Update: April 2018
Liver cyst – cavity filled with fluid and limited
connecting capsule. Pathology can affect any part.
liver, developing inside and on the surface. Diagnosed
the disease is in 0.8% of patients aged 30 to 50 years. Among women
occurs 4 times more often than men. Usually,
detected by chance during the passage of ultrasound, CT, MRI. With
liver cysts causes and treatment are closely related between
The main characteristics of the disease
A cyst is a benign hollow hearth that has
connective tissue sheath capsule and filled with fluid.
No symptoms until the cyst reaches its maximum size.
or the capsule will not break.
The internal cavity of the formation is lined with cells that have
similar to the biliary tissue (biliary) system. Cyst
filled with exudate, odorless and colorless. Less often
The tumor contains a jelly-like mass. Fluid can
acquire a brown-green color. In this case, it consists of
epithelial cells, bilirubin, fibrin, cholesterol and mucin. With
penetration of the infectious agent, the contents
neoplasms acquires a purulent character, and during hemorrhage
Simple cysts can be located both on the surface of the organ and
in deep layers. Sizes from a few mm. up to 2.5 cm. Giant
education are less common, more often in women. With малых размерах
cysts the liver tissue around it remains unchanged, but with
larger cystic cavity squeezes the parenchyma surrounding
tissue, which leads to atrophic processes.
Cyst печени классифицируется следующим in the following way:
- in accordance with the etiological factor – parasitic and
- by the number of lesions – single and multiple;
- by the nature of the flow – uncomplicated and complicated.
Each type of education is divided into several subtypes.
Developed with the penetration into the internal organ tape
worms. This form affects predominantly people living in
countries in which agriculture is developed. Withчиной является в
eating dirty food and contact with infected animals
(cattle, cats, dogs).
Types of parasitic tumors:
- Echinococcal. The causative agent is the larvae of Ehinocococcus granulesus.
From the stomach with blood, they are transferred to the liver, where they continue
develop. Echinococcal cyst differs turbid exudate and
the presence of daughter bubbles inside (see echinococcosis).
- Alveococcal. The causative agent is Ehinokokkus alveolaris.
The larval forms penetrate from the stomach into the capillary network of the liver,
где начинают develop. The parasite is spread on the territory
taiga areas. Infection occurs through contact with animals.
(foxes, wolves, dogs and polar fox). Alveococcal develops
cyst predominantly in the right lobe of the liver.
Infection occurs exclusively through animals or
larvae-infected food. The parasite can not
transferred from one person to another.
Formations have their own classification and are:
- Congenital (true) – tumors that have arisen in the period
- Withобретенными (ложными) – имеют этиологию воспаленного или
traumatic nature. Develop after surgical
intervention with abscess or echinococcosis.
True cysts of the liver lobe are classified as follows.
in the following way:
- Solitary – has a rounded shape and is located at the bottom
right lobe. Differs in the presence of a leg, whereby hangs in
peritoneal cavity. Possible complications: cyst torsion,
hemorrhage, malignancy, rupture and suppuration.
- Polycystic – is a consequence of a genetic mutation.
Neoplasms may have a different size, and diffuse
spread through the liver. Increase throughout life
human and cause functional liver failure,
varicose veins of the esophagus and portal hypertension.
- Kistofibroz – the most severe form of the disease, which
occurs predominantly in newborns. It is not only amazed
the liver, but also the main vein (portal). With кистофиброзе есть
the probability of proliferation of many biliary microcyst.
Develop in the process of life after birth and are following
- Inflammatory (liver abscess) – most often occurs after
acute phlegmonous cholecystitis. Carries danger to life
person It occurs only with a decrease in immunity.
- Post-traumatic – are formed as a result of injury and
are cavities containing fluid (bile or blood).
Formed immediately after mechanical damage and in appearance
do not have similarities with conventional cyst. Over time, around education
a cavity appears.
With приобретенных кистах возможно такое осложнение, как
suppuration and prolonged bleeding. In the second case, there is
increase in education. Neoplasm content
represented by fluid and fibrin filaments.
Single and multiple
To single cysts include solitary true
neoplasms with epithelial lining and in diameter
reaching 3 cm. They do not increase in size and are not
indications for surgery. In this case
systematic observation is recommended, since there is a chance
the fact that the tumor is modified into a malignant one.
Multiple cysts – polycystic neoplasms that change
parenchymal shape of the form. They are quite dangerous because
lead to the development of functional liver failure.
What causes liver cysts? Concerning the factors
provoking the development of true non-parasitic liver cysts, a single
Presumably formations occur in the following cases:
- intoxication of the body;
- with genetic predisposition;
- in infectious processes (rubella, jaundice, adenoviral
- against the background of alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, gallstone disease,
- in the period of embryogenesis on the background of bile duct hyperplasia, with
their subsequent blockage and obstruction;
- when using contraceptive drugs and hormonal
means containing estrogen.
There is a theory explaining the development of neoplasms from
intralobular and interlobular ducts. They are not included in
system of biliary tract during embryonic development. Epithelium
closed cavity secreted secretion conducive to
exudate and turning them into cysts.
False cysts appear due to mechanical damage.
internal organ. Withчиной заболевания может стать операция и
necrosis. In the case of parasitic cysts, development occurs on the background
amebic abscess and echinococcus lesions.
Symptoms and signs
With единичных малых кистах печени симптомы, как правило,
missing. Primary manifestations occur with multiple
formations and then, when the tumor reaches 7-8 cm.
- nausea and vomiting;
- flatulence and diarrhea;
- increased sweating;
- myalgia (muscle pain);
- general weakness and malaise;
- the appearance of shortness of breath after exercise;
- heaviness in the right hypochondrium and belching after eating;
- loss of appetite, possible complete rejection of food;
- increase in body temperature to subfebrile indicators.
With формировании кисты гигантского размера появляются
specific symptoms inherent only in this disease. Speech
is an asymmetric increase in the abdomen and liver, jaundice, skin
itching and sudden weight loss.
Чем dangerous киста печени? The disease may have complicated
current characterized by:
- hemorrhage in the wall or cavity formation;
- torsion of the cyst stem, perforation or suppuration;
- malignant degeneration (occurs extremely rarely).
With разрыве образования или внутреннем кровоизлиянии возникает
condition that is accompanied by abdominal pain
intense character. In this case есть опасность развития
перитонита или кровотечения в peritoneal cavity. This state
accompanied by acute pain and rapid intoxication syndrome,
leading to death.
With кровоизлиянии наблюдается бледность кожи, головокружение и
increased heart rate. There is a decrease in blood pressure to
collapse (deterioration of blood supply to internal organs).
With возникновении симптомов кисты печени следует отправиться
first to the therapist who, if necessary, directs to
specialist: surgeon, hepatologist or
Before you treat a liver cyst, you must complete a full
examination. The doctor will collect anamnesis of the disease, palpation
and prescribe a series of laboratory tests and instrumental
- Liver ultrasound
- Percutaneous puncture education.
- Bacteriological and cytological examination.
- Liver scintigraphy.
- Angiography of the celiac trunk.
The research methods used make it possible to make a diagnosis and
differentiate a cyst from metastatic lesions of the liver, dropsy
gall bladder, tumors of the mesentery, pancreas and thin
guts. To exclude parasitic invasions is carried out
serological blood test (ELISA, RNA).
When a liver cyst reaches 7-10 cm, a negative occurs.
impact on the parenchyma of the internal organ, which leads to
dysfunction (as a result of pressure). Clinically
pathology manifests itself by changes in biochemical parameters
blood. Cyst левой доли часто сопровождается грыжей диафрагмы
food hole, and the right lobe – arching pain in the area
Cyst печени требует комплексного подхода к лечению:
- symptomatic drug therapy;
- surgical removal;
With новообразованиях, которые в диаметре достигают не более 3 см
and have no symptoms, recommended dynamic observation
(periodic CT and ultrasound). With образованиях от 4 до 6 см
requires drug therapy.
Treatment лекарствами кисты печени осуществляется при помощи
�“Analgin” for the purpose of pain relief and “Mebendazole” – with
parasitic forms of the disease. To restore the liver
prescribe hepatoprotectors (see the List of all drugs for the liver,
Essentiale Forte, Phosphogliv). To remove the inflammatory process
use of NSAIDs (Diclofenac, Ketoprofen) under the guise of Omeprazole
and its analogues in order to avoid bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract.
Hormonal preparations and agents that strengthen
immunity, such as Immunal. Treatment of liver cysts with drugs
conducted under the supervision of an experienced doctor leads to a positive
the outcome of the disease.
The operation is necessary in the presence of education in size from 7 cm and
more. The indication for surgery is
bleeding, rupture of the wall of the cyst and violation of the outflow of bile.
The operation is performed with suppuration, the development of portal hypertension.
deterioration of quality of life due to the presence of a pronounced
The operation of a liver cyst is of the following types:
- Radical – resection or transplantation (with severe
- Palliative – percutaneous puncture for the purpose of hardening.
- Conditionally radical – excision of the walls of the formation or
Laparoscopy is performed in 90% of cases (insertion of instruments
through small punctures in the abdominal wall). Minimally invasive
The technique is used for non-parasitic and uncomplicated cysts,
the size of which is 5-20 cm and only if
Education located on the periphery of the body.
The essence of laparoscopy – excision of the walls of the tumor within
healthy tissue, without liver resection, which precludes
violation of the functions of the internal organ. With congenital polycystic
excised only large neoplasms. This approach allows
achieve only temporary results, but improves
liver parenchyma works.
Therapeutic and restorative diet
Adhere to proper nutrition is necessary as in identifying
education, and after removal of the cyst. Diet reduces stress
on the body, prevents hepatosis, cholecystitis and normalizes the processes
Completely give up alcoholic beverages, fatty,
fried, smoked products and preserves. Categorically
It is forbidden to drink carbonated drinks and coffee, eat sweets.
The daily menu should contain fresh vegetables, fruits and
greenery. In the diet you need to include low-fat dairy
Principles of diet with liver cyst:
- Daily rate of easily digestible protein – not less than 120 g
- The daily diet should contain fat – 80 g of carbohydrates
– 450 g.
- You need to cook for a couple, bake without a crust or
- Meals should be fractional and frequent – from 5 times a day.
- The energy value of the daily diet – no more than 3 000
The above principles of diet are recommendations.
Medical nutrition should be made for each patient.
Alternative medicine is used in the fight against liver cyst in
as an auxiliary measure that increases efficiency
primary treatment. This approach to therapy implies
use of medicinal plants. The result of the popular treatment
can be seen only on the 45-55 day.
Medicinal plants used in liver cyst:
- krovovets (upper part);
- uterine grass (flowers);
- milk jug (root);
- peppermint (leaves);
- Zhoster (bark);
- zira (fruits).
Based on the listed medicinal plants you can cook
decoctions and infusions. To do this, pour the dry crushed raw materials.
(1-2 tbsp. L.) Boiling water (100-200 ml), soaking 5-7 on a water bath
minutes or infused for half an hour in a closed container.
The prognosis of a liver cyst, even with the development of complications,
favorable only with successful surgical intervention.
Sustainable recovery can only be achieved with the help of radical
operations. Prevention is only possible with parasitic
cysts and involves de-worming.