oncologic disease of cell mutation
brain. Characteristic – uncontrolled
progression and different etiology. The symptoms of the disease depend on
its form, and treatment involves continuous polychemotherapy. With
необходимости может проводиться трансплантация bone marrow.
In the body of a healthy person, cells divide, mature,
perform their functions and die off. After the death they are completely
destroyed, and in their place are formed new. With развитии
Cancer malfunction occurs in this program, and,
as a result, cell growth and reproduction becomes
Cancer cells do not die – they continue
циркулировать по крови, создавая препятствия для здоровых.
This leads to the fact that leukemic cells spread throughout
body, penetrating into the organs, which as a result of this process
increase, and there are painful sensations.
Not everyone knows what the signs of leukemia and leukemia are, what are their
difference. In fact, they are synonyms for blood cancer.
From a medical point of view, the disease is more correct to call
Symptoms of the lesion are closely related to an insufficient amount in
the body of certain cells of the normal type. Tumor itself
It is impossible to see, as it is dispersed throughout the body due to
Withчины и симптомы
Withчиной лейкемии являются межхромосомные и внутрихромосомные
aberrations, that is, violations in their molecular structure.
The disease is most commonly diagnosed in patients with chromosomal
disorders and primary immunodeficiency.
The development of the disease contributes to hereditary
predisposition. Cell transformations can occur under
the impact of the following negative factors:
- high voltage electromagnetic field;
- cigarette smoke;
- ionizing radiation;
The disease goes through several stages, each of which has
characteristic symptoms. Withзнаки лейкемии крови довольно
are specific. Their activity depends on the location and degree
лейкозного поражения. In patients with acute stage
The following symptoms of leukemia appear:
- a sharp decrease in appetite;
- general malaise;
- skin hemorrhages;
- bleeding mucous membranes;
- high body temperature;
- bone pain;
- pale skin.
Sometimes there is an increase in lymph nodes, the development
infectious and inflammatory pathologies (stomatitis,
peptic ulcer disease, etc.).
Chronic leukemia progresses rather slowly. Most
the disease manifests itself in an expanded and terminal stage, so
how metastasis of blast cells goes beyond the brain. Have
the patient has a dramatic depletion, the organs increase in
size, formed pustular skin lesions.
The death of the patient can occur at any of the stages. Withчинами
deaths become severe intoxication, peritonitis,
sepsis or hemorrhage in vital organs.
Types of Leukemia
Depending on the manifestations and the nature of the development of acute
and chronic leukemia. The acute form of the disease is observed in 50−60%
cases. It manifests itself in the rapid progression of the disease.
This species is divided into the following
Most often lymphoblastic leukemia
встречается у детей от 2 до 5 years old. According to statistics she
составляет 80−85% cases. Tumor is formed by lymphoid
The acute form of myeloid leukemia results from
поражения миелоидной lines. Leukemia growths occur in
Undifferentiated type is characterized by the growth of early cells without
signs of differentiation.
The chronic form of the disease is observed in 40-50% of patients.
Чаще всего она встречается у людей в возрасте от 40 years old. Disease
may develop over several years
To identify the disease, the doctor prescribes a series of examinations and
analyzes. The first thing is a general blood test. Often
leukemia is detected by chance during prophylactic
medical examination. Disease проявляется в виде высокого
содержания лейкоцитов в крови, снижения гемоглобина и
minimum platelet count.
To подтвердить диагноз, назначаются следующие
- aspiration (puncture) of the bone marrow;
- genetic screening;
- puncture of cerebrospinal fluid;
- chest x-ray;
- HaveЗИ брюшной полости.
extraction of bone marrow cells to study them in the laboratory
conditions. This procedure is carried out using a special needle.
The doctor pierces the outer layer of the bone and reaches the most bone.
the brain. Manipulation is performed under local anesthesia.
The essence of the biopsy is to extract a small part of the bone.
together with the bone marrow. Before the procedure is introduced
local anesthesia. Biopsy and aspiration are different types.
research (sometimes doctors prescribe to the patient both), but
both of them allow not only identify leukemia, but also install it
Cytogenetics – a genetic examination suggesting
study of chromosomes contained in leukemic cells. To
determine whether leukemia has spread to the central nervous system
system, the puncture of cerebrospinal fluid. For
The procedure uses a long thin needle that is inserted between
vertebrae lumbar. The resulting cerebrospinal fluid
being studied for the presence of cancer cells in it.
Посредством рентгена грудной клетки и HaveЗИ органов брюшной
cavities can determine the extent of the disease and
extensiveness of organ damage.
The choice of method of therapy affects
Many factors: stage, type of disease, age and general condition
the patient. The acute stage requires immediate treatment, which
will help suspend the growth of leukemia cells. With правильном подходе
можно добиться довольно длительной remission.
Chronic leukemia very rarely enters the full
remission, but with treatment
to control. For this, chemo and radiation can be performed.
therapy. In difficult situations, stem transplantation is prescribed.
For такого лечения используются медикаменты, которые
able to destroy cancer cells. The introduction of drugs can
occur in different ways:
- through the catheter;
- using the Ommaya tank.
the catheter avoids a large number of injections, strongly
traumatic skin and veins. Sometimes for drug administration
The drug is applied tank Ommaya. This is a special catheter,
который имплантируется непосредственно в желудочки brain.
This method avoids the pain that occurs when injected into
Chemotherapy is carried out in stages. It consists of induction,
consolidation and maintenance treatment. Haveничтожить раковые клетки
at one time is impossible, as there remains that part of them that
continues to multiply. Therapy may continue for about 2
The induction stage is considered the most intense. In this period
the patient must be in the hospital, under constant supervision
physician to avoid the development of complications and infectious
Chemotherapy for blood cancer is performed by
combination of drugs. Steroids are prescribed
asparaginase enzyme and antitumor agent
vegetable alkaloid vincristine.
At the consolidation stage, cancer cells are destroyed,
who still remained in the body after the first stage of treatment.
The combination of drugs changes periodically. It is necessary that
избежать резистентности патологических cells. AT
The standard kit includes the following drugs:
When leukemia goes into remission, the patient is transferred to
maintenance chemotherapy. AT этом случае перорально употребляется
Метотрексат и Меркаптопурин, внутривенно вводится ATинкристин. Such a
treatment is carried out for periods of 4 to 8 weeks. Accurate set
medicines depends on the type of leukemia and the risk
the occurrence of relapse.
With проведении химиотерапии возможны осложнения. Medicines
affect the hair roots, so there is a loss of the latter.
At the end of the course, they grow back, but their color and texture can
to change. With таком типе лечения оказывается негативное
impact on the cells of the digestive tract, so patients
ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and persistent nausea may occur.
Some cancer control products may have a negative effect.
impact on the ability to conceive a child. Have пациенток менструации
cease to be regular or completely disappear.
This kind of treatment
involves the use of external radiation exposure,
destroying cancer cells. Radiation is sent to
lymph nodes, brain and other areas where there are
For the treatment of blood cancer is not only radiation therapy, but
and total exposure of the whole organism. Manipulation is carried out 1−2
times over 5 days. Such a лечение проводится курсами.
The effectiveness of this technique is not fully understood, so its
apply only to severe forms of cancer. The purpose of the procedure is destruction.
cancer cells, but healthy ones are also irradiated with them, which
приводит к развитию complications. Side effects of radiation
manifest as nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, in the area of exposure
ray can fall out hair. With комбинировании с
chemotherapy drugs complications can be
Despite the large number of possible negative manifestations,
most of them are impermanent and controllable. Part
of them disappear immediately after completion of treatment. There are a number
medicines that will help reduce the intensity
side effects. Sometimes this method of treatment precedes
carrying out surgery.
Stem cell transplantation
This operation is performed if present.
adverse prognosis regarding remission. The decision to hold
transplants are taken by the patient or his relatives.
Stem cells for transplantation are obtained not only from
bone marrow, but also from umbilical cord and peripheral blood.
There are several options for
transplantation – patient sampling, special treatment
and infusion after irradiation or high-dose chemotherapy. Cells
for transplant patients are taken in remission, when
the clinical picture is normalized. The disadvantage of this procedure –
high probability of relapse.
- Allogeneic transplant. To hold it, you need a blood donor.
Most often these are brothers, sisters, sometimes parents and other hard-earned
relatives. When there is no closely related donor, it is carried out
typing of distant relatives or search for a suitable candidate in databases
data. The transplantation procedure is the same as for autologous
transplanting Sometimes there is a rejection that threatens
patient’s life. Such a reaction may occur in a month or even
year after. Its arrest occurs by
use of appropriate drugs.
Period of remission and relapse
No signs of diagnosed acute leukemia
считается периодом remission. Consensus among specialists
There is no treatment for such a condition. Most doctors
uses antimetabolites that have a blocking effect
impact on the synthesis of nucleic acids, so
the process of reproduction of cancer cells is inhibited. The second
a group of doctors considers effective the use of hormonal
Remission may be complete and incomplete. First type
characterized by an absolute absence of a clinical picture,
normalization of blood counts and persists for 2 months and
longer. Incomplete manifested in the form of 5−10% of blast cells in the bone
the brain. In rare cases, patients may experience spontaneous
remission. They can last from 1 month to a year.
In 70–80% of patients, complete remission can last for about 5 years.
Such patients are applicants for a transplant.
bone marrow. Life expectancy for people with a chronic form
leukemia is a maximum of 20 years.
Relapse is a condition that is characterized by the resumption of all
symptoms of the disease. But such exacerbations are different from the primary
stages of the disease. To predict a relapse in advance, the patient must
be under the constant supervision of a physician. About soon exacerbation
reveal changes in myelogram results and analysis
Patients during recurrence affect the lungs, skin and nervous
system. In the future, the clinical picture becomes similar to
the primary stage of the disease, but all the symptoms are
not so pronounced.
Prognosis and possible complications
Further prognosis depends on the type of disease and its severity. Without
treatment it progresses very quickly, but nevertheless leukemia –
it is a blood cancer, the probability of cure from which is quite
According to research by the American Cancer
societies, the prognosis is influenced by the following factors:
- Age. The prognosis for young patients is more
more favorable than with older people.
- The initial number of white blood cells. Encouraging
prognosis is possible for patients with an initial number of such cells
below 50 thousand, in contrast to those who have much more.
- Types of disease. For example, in patients with T-cell leukemia
the probability of a positive outcome is higher than in patients with leukemia
An important factor is the body’s response to
chemotherapy. Patients who are in remission after 4−5
weeks after the start of treatment, have a chance for more favorable
forecasts. The degree of damage to the central
nervous system and total recurrence.
Около 95% детей с острой формой лейкоза достигают remission. Children
between 1 and 9 years of age have a better prognosis than patients after 10
years old. Positive results at the very beginning of therapy is a good sign
regardless of the type of cancer.
Adult patients are at risk of developing serious
complications. About 60−80% of patients can achieve remission, and 35−40%
may live for more than 2 years after aggressive treatment.
The acute form of the disease occurs suddenly, therefore present
high risk of death.
With the spread of cancer cells in the vascular system can
pathological changes that lead to a heart attack occur.
If the leukemic cells penetrate the lining of the brain, then
There is a high probability that the patient will have neuroleukemia.
The patient may experience severe headaches and dizziness,
to lose consciousness. When forming metastases important for life
The patient’s organs develop bleeding, itching, severe coughing and
Diet and preventive measures
Пациенты могут ощущать слабость из-за анемии и токсического
exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, so doctors
strongly advise to stick to a balanced diet.
To improve overall condition recommended to include
- vegetables (zucchini, corn, beetroot and horseradish);
- rabbit meat;
- decoction of wild rose berries;
- cereals (buckwheat, rice);
- honey and propolis;
- foods high in vitamin C.
During leukemia, pork, beef, and
lamb meat These types of meat contribute to the formation of blood clots. To
iron is better absorbed, you need to stop drinking soda and coffee.
It is recommended to limit the use of products as much as possible.
blood thinners (garlic, curry and ginger, etc.).
Low neutrophil levels should be excluded from the diet.
legumes, sweet pastries and strong broths. Vinegar and pickled
foods have a negative effect on blood cells.
People prone to chromosomal abnormalities and leukemia, suffering
from immunodeficiency, prophylactic
inspections. Predisposition to the disease may occur under
exposure to ionizing radiation or due to the intake of chemical
substances. Therefore, in order to prevent the exacerbation of leukemia,
reduce the impact of all hazards.
Leukemia – это онкологическое заболевание,
whose forecast depends on many factors. The main goal of treatment
is to quickly enter into remission. In the future, held
therapy aimed at maintaining the patient’s condition. In heavy
cases stem cell transplantation is performed. Timely
treatment will help prolong life and significantly improve its quality.
But it should be understood that remission is not a cure.