Low pressure: causes, symptoms, treatment,drugs to increase pressure

Update: October 2018

Everyone knows the effect on the duration and quality
life high blood pressure, but with the problem of low blood pressure is often one on
one remains those sufferers who inherited it
or due to circumstances.

Low blood pressure is considered not to exceed 100 by 65
mmHg. All numbers that do not reach this threshold may lead
to the deterioration of the blood supply to the periphery of the body and cause a number
unpleasant symptoms and changes associated with oxygen
fasting, in organs and tissues.

The condition is named hypotension. Low top pressure
talks about reducing the contractile capacity of the heart, low
lower – about problems with its vascular component or renal
malfunctions.

Low pressure in healthy

In the absence of disease, physiological hypotension may
occur under certain environmental conditions:

  • in hot climates with high humidity
  • hot workers
  • in the highlands
  • most prone to low blood pressure
    athletes
  • people engaged in physical labor with significant
    loads.

Causes of low pressure

Low blood pressure can be congenital or acquired under
exposure to external causes. The main situations in which
the pressure will fall below the allowable rate, the following.

Vegetative dystonia

IRR and discoordination of the vascular center in the medulla oblongata
lead to the fact that the lumen of the vessels is not narrowed enough when
changing environmental conditions and pressure is not kept on
level sufficient for normal functioning of the body (see symptoms
vegetative-vascular dystonia).

Cerebral atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels in the elderly and the elderly has
similar mechanism of hypotension. Rigid calcified vessels are not
can change their clearance quickly and well, plus deteriorated
blood supply of the vascular center against the background of all the same
atherosclerotic changes of brain vessels.

Decreased blood volume

Acute drop in circulating blood volume:

  • against the background of blood loss (see uterine bleeding, bleeding from
    anus, blood from the nose, etc.)
  • dehydration due to diarrhea, vomiting, diuretic abuse
    or insufficient intake of fluid – leads to a decrease
    pressure in the bloodstream.

Cardiac pathology

The fall of the contractility of the heart (with acute heart attack
myocardium, cardiac tamponade, atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation or
ventricles, sudden coronary death) does not provide
sufficient discharge of blood and its pressure (pressure drops).

Endocrine disorders

Endocrine pathologies such as adrenal insufficiency,
hypothyroidism necessarily accompanied by low pressure numbers. With
adrenal insufficiency in the body lacks hormones
cortical layer of the adrenal glands. Aldosterone deficiency leads to
a drop in the level of fluid in the body due to loss of sodium. The fall
levels of thyroid hormones leads to a decrease in blood pressure due to
insufficient vascular tone and decrease in heart rate.

Pulmonary artery thrombembolia

Pulmonary artery thrombembolia, при которой крупный легочный
the vessel is clogged by a blood clot from the inferior vena cava system –
frequent cause of acute hypotension.

Heatstroke, anaphylactic or painful shock

Any collapse (eg heat stroke, intoxication) or shock
(painful, infectious, toxic, anaphylactic shock) leads to
sharp deposition of blood in the vessels of the abdominal cavity,
exsanguination of the periphery (brain and limbs),
accompanied by low blood pressure.

Other reasons

  • Anemia – chronic anemia of any origin, disease,
    giving hidden blood loss (hemorrhoids, uterine fibroids, ulcerative colitis,
    erosive gastritis, peptic ulcer), leading to chronic
    secondary lowering of arterial pressure.
  • Injuries – Traumatic brain injury can cause
    increased intracranial and low peripheral pressure
    due to hydrodynamic impact of cerebrospinal fluid on
    vasomotor center.
  • Cancer patients – cancer patients at the cachexia stage also
    suffer from low blood pressure numbers.
  • Withем лекарственных средств — это лекарственная гипотония, as
    the result of overdose hypotensive, diuretic, cardiac
    glycosides, nitrates, muscle relaxants, psychotropic and
    sleeping pills

Symptoms of low pressure

Withзнаки низкого давления могут проявляться в программе
self-medication (hypotension) or as secondary
condition in other diseases. Hypotension criteria like
nosological form:

  • pressure below 110-100 at 65-70 for a year or longer
  • early manifestations of hypotension 9c adolescence)
  • hypotensive crises
  • no cause for secondary hypotension.

Integuments

Integuments у гипотоников чаще всего бледные, холодные и
wet. As with the usual low blood pressure, as a rule,
the effect of the parasympathetic nervous system, then the skin is resistant white
dermographism. Against the background of chronic oxygen starvation of tissues
there may be blue shadows under the eyes or brown circles around them.
With острой гипотонии к бледности добавляется синюшность носогубного
triangle and terminal phalanges of the fingers. If hypotension is due
hypothyroidism, the skin is pale, swollen and dry. Nails and hair
brittle.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Changes in the digestive tract can also be very diverse. If a
hypotension – secondary to chronic microbloods from the gastrointestinal tract,
then the case is most likely hyperacid gastritis, ulcerative
disease or ulcerative colitis. Then different will be celebrated.
intensity of pain in different parts of the digestive tract, heartburn. Belching air
or eating, bowel disorders (constipation or diarrhea). With
hypothyroidism marked decrease in enzyme activity and
acidity of gastric juice. Digestion processes deteriorate.
suction, there is a tendency to dyspepsia and constipation.

central nervous system

The condition of the central nervous system also suffers variously.
With острых состояниях гипотонии (шоке, коллапсе)или
traumatic brain injuries, consciousness is clouded or lost. With
endocrine genesis hypotension marked inhibition,
memory impairment and learning. Hypotonics tend to be low.
performance, fatigue and drowsiness. Even after
prolonged night sleep a person with hypotension
may feel extremely overwhelmed.

Respiratory system

Lungs react to low pressure with compensatory dyspnea.
(especially in the load), which is designed to improve the oxygen
providing tissues. With ТЭЛА или отеке легких могут выслушиваться
various moist rales, and pinkish sputum is separated.

The cardiovascular system

The performance of the heart can be both in the normal range and
vary significantly. So, in acute vascular accidents (PEI,
myocardial infarction, stroke) can be low pressure and low
pulse. There are situations when against the background of a frequent uneven pulse
hypotension is noted (for example, with ventricular fibrillation
low pressure).

Symptomatic hypotension with adrenal
failure

If a низкое артериальное давление обусловлено недостаточностью
adrenal cortex, its symptoms will be as follows.

  • With первичной хронической failure минералокортикоидов
    (Addison’s disease) progresses muscle weakness, fatigue,
    drop in performance. Hypotension is resistant progressive
    character Компенсаторно учащается сердцебиение и pulse. Celebrated
    skin hyperpigmentation. Nausea, vomiting, and stool instability
    combined with pain in the abdomen. Blood sugar is falling. There are frequent
    night urination. CNS responds with distracted attention, falling
    memory, depressions.
  • The secondary deficiency of the adrenal glands proceeds similarly, but
    skin hyperpigmentation is not characteristic of it.
  • An accessonic crisis is an acute condition when
    mineralocorticoids in the blood fall quite sharply. On this background
    developing a rapid decline in blood pressure, heart failure,
    Indomitable vomiting and diarrhea cause rapid dehydration.
    Mental disorders change from arousal to severe
    lethargy, sopor and coma.

Causes of low pressure у женщины

Women most often bring themselves to hypotension themselves.

  • Fascination with mono diets, fasting, vegetarianism – alimentary
    causes of low blood pressure.
  • In menstruating women, banal anemia may be the primary cause.
    against the background of refusal to eat meat in combination with disregard for
    primary prevention of anemia with iron preparations during
    monthly
  • Anemization can occur in the presence of uterine fibroids,
    hemorrhoids.

Pregnant women may suffer from pressure drops on the background of a sharp
progesterone jump in the first trimester. In late dates from
polyhydramnios, twin pregnancies, inferior vena cava syndrome and all
the same iron deficiency anemia. Most often due to the growing
the abdomen worsens the venous return to the heart, which contributes
decrease in cardiac output and gives a drop in blood pressure.

In any case, if low pressure first developed at
pregnancy, what should be done by an obstetrician-gynecologist together
with the therapist and endocrinologist.

If a давление то высокое, то низкое

Blood pressure surges are always less preferable than
consistently high or consistently low numbers. Frequent drops
blood pressure give too much strain on the vessels and
may be harbingers of brain or heart catastrophes
(stroke or heart attack), because they contribute to the separation
formed blood clots or cracking atherosclerotic
plaques. Which then thromboses.

  • Inadequately matched antihypertensive therapy for arterial
    hypertension leads to the fact that excessive doses or frequency of administration
    drugs excessively lower blood pressure (see all drugs for
    pressure reduction). Unusually low pressure makes patients
    grab coffee or stimulants that give a second jump
    HELL. A vicious circle is formed, which will end sooner or later
    not good
  • Weather-sensitive people with vegetative-vascular dystonia are often
    have high to low pressure drops and vice versa (see as
    magnetic storms affect health).
  • Severe atherosclerosis can cause abrupt changes
    pressure, especially his falls.
  • Against the background of alcohol abuse, the vascular reaction can be
    paradoxical, and dilation of blood vessels can replace them sharp
    spasm.
  • Spastic or acute abdominal pain can cause
    скачков HELL.
  • Chronic stress provokes arterial instability
    pressure.

Hypotension treatment

Therapeutic measures for the correction of hypotension must begin
with:

  • normalization of the day regimen – full sleep at night,
    eliminate stress and overload
  • it is also important to eat well, get enough
    amount of vitamins
  • avoid dehydration and intestinal infections.

Reasonable physical exertion causes muscles to throw out in
blood flow extra blood, work harder
heart, adrenal glands and normalize blood flow in the vascular center,
ответственном за уровень АД (см. также as повысить давление в
home).

Adaptogens

For the treatment of chronic hypotension most mild drugs
are adaptogens from plant and animal materials. These
Means increase the tone of the vascular center, gently push
heart and constrict blood vessels. In addition to increasing blood pressure, these drugs reduce
fatigue, level drowsiness and somewhat increase overall
tonus and human performance.

  • Pantocrine (80-100 rubles), motherwort extracts (10 rubles), ginseng
    (40-70 rubles), zamaniha and lemongrass (30-100 rubles), Rhodiola tincture
    pink (30 rubles) and Tincture of Aralia Manchu (40-50 rubles).
    Tablets Saparal on the basis of Aralia Manchu can be used
    в качестве стимуляторов pressure.
  • Some varieties of red are also considered traditional adaptogens.
    wine, for example, Cahors. Of course, it is necessary to take it for dessert
    spoon per day, not liters.

Alpha adrenomimetics

With острых падениях давления (гипотензивных кризах,
orthostatic decreases in blood pressure, fainting) more
effective alpha adrenomimetics. Drugs increase blood pressure
stimulating alpha adrenoreceptors, which leads to narrowing of the arteries and
maintaining a constant volume circulating in the bloodstream
blood. At the same time drowsiness and increased
fatigue

  • Solutions for injection and tablets Gutron, Midodrin, Midamin
    эффективно повышают HELL. They are contraindicated in arterial
    гипертензии, failure кровообращения, нарушениях ритма,
    hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, renal
    failure.
  • Both Mezaton (Phenylephrine) and Noradrenaline are used in solutions.
    (Norepinephrine), and Fetanol, Mefentermine are produced in the form of dragees.
  • Stimulants of the central nervous system can improve
    давление и ускорять процессы обучения, снижать fatigue
  • Indirect adrenomimetics is Caffeine sodium benzoate.

Analeptics

  • Analeptics, стимулирующие сосудодвигательный центр – это
    Theseлэфрин, Эффортил, Симптол, Нитецамид, Кордиамин, Theseмизол,
    Akrinor.
  • Analeptics, реализующие эффекты через спинной мозг: Секуринин,
    Angiotensinamide.
  • When low blood pressure and high heart rate can be done
    suggest anticholinesterase agents (Bellataminal, Ginos,
    Bromenvale).

Thus, low pressure is not always just depressed.
condition and chronic weakness, but also the risks of vascular catastrophes.
Therefore, with low pressure it is not reasonable to self-medicate, but
it is worth undergoing a thorough examination by a therapist or
a neurologist.

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