Low hemoglobin: symptoms, treatment, folkfacilities

Update: November 2018

Each of us, during our lifetimes, we have a blood test.
from the finger. Coming to the doctor for the result of the analysis, we hear from
him certain numbers about the amount of hemoglobin which are always
are in a high place in terms of significance of indicators, and
accordingly, indicate the state of the body.

Let’s try to figure out what this sonorous word means –
hemoglobin, and in what cases there is a deficiency, called
anemia. Hemoglobin is a two-component element.
red blood cells and is composed of protein (globin) and iron-containing
(gem) parts. Hemoglobin is represented in our body in
several forms:

  • Oxyhemoglobin – that is, hemoglobin + oxygen. It is contained in
    arterial blood and causes its scarlet color;
  • Recycled hemoglobin – the one that gave away oxygen
    tissues;
  • Carboxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin + carbon dioxide. is he
    is in the venous blood and forms its dark cherry color.

Hemoglobin functions in the body

  • Transfer of oxygen entering the lungs into tissues
  • The transfer of protons and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to
    lungs
  • Maintain blood pH

Hemoglobin rate

Normal hemoglobin level indicates normal
physiological functions for which he is responsible. With indicators
below these ranges we are talking about anemia – dangerous for
body condition.

Men Women Children
135-160 g / l  120-140 g / l  120-140 g / l

The main causes of low hemoglobin

  • for cancer, kidney disease, endocrine
    deficiencies, chronic infections – when a violation occurs
    erythropoiesis or the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow
  • fasting – often in women on a diet
    weight loss, anemia develops
  • destruction of red blood cells or shortening the duration of their life in
    blood (less than 4 months)
  • acute or chronic bleeding
  • iron deficiency, vitamins B 12, C, folic acid and
    pyridoxine
  • treatment with aspirin or ibuprofen (see the list of NSAIDs injections from
    back pain).

It is worth noting that anemia often accompanies the heart
deficiency and diagnosed in 5-55% of cases. Study
a sample of about a thousand patients with chronic
heart failure led to the following results:

  • low hemoglobin is associated with an increase in urea
    and creatinine and hemodynamic deterioration
  • hemoglobin level less than 136 g / l increased the risk of progression
    heart failure to terminal stages
  • hemoglobin level made an independent risk factor for death
    with this pathology – each drop in hemoglobin level by 10 g / l
    increased the relative risk of death by 13%

Diagnosis of anemia

All anemias are secondary and in primary
the mass is a symptom of the underlying disease. Differential
diagnosis of anemia is conditionally divided into 2 stages. Practice two
diagnostic phase carried out simultaneously.

At the first stage, the pathogenetic variant of anemia is determined, and
it is the main mechanism causing the decrease in hemoglobin.
In fact, this is a syndromic diagnosis, since all
pathogenetic variants of hemoglobin deficiency is
only a separate syndrome. This stage is carried out in the laboratory.
At this stage, the following studies are conducted:

  • Determination of hemogram using hematological
    analyzer
  • Study мазка крови с подсчетом количества ретикулоцитов и
    preparation of leukocyte formula
  • Biochemical analysis of blood serum with the determination of
    iron, ferritin level and total serum binding ability
    iron
  • Microscopic analysis of bone marrow punctate

The second stage of the diagnostic search is completely the prerogative.
attending physician. The task of the doctor is to diagnose
pathological process, which is the basis of anemic
syndrome in each individual. Simply put, the attending physician identifies
causes of anemia in a patient. As a rule, the doctor acts by
exceptions. Initially, the most dangerous states are excluded:

  • latent bleeding (gastrointestinal tract, outflow
    blood into the chest cavity, into the abdominal cavity, into the joint cavity, into
    pericardial cavity)
  • cancer pathology, for which the patient is prescribed
    additional studies (for example, full-body MRI for
    oncology exceptions, fecal occult blood test to exclude
    bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, etc.)
  • A thorough patient survey is conducted to clarify all
    symptoms that alarm a person or never before
    manifested
  • the nature of the food is necessarily specified, was the
    drug therapy, and what drugs

Symptoms of low hemoglobin in children

If low hemoglobin is detected in a child, the symptoms may
be from different systems and organs. But their totality
allows to suspect this condition.

  • Changes in skin, nails, hair. Низкий гемоглобин: симптомы, лечение Decreased hemoglobin
    leads to dryness of the skin, the formation of cracks, especially in
    corners of the mouth, brittleness and dullness of the nails and hair.
  • Changes in muscle tissue. Symptoms with low hemoglobin are
    muscle weakness (lethargy and fatigue of the child) and urinary incontinence
    children (with laughter, night).
  • Change in gastrointestinal function. There is a decrease in appetite, dryness.
    oral mucosa, constipation and diarrhea, changes in taste preferences
    up to the perversion of taste (for example, the use of clay),
    the appearance of ulcerations on the mucous membrane of the mouth, stomach, intestines.
  • Changes in psychophysical development – growth retardation,
    increased fatigue, poor performance.
  • Changes in immunity. Frequent
    recurrent respiratory infections, frequent sinusitis,
    tonsillitis

Symptoms of low hemoglobin in women and men

The most typical symptoms of low hemoglobin in women and men
similar to those of children. However, adults are not always on time.
pay attention to the alarming manifestations, thereby aggravating their
state.

What symptoms of low hemoglobin are common?

  • it is a constant weakness
  • drowsiness, fatigue
  • headaches, dizziness
  • tachycardia, low blood pressure and even
    fainting

Decreased hemoglobin в превалирующем большинстве случаев
acts as an indirect sign of iron deficiency in the tissues of the body.
Accordingly, the following symptoms are noted:

  • nail changes in the form of brittleness, thinning, delamination
  • dry skin and painful blisters
  • hair loss or slow growth
  • violations of taste and smell (eating chalk, earth,
    clay, raw stuffing, dough; accepting the smell of acetone, paints,
    exhaust gases)
  • unreasonable subfebrile condition up to 37.5 С

The appearance of such people also has characteristic features. Generally
a person looks tired and painful, there is pallor
skin, sometimes even jaundice (see jaundice: symptoms), cyanosis
lips, bright red color of the surface of the tongue.

However, the clinical picture is not always suspicious.
low hemoglobin. Pathology may be asymptomatic, therefore
It is necessary to undergo regular prophylactic examinations.

If low hemoglobin is found during pregnancy, the symptoms
correspond to the above. Only thing for pregnant
characterized by low body temperature, and not subfebrile. Any
of these symptoms in pregnant women is a signal for
see a doctor immediately (see pregnancy with a low
hemoglobin).

Treatment of various types of anemia

A universal drug for anemia does not yet exist. Treatment
with low hemoglobin depends on the causes of this
state and is always long.

Be sure to adjust the diet with the inclusion of berries,
fruits and vegetables that improve red blood cell regeneration and blood formation
in general: onions, garlic, strawberries, lettuce, buckwheat.
Be sure to eat red meat – the human body
наиболее усвояемо iron именно из мяса.

  • With massive blood loss, a transfusion is required.
    blood, restoring the amount of free blood. This is an extreme measure
    However, the most effective, and sometimes the only possible
    to save a life.
  • При недостатке железа назначаются советующие ironсодержащие
    drugs: Tardiferon, Ferlatum, Ferumlek, Maltofer, Sorbifer and
    Ave (see the complete list of iron supplements for anemia). Parallel
    This group of drugs is assigned vitamin C, which contributes to
    better absorption of iron.
  • With folic acid deficiency, it is prescribed artificially.
    drug substitutes (vitohepat, folic
    acid).
  • With hypochromic anemia, hematopoietic drugs are shown.
    (hemostimulin, erythropoietin).
  • With vitamin B-12 deficiency, subcutaneous injections are performed.
    vitamin course up to 6 weeks.

Народные facilities в борьбе с низким гемоглобином

Если обнаружен низкий гемоглобин лечение народными facilitiesми
is an effective practice in dealing with this dangerous
condition.

  • A decoction of wild rose berries and strawberry leaves strengthens the body
    as a whole and enriches it with vitamins. You can drink it instead
    habitual tea throughout the day.
  • Fresh red beet juice has a good effect.
    who drink one glass a day. Feature of beetroot
    the juice is that it can not be drunk immediately after the spin, as
    only squeeze the juice from fresh beets should be put in
    refrigerator for 3-4 hours to evaporate toxic compounds,
    only after that you can drink the juice.
  • The infusion of currant berries is rich in vitamin C and good
    with anemia.

All described therapeutic compositions must be drunk for at least a month –
only in this case they are effective. Generally же, показаны все
red fruits and berries, as well as green vegetables. After treatment
repeated clinical tests on the effectiveness of therapy.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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