Laryngotracheitis – causes, signs, symptoms andtreatment of laryngotracheitis in adults

Laryngotracheitis is an inflammatory disease with combined
damage to the larynx and trachea, the occurrence of which is due to
viral or bacterial infection. Inflammation first
affects the larynx and gradually moves to the trachea. In this moment
characteristic symptoms of illness manifest – voice changes, pain in
laryngeal areas, regional lymphadenitis, and so on.

In the article we will take a closer look at what it is, what are the first
signs and symptoms in adults, as well as how to treat diseases and
quickly restore the body.

What is laryngotracheitis?

Ларинготрахеит

Laryngotracheitis is an infectious and inflammatory lesion.
larynx and trachea, accompanied by signs of acute respiratory
infections. Larynx plays the role of vozduhoprovodyaschih and
voice forming organ, therefore, with laryngotracheitis affected
vocal cords and voice changes.

The course of the disease takes place against the background of dysfunction of the voice,
strong cough with purulent sputum discharge, unpleasant
sensations and pains in the larynx and behind the sternum, an increase in cervical
lymph nodes.

Laryngotracheitis in adults differs markedly from that in
children, and the younger the child, the more dangerous for him this
болезнь, так как дыхательные пути маленького человека закончат
its formation only by the age of six or seven, and until that age
they are very vulnerable.

ICD code 10:

  • According to the international classification of ICD 10, laryngotracheitis refers
    to acute laryngitis and tracheitis with code J04.
  • In acute laryngotracheitis, inflammation is observed simultaneously.
    larynx and trachea, according to ICD 10 disease code J04.2.

Classification

By reason of occurrence, viral, bacterial and
mixed (viral and bacterial) laryngotracheitis. Depending on the
morphological changes in otolaryngology
chronic laryngotracheitis is classified into catarrhal,
hypertrophic and atrophic.

The flow of the inflammatory process is as follows:

Acute laryngotracheitis

Acute form of laryngotracheitis, treatment of which is necessary
carried out at the first manifestations, occurs in parallel with
respiratory viral infection. Symptoms beginning
disease is the appearance of coughing, difficulty in breathing and
changes in voice.

The patient is recommended to talk as little as possible, preserving
sore ligaments. To avoid aphonia (complete loss of voice),
for some time it is shown to limit speech to the limit. how many
the “silent” period will last, depending on the condition of the ligaments.

Chronic laryngotracheitis

Chronic laryngotracheitis — эта форма длится годами, то
escalating, then calming down. Usually people are “chronicles” (inflammation of the larynx and
trachea) are well aware of their illness, because she is constantly
keeps them in fear of exacerbation, so they maximize
try to be careful: they dress warmly, do not drink cold champagne,
don’t get involved in ice cream on a hot day, etc.

The reasons

The cause of laryngotracheitis may be isolated inflammation.
laryngeal laryngitis, but more often this disease is concomitant
and is caused by infections of the sinuses, respiratory tract.

In 90% of cases, the disease is a complication of ARVI, influenza,
adenoviruses or parainfluenza. Rarely pathology is diagnosed with
ветрянке, кори, краснухе или скарлатине.

Diseases often occur when immunity decreases separately.
like laryngitis and tracheitis, but since the symptoms are often related, they are not
share.

The culprit of the development of laryngotracheitis is infection, often
total viral:

  • flu;
  • параflu;
  • adenovirus;
  • chickenpox;
  • rubella;
  • measles;
  • SARS.

The main causes of laryngotracheitis are:

  • respiratory viral lesions (especially dangerous
    вирус гриппа, парагриппаи аденовирус),
  • bacterial lesions (streptococcal or staphylococcal,
    tuberculosis),
  • mycoplasma lesions
  • herpes lesions,
  • allergic causes
  • chemical agents.

The risk of developing the disease is higher in people suffering from chronic
systemic diseases (diabetes, gastritis,
hepatitis), lesions of the respiratory system, ranging from sinusitis and
ending with bronchial asthma.

Symptoms of laryngotracheitis

Symptoms of laryngotracheitis обычно появляются, когда человек уже
feels unwell and diagnosed himself acute
respiratory infection:

  • Body temperature rose, headache;
  • В горле – саднит, болит, царапает, першит;
  • It does not work out habitually and naturally to swallow, they are required
    some effort.

In the course of the course, from a dry cough goes into a wet,
the patient begins to expectoration of phlegm, which every day
becoming more fluid. As you recover returns
the usual voice, and the tickling and other unpleasant feelings gradually
go to no.

Symptoms of chronic and acute laryngotracheitis may
differ. The acute form proceeds with more pronounced symptoms,
but after the end of the disease, they completely disappear.

Серьезную опасность при ларинготрахеите представляет стеноз
larynx With this phenomenon completely or to a great extent
air supply to the lungs ceases due to severe narrowing
larynx

When the stenotic form, there are three stages of development:

  • Compensated stenosis – barking cough, shortness of breath, hoarseness, noise
    when breathing;
  • Incomplete compensation – swelling of nostrils, noises are heard on
    distance;
  • Decompensated stenosis – weak breathing, cold sweat,
    insomnia, coughing episodes, pale skin.

Symptoms of acute laryngotracheitis

Acute laryngotracheitis проявляет себя на фоне ОРВИ,
starting sharply or gradually. There are:

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  • sharp rise in temperature
  • sore throat,
  • sternity behind the sternum
  • rough, dry cough with soreness,
  • a cough has the character of a croak or bark due to a sharp
    puffiness and spasm of the vocal cords,
  • when coughing, pain in the chest increases;
  • coughing episodes occur when laughing, breathing deeply, inhaling
    dusty or cold air,
  • a small amount of thick and viscous sputum is released,
  • hoarseness or hoarseness in the voice
  • discomfort in the larynx with dryness, burning.

The brightness of the symptoms of laryngotracheitis fades somewhat during the transition
chronic disease, the patient feels better
it is worse and it associates deterioration with certain vital
situations (pregnancy, menstruation, menopause, cold, voice
load, time of day).

Symptoms of the chronic form

Chronic laryngotracheitis проявляется такими признаками:

  • headaches;
  • sore throat;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • the patient has a feeling of a lump in the throat;
  • voice changes.

If a person is silent for a long time and he needs before
coughing is a sign of chronic laryngotracheitis.

Complications

The narrowing of the lumen of the trachea and larynx is a dangerous phenomenon, since
the mucous membrane swells, the muscles spasm, the secretion increases
glands of the mucous membrane of the bronchi and trachea, and thick mucopurulent
discharge makes breathing difficult. Appears characteristic
лающий кашель. If the inflammation goes to the vocal cords –
violated vocalization.

The consequences include the transition of the inflammatory process in the lower
airway that leads
к бронхиту или воспалению легких.

In adults, laryngotracheitis should be treated only under strict conditions.
physician’s control since the disease in question is dangerous because
complications.

Diagnostics

If the above symptoms appear, then
Immediately call an ambulance or go to a medical
institution of its own. The diagnosis can be made already during
personal inspection, as well as on the basis of the characteristic symptoms of pathology,
which manifest in an adult or child.

During the diagnosis and examination of the laryngeal mucosa otolaryngologist
determines the form of pathology:

  • catarral – manifested by swelling and redness of vocal
    ligaments and tracheal mucosa;
  • atrophic – characteristic for smokers and people; profession
    which causes often contact with dust. Mucosa while
    becomes thin and dry;
  • hyperplastic – characterized by the appearance of areas of growth
    mucous that leads to respiratory failure and alteration
    vote.

Laboratory studies are conducted:

  • general blood analysis,
  • general urine analysis,
  • bacteriological examination of sputum,
  • if technically possible – serological
    research on viruses of respiratory infections.

Treatment of laryngotracheitis in adults

In most cases, laryngotracheitis therapy is carried out in
outpatient conditions. Cases of false croup may require
hospitalization in the hospital.

 The main goal of therapy is to eliminate the pathogen and reduce
edema. For this purpose, antimicrobial and antibacterial agents are prescribed.
drugs, as well as antiviral agents.

First Aid

First aid to a patient with laryngotracheitis
turns out to be as follows:

  • You must take any medication for allergies (suprastin, diazolin,
    Dimedrol, loratadine) in double dosage and antispasmodic (no-shpa,
    papaverine), as well as any means of fever
    body, if any (paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin).
  • You should also ventilate the room and humidify the air. For this
    just put a hot water pot in the room or
    hot decoction of herbs (chamomile, chest collection).

Medications

To treat laryngotracheitis in a simple form should be using
drugs aimed at eliminating its pathogen.

  1. With inflammation of viral nature, the patient is shown
    antiviral drugs and drugs that stimulate the immune system.
    For example, Arbidol, Ingavirin, Interferon, and so on.
  2. With bacterial inflammation prescribed antibiotics – Sumamed,
    Azithromycin
  3. Antihistamines (Suprastin, Diazolin, Zodak,
    Cetirizine is prescribed if laryngotracheitis is caused
    seasonal allergies, as well as severe laryngeal edema to
    reduce it.
  4. antipyretic drugs such as Nurofen or Paracetamol.
    They also have anti-inflammatory and analgesic
    act;
  5. nasal drops with vasoconstrictor action (Lazorin,
    Nazivina).
  6. Antitussive or expectorant drugs. When dry
    unproductive cough prescribe antitussive drugs (Codelac,
    Stoptussin), and in the separation of sputum expectorant (ACC, Mukaltin
    Ambrobene, etc.).

For the treatment of chronic diseases apply
immunomodulating agents (for example, Broncho-munal, Immunal,
�”Licopid”), as well as carbosterin, vitamin C and other multivitamin
complexes. In addition, the patient is sent to
physiotherapy, namely on the medicinal
electrophoresis, UHF, inductothermy and massage.

Inhalation with laryngotracheitis

Treatment of laryngotracheitis necessarily includes inhalation
nebulizer or steam inhaler. Inhalation help
drugs into the trachea, causing them to appear
maximum concentration in the outbreak of inflammation.

Procedures are prohibited from using devices if:

  • температура поднялась за отметку 38С;
  • nasal bleedings periodically open;
  • the patient suffers from severe cardiovascular disease,
    a certain type of arrhythmia;
  • exacerbated bronchial asthma;
  • breathing is impaired;
  • the child is not 12 months old;
  • hard laryngotracheitis;
  • have hypersensitivity to medicinal ingredients
    means.

The nebulizer is filled with pharmaceutical drugs, the use of
which allows the instruction to the device. For procedures may
apply:

  • Lasolvan, Ambrobene. Means soften cough, liquefy
    phlegm The drug is combined with saline in a 1: 1 ratio.
    The dose is prescribed by the doctor, given the age of the patient.
  • Inhalation using a nebulizer and can be simple
    saline or alkaline mineral water: they soften the throat,
    help the mucus to liquefy and expectorate. Recovery usually
    with the right approach to therapy comes in 5-10 days.

Proper procedure involves
the following general inhalations for nebulizer prescriptions:

  1. between any physical exertion and the procedure must pass
    at least half an hour;
  2. inhalations are performed either two hours after a meal, or
    half an hour before meals;
  3. regardless of the drug used is recommended
    perform the procedure 2-3 times a day, the duration of each of them
    should be 5-10 minutes;
  4. in spite of the fact that when using the nebulizer to receive
    inhalation laryngeal burns impossible to inhale
    means is necessary in the small portions in order to avoid spasms.

Inhalation with inflammation of the pharynx and trachea are
an auxiliary, but effective method of treatment. The main thing –
follow the recommendations of the doctor, and not to self-medicate.

Physiotherapy

Showing physiotherapy to patients with laryngotracheitis
procedures:

  • electrophoresis of potassium iodide, calcium chloride, hyaluronidase on
    laryngeal area;
  • laser treatment;
  • endolaringial phonophoresis;
  • microwave therapy.

Ill with laryngotracheitis need:

  • drink plenty of warm fluids;
  • ensure air humidity;
  • соблюдать покой для голосовых связок, как можно меньше
    speak;
  • drink warm milk in small portions;
  • gargle with medicinal herbs;
  • apply compresses, mustard plasters;
  • the desired effect of treatment can be achieved using baths for
    feet.

Surgery

It is shown in some cases of chronic hypertrophic
laryngotracheitis when medical therapy does not give the desired
effect and there is a risk of malignant
neoplasms.

Surgical intervention may be to remove cysts,
elimination of ventricular prolapse, excision of excess laryngeal tissue and
vocal cords. Operations are performed by endoscopic method with
the use of microsurgical techniques.

The prognosis for laryngotracheitis is favorable, however, in people whose
the profession is associated with singing or long conversations,
laryngotracheitis may interfere with vocation, and become
the cause of prof. unsuitability.

How to treat folk remedies

  1. Ginger, honey and lemon. Tasty and healthy medicine that
    It can be taken during the cold season for prevention. Ginger need
    grate, lemon grind together with the peel, and then add
    natural honey Take 1-2 spoons per day, you can add to
    warm tea
  2. You can use onions in the form of a decoction. For adults you need
    cut one onion and grind it with two small spoons
    sugar, then pour water (250 ml). Boil until thick
    masses, and take a teaspoon every hour during the day.
  3. For gargling, a mixture of eucalyptus leaves and
    camomile flowers on a tablespoon, pour boiling water and
    insist in a thermos for two hours.
  4. Potato juice gives a good effect: rub the grated potatoes and
    squeeze the juice (you can use a juicer), add it to
    warm water to rinse.
  5. Combine licorice root and fruit in equal proportions.
    fennel, chopped leaves mother and stepmother and Althea. Teaspoon
    collection pour boiling water – 300 ml, let cool. After insisting
    the resulting broth should be drunk 4 times a day, 70 ml.

Prevention

Preventive measures are effective at the stage
recovery, as well as in the period before the disease:

  • Use vitamins as a basis for preventive measures;
  • Perform physical and breathing exercises;
  • Temper;
  • Avoid hypothermia;
  • During treat any infectious diseases of the body;
  • Periodically pass an examination by a doctor.

On average, subject to a comprehensive, full
treatment of laryngotracheitis, the disease ends in complete
recovery of the patient for about 10 – 14 days.

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