Update: November 2018
Each of us, during our lifetimes, we have a blood test.
from the finger. Coming to the doctor for the result of the analysis, we hear from
him certain numbers about the amount of hemoglobin which are always
are in a high place in terms of significance of indicators, and
accordingly, indicate the state of the body.
Let’s try to figure out what this sonorous word means –
hemoglobin, and in what cases there is a deficiency, called
anemia. Hemoglobin is a two-component element.
red blood cells and is composed of protein (globin) and iron-containing
(gem) parts. Hemoglobin is represented in our body in
- Oxyhemoglobin – that is, hemoglobin + oxygen. It is contained in
arterial blood and causes its scarlet color;
- Recycled hemoglobin – the one that gave away oxygen
- Carboxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin + carbon dioxide. is he
is in the venous blood and forms its dark cherry color.
Hemoglobin functions in the body
- Transfer of oxygen entering the lungs into tissues
- The transfer of protons and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to
- Maintain blood pH
Normal hemoglobin level indicates normal
physiological functions for which he is responsible. With indicators
below these ranges we are talking about anemia – dangerous for
|135-160 g / l||120-140 g / l||120-140 g / l|
The main causes of low hemoglobin
- for cancer, kidney disease, endocrine
deficiencies, chronic infections – when a violation occurs
erythropoiesis or the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow
- fasting – often in women on a diet
weight loss, anemia develops
- destruction of red blood cells or shortening the duration of their life in
blood (less than 4 months)
- acute or chronic bleeding
- iron deficiency, vitamins B 12, C, folic acid and
- treatment with aspirin or ibuprofen (see the list of NSAIDs injections from
It is worth noting that anemia often accompanies the heart
deficiency and diagnosed in 5-55% of cases. Study
a sample of about a thousand patients with chronic
heart failure led to the following results:
- low hemoglobin is associated with an increase in urea
and creatinine and hemodynamic deterioration
- hemoglobin level less than 136 g / l increased the risk of progression
heart failure to terminal stages
- hemoglobin level made an independent risk factor for death
with this pathology – each drop in hemoglobin level by 10 g / l
increased the relative risk of death by 13%
Diagnosis of anemia
All anemias are secondary and in primary
the mass is a symptom of the underlying disease. Differential
diagnosis of anemia is conditionally divided into 2 stages. Practice two
diagnostic phase carried out simultaneously.
At the first stage, the pathogenetic variant of anemia is determined, and
it is the main mechanism causing the decrease in hemoglobin.
In fact, this is a syndromic diagnosis, since all
pathogenetic variants of hemoglobin deficiency is
only a separate syndrome. This stage is carried out in the laboratory.
At this stage, the following studies are conducted:
- Determination of hemogram using hematological
- Study мазка крови с подсчетом количества ретикулоцитов и
preparation of leukocyte formula
- Biochemical analysis of blood serum with the determination of
iron, ferritin level and total serum binding ability
- Microscopic analysis of bone marrow punctate
The second stage of the diagnostic search is completely the prerogative.
attending physician. The task of the doctor is to diagnose
pathological process, which is the basis of anemic
syndrome in each individual. Simply put, the attending physician identifies
causes of anemia in a patient. As a rule, the doctor acts by
exceptions. Initially, the most dangerous states are excluded:
- latent bleeding (gastrointestinal tract, outflow
blood into the chest cavity, into the abdominal cavity, into the joint cavity, into
- cancer pathology, for which the patient is prescribed
additional studies (for example, full-body MRI for
oncology exceptions, fecal occult blood test to exclude
bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, etc.)
- A thorough patient survey is conducted to clarify all
symptoms that alarm a person or never before
- the nature of the food is necessarily specified, was the
drug therapy, and what drugs
Symptoms of low hemoglobin in children
If low hemoglobin is detected in a child, the symptoms may
be from different systems and organs. But their totality
allows to suspect this condition.
- Changes in skin, nails, hair. Decreased hemoglobin
leads to dryness of the skin, the formation of cracks, especially in
corners of the mouth, brittleness and dullness of the nails and hair.
- Changes in muscle tissue. Symptoms with low hemoglobin are
muscle weakness (lethargy and fatigue of the child) and urinary incontinence
children (with laughter, night).
- Change in gastrointestinal function. There is a decrease in appetite, dryness.
oral mucosa, constipation and diarrhea, changes in taste preferences
up to the perversion of taste (for example, the use of clay),
the appearance of ulcerations on the mucous membrane of the mouth, stomach, intestines.
- Changes in psychophysical development – growth retardation,
increased fatigue, poor performance.
- Changes in immunity. Frequent
recurrent respiratory infections, frequent sinusitis,
Symptoms of low hemoglobin in women and men
The most typical symptoms of low hemoglobin in women and men
similar to those of children. However, adults are not always on time.
pay attention to the alarming manifestations, thereby aggravating their
What symptoms of low hemoglobin are common?
- it is a constant weakness
- drowsiness, fatigue
- headaches, dizziness
- tachycardia, low blood pressure and even
Decreased hemoglobin в превалирующем большинстве случаев
acts as an indirect sign of iron deficiency in the tissues of the body.
Accordingly, the following symptoms are noted:
- nail changes in the form of brittleness, thinning, delamination
- dry skin and painful blisters
- hair loss or slow growth
- violations of taste and smell (eating chalk, earth,
clay, raw stuffing, dough; accepting the smell of acetone, paints,
- unreasonable subfebrile condition up to 37.5 С
The appearance of such people also has characteristic features. Generally
a person looks tired and painful, there is pallor
skin, sometimes even jaundice (see jaundice: symptoms), cyanosis
lips, bright red color of the surface of the tongue.
However, the clinical picture is not always suspicious.
low hemoglobin. Pathology may be asymptomatic, therefore
It is necessary to undergo regular prophylactic examinations.
If low hemoglobin is found during pregnancy, the symptoms
correspond to the above. Only thing for pregnant
characterized by low body temperature, and not subfebrile. Any
of these symptoms in pregnant women is a signal for
see a doctor immediately (see pregnancy with a low
Treatment of various types of anemia
A universal drug for anemia does not yet exist. Treatment
with low hemoglobin depends on the causes of this
state and is always long.
Be sure to adjust the diet with the inclusion of berries,
fruits and vegetables that improve red blood cell regeneration and blood formation
in general: onions, garlic, strawberries, lettuce, buckwheat.
Be sure to eat red meat – the human body
наиболее усвояемо iron именно из мяса.
- With massive blood loss, a transfusion is required.
blood, restoring the amount of free blood. This is an extreme measure
However, the most effective, and sometimes the only possible
to save a life.
- При недостатке железа назначаются советующие ironсодержащие
drugs: Tardiferon, Ferlatum, Ferumlek, Maltofer, Sorbifer and
Ave (see the complete list of iron supplements for anemia). Parallel
This group of drugs is assigned vitamin C, which contributes to
better absorption of iron.
- With folic acid deficiency, it is prescribed artificially.
drug substitutes (vitohepat, folic
- With hypochromic anemia, hematopoietic drugs are shown.
- With vitamin B-12 deficiency, subcutaneous injections are performed.
vitamin course up to 6 weeks.
Народные facilities в борьбе с низким гемоглобином
Если обнаружен низкий гемоглобин лечение народными facilitiesми
is an effective practice in dealing with this dangerous
- A decoction of wild rose berries and strawberry leaves strengthens the body
as a whole and enriches it with vitamins. You can drink it instead
habitual tea throughout the day.
- Fresh red beet juice has a good effect.
who drink one glass a day. Feature of beetroot
the juice is that it can not be drunk immediately after the spin, as
only squeeze the juice from fresh beets should be put in
refrigerator for 3-4 hours to evaporate toxic compounds,
only after that you can drink the juice.
- The infusion of currant berries is rich in vitamin C and good
All described therapeutic compositions must be drunk for at least a month –
only in this case they are effective. Generally же, показаны все
red fruits and berries, as well as green vegetables. After treatment
repeated clinical tests on the effectiveness of therapy.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог