

Symptoms хронического неспецифического лимфаденита замечается
swollen lymph nodes, they are dense, with palpation
slightly painful, not soldered to each other. Lymph nodes remain
enlarged for a long time, but gradually their
reduction In rare cases, the growth of connective tissue can
cause disorder of lymph circulation, edema.

By location:

  • Underчелюстной;
  • Cervical;
  • Underмышечный;
  • Parotid;
  • Mesenteric (mesadenitis);
  • Inguinal.

By prevalence:

  • Single;
  • Regional;
  • Total.

During acute lymphadenitis, there are three consecutive
stages:

  • catarrhal (with redness, dilation of vessels in the region
    node)
  • hyperplastic (with increasing node size, impregnation
    his plasma)
  • purulent (education inside the site of a purulent cavity).

Simple lymphadenitis is distinguished by the fact that the inflammatory process
does not go beyond the capsule of the node itself. With деструктивных формах
The inflammatory process extends to the surrounding tissues.
Changes in surrounding tissues may be limited by serous
inflammation or, in a more complicated case, may turn into purulent
inflammation followed by the formation of adenophlegmon.

Withчины

Lymphadenitis у взрослых развивается на фоне вредной работы и при
neglected forms of disease. In men and women celebrated
disregard for their own health when they
are sick Often, attempts are made to self-medicate
diseases. This approach provokes lymphatic suppuration.
tissues, the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

As a rule, lymphadenitis is a consequence of primary
septic inflammation. Pathogenic (pyogenic) microflora –
streptococci and staphylococci, and the toxins they produce migrate
from the hearth by lymphogenous way, or with blood flow. It is also possible
introduction of infectious agents into the lymph vessels through
injured skin or mucous membranes (contact
way).

Inflammation of the tissues of the lymph nodes develops due to
influence of infectious and non-infectious factors.

Infectious causes of lymphadenitis:

  • staphylococcus;
  • streptococci;
  • E. coli;
  • Pneumococcus;
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
  • AIDS virus;
  • микобактерии туберкулеза;
  • viral mononucleosis;
  • parasitic and fungal infections.

Often lymphadenitis occurs as a result of inflammation in the area
oropharynx with angina, adenoiditis, flu, scarlet fever.
Lymph nodes may increase in childhood infections – rubella,
паротите или дифтерии.

Among the common non-infectious causes of lymphadenitis
can highlight the following:

  • oncology of lymph nodes (lymphoma);
  • metastatic (secondary) cancer that has spread from other
    body areas;
  • inflammation as a response to the introduction of a foreign body.

Symptoms лимфаденита у взрослых

фото

Signs of lymphadenitis largely depend on its type and
stage. So, for example, if the symptoms of acute lymphadenitis are not
impossible to see, the so-called simple lymphadenitis in general
often proceeds painlessly and for the time being does not cause
anxiety.

Symptoms:

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  • Edema and hyperemia – local phenomena that characterize the struggle
    lymphocytes with viruses and pathogenic bacteria.
  • Loss of appetite, weakness, headache – develop on the background
    poisoning of the body with toxins that emit pathogens
    inflammation.
  • Suppuration in the area of ​​the lymph node – if there is a formation
    pus, then we are talking about the development of an abscess, sometimes purulent
    melting of the lymph node.
  • The development of tachycardia – when the process is running inflammation
    increases and gives a complication of the cardiovascular system.
  • Gas crepitus – palpation of the affected lymph node
    there is a slight crunching.
  • Violation of the functional features of the site
    inflammation – due to pronounced pain syndrome a person cannot
    move your hand or foot, neck, depending on which
    lymph node inflamed area.

Symptoms of acute lymphadenitis

Signs of acute lymphadenitis depend on the form of the disease and
характера inflammation. Basically, the general condition of the patient with
catarrhal lymphadenitis is not particularly disturbed. As
Symptoms may manifest:

  • pain in the area of ​​regional lymph nodes.
  • With этом celebrated увеличение лимфоузлов, их болезненность во
    palpation time.

If the disease process progresses and periadenitis develops,
then the symptoms described may be exacerbated.

  • Painful sensations become sharp, the skin over the lymph nodes
    become hyperemic, and when patients are palpated
    feels pain.
  • Lymph nodes, which previously could have been very clear
    palpate, now merge between themselves and with those around them
    tissues, moreover, they become immobile.

Symptoms of the chronic form

Chronic lymphadenitis is divided into primary arising, as
the result of penetration into the body of weakly contagious microflora and on
sharp, which took a protracted form. Clinic of these forms
Lymphadenitis includes the following signs:

  • lymph nodes are dense and painless on palpation,
  • no adhesions.

Often their own cells are replaced by connective tissue,
this leads to impaired lymphatic circulation, lymphostasis and
extensive edema.

Increased sizes can last for a long time, but then knots
decrease due to proliferation of connective tissues. General
the condition of a person with chronic lymphadenitis is not disturbed,
body temperature is normal.

Specific lymphadenitis also have their own characteristics:

  • in gonorrhea, the inguinal nodes are excessively painful and
    are increased;
  • tuberculous form gives severe weakness (due to intoxication)
    and a sharp rise in temperature that can last long
    time, the surrounding tissues are inflamed;
  • syphilitic nature of inflammation occurs in the form of
    unilateral process. Lymph nodes resemble a “chain”.  With
    feeling, they are free, not soldered and rarely with pus
Lymphadenitis Symptoms
Cervical Clicking on the formed lymph node seals cause
pain. In addition to inflammation in cervical lymphadenitis:

  • worsening general well-being of the sick,
  • he has a headache and fever.

With острой форме в области лимфатических узлов образуются
strong suppurations

Underчелюстной Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes. Pain. Strengthens as
disease progression. Change of skin over
lymph nodes:

  • redness
  • swelling
  • local temperature rise of 1-2 degrees

Lymphatic suppuration nodes (develops with bacterial
infections).

Inguinal
  • Lymph nodes increase in size,
  • there is pain, both at rest and during their palpation.

When walking, patients feel:

  • lower abdominal discomfort
  • sharp pain.

Related symptoms include:

  • high temperature
  • weakness and chills.

Complicated inguinal lymphadenitis:

  • localized edema
  • hyperemia of the skin.
Axillary form Symptoms of axillary pathology:

  • swollen lymph nodes and their suppuration;
  • fever;
  • sharp knot soreness;
  • phenomena of general intoxication;
  • swelling of surrounding tissues;
  • the abscess could break out (with the formation of fistulas in
    axillary cavity) and inward (formation of adenophlegmon).

Individual symptoms of lymphadenitis indicate the development
serious potentially life-threatening conditions. When available
you need as soon as possible to apply for qualified
help, sometimes the bill goes literally for hours and minutes. This is about
such signs as:

  • increased body temperature (above 38.5 ° C);
  • difficulty or rapid breathing;
  • severe pain, swelling, pronounced redness;
  • cardiopalmus.

When the first symptoms of lymphadenitis appear, such as
lymph node pain, swelling, fever
You should immediately consult a physician or surgeon.
These experts will help you directly determine the cause and
prescribe the correct treatment or further diagnosis. Under
mask of lymphadenitis can hide various diseases such
like the plague, tuberculosis, various tumor processes.

Complications

Of the local complications of lymphadenitis, one should remember the probability
development of suppuration (usually in childhood). Progressing
inflammation of the lymph nodes without proper treatment often leads to
for a:

  • abscess formation;
  • tissue necrosis;
  • blood poisoning;
  • fistula formation;
  • thrombophlebitis of adjacent veins.

Purulent lymphadenitis may be complicated by the development of cellulitis,
corroded blood vessel walls with bleeding.

Diagnostics

Lymph nodes in a healthy person are soft, not enlarged,
are displaced relative to the adjacent tissue, painless. Very often have
people with normal build lymph nodes feel not
manages to. Well they are found in children and adolescents thin
physique.

When diagnosing, the doctor will first examine
lymph nodes and install all of the above signs.
Further, guided by the data obtained, the issue of
laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods.

Examinations in the diagnosis of lymphadenitis:

  • clinical blood test;
  • HIV test;
  • Ultrasound;
  • allergic skin tests;
  • CT scan;
  • x-ray examination;
  • biopsy site.

When examining children, it is necessary to exclude or confirm
Quincke’s edema, congenital tumors and cystic neoplasms in
neck area. When examining patients with inguinal form
lymphadenitis is required to exclude the presence of an inguinal hernia and
sexually transmitted diseases.

Многие путают понятия «лимфаденопатия» и «лимфаденит»,
since these words sound similar. In fact, the name
the disease is only the second, since the first is only
симптом или  безболезненная реакция организма на довольно
serious pathology (AIDS, syphilis, etc.). Of course, in such
cases the diagnosis requires clarification. Only after examination and
testing the patient is diagnosed.

Lymphadenitis treatment

So, if there are initial stages of lymphadenitis, then treatment
quite conservative:

  • creating rest conditions for the affected area;
  • physiological treatment: electrophoresis, ultrasound therapy,
    galvanization;
  • anti-inflammatory ointments and preparations.

In most cases, hyperplastic and catarrhal
lymphadenitis, occurring in the acute form, is treated conservatively.
Patients are recommended to provide a state of rest for the affected
areas and prescribed antibiotic therapy in view of
sensitivity of pathogenic flora, as well as vitamin therapy and
UHF-therapy.

In chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis, elimination is required.
the main disease that supports inflammation in the lymph nodes.
Specific lymphadenitis is treated based on the etiological agent and
primary process (syphilis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, actinomycosis and
others).

The main thing is the treatment of the underlying disease, against which
developed inflammation of the lymph nodes. Medications that
used in the treatment of lymphadenitis are:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Ketorolac,
    Nimesulide;
  • Antihistamines: cetirizine;
  • Antibiotics: Amoxiclav, Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin,
    Benzilenitsillin;
  • Antiviral drugs: acyclovir, rimantadine;
  • Anti-TB drugs: Ethambutol, Rifampicin,
    Capreomycin;
  • Antifungal: Fluconazole, Amphotericin V.

Operation

To surgical treatment resorted to the development of purulent
complications of lymphadenitis – abscess and adenophlegmon.

Stages of operation:

  • Under местным или общим обезболиванием проводится вскрытие
    purulent focus, removal of pus and destroyed tissue.
  • Determined by prevalence of purulent process, degree
    lesions of nearby organs and tissues.
  • At the end of the operation, the suppurative focus is washed with antiseptic
    with solutions (for example, furatsilinom), the wound is sutured and drained –
    a special tube (drainage) is installed in the wound cavity, through
    which is the outflow of inflammatory fluid and pus, as well
    Various antiseptic solutions may be administered.

Prevention

Prevention лимфаденита подразумевает под собой:

  • prevention of skin microtrauma;
  • prevent infection of abrasions, wounds and other
    damage to the epidermis;
  • timely elimination of foci of infection (for example, treatment
    caries of teeth or tonsillitis), opening
  • purulent pathological formations (boils and
    felon);
  • timely, accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment
    diseases that cause specific
  • forms of lymphadenitis (gonorrhea, tuberculosis, syphilis, actinomycosis
    and others).

Lymphadenitis as a disease of the immune system signals
presence of pathogenic flora in the body, so it is necessary to treat not
only the inflamed lymph node itself, but first and foremost the affliction that
contributed to lymphadenitis.

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