Kyphosis – what it is, causes, symptoms,treatment of kyphosis of the thoracic spine

Kyphosis is called both pathological and physiological.
curvature of the spine in the anteroposterior direction.
Physiological kyphosis is determined in all people in the thoracic region.
spine. About pathology speak in cases where the bending angle
is 45 degrees or more.

More on what this disease is, why it is
occurs in humans and how to treat it – later in the article.

What is kyphosis?

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is the backbone of the spine. Normal spine
adult has two such bends: in the thoracic and sacral
department, in contrast to which there are also two bends anteriorly:
шейном и поясничном отделе spine. Such a structure
provides the best cushioning qualities and reduced
loads on each individual vertebra and intervertebral disk.

The area of ​​the back (spine) in which the curvature occurs
with kyphosis, most often is – the thoracic, so this
the disease is often referred to as “thoracic kyphosis” or
�”Thoracic kyphosis.” However, the medical literature describes cases
when the curvature of the back occurred in the neck and lower back
(sacrum).

The physiological sacral and thoracic kyphosis is formed as early as
early childhood, whereas in adults the vertebral bends
pillars are fixed. In the elderly, as well as senile
age there is an increase in thoracic kyphosis.

Quite often, kyphosis develops in a mixed form, called
He is in this version of his manifestations of kyphoscoliosis. The specified form
the disease is quite rare, it combines
at the same time and signs of the pathological process, relevant for
kyphosis, and signs of scoliosis.

Kinds

Kyphosis manifests itself in different ways – from a barely noticeable stoop to
pronounced hump. Curvatures may occur in various
участках грудного отдела – шейногрудном, верхнегрудном,
thoracolumbar.

According to the form:

  1. Angular kyphosis (kyphosis angularis), or hump. Characterized by
    угловатой выпуклостью спины, вершиной backwards
  2. Arc kyphosis. Characterized by выпуклостью спины в
    form a short or long arc.
  3. Physiological kyphosis (kyphosis physiologica). Usually
    является стадией развития spine. Characterized by небольшим
    tilt of the spine – up to 30 degrees. In the thoracic region may
    be present until 7 years old, in the lumbar region (sacrum) – until
    puberty.

Functional thoracic kyphosis

This type of pathology is also called ordinary slouch. More often
it arises from weak spinal muscles, constant stoop,
excessive physical exertion, abnormal body position during
work time at the table. If you put such a patient on a flat
the surface then the bend will disappear on its own.

With проведении рентгеноскопии на снимках никаких изменений
vertebrae will not be noted. Enough to cure this type of disease
conservative treatment, primarily aimed at
muscle strengthening.

Dorsal juvenile kyphosis (Scheuermann-Mau disease)

Scheuermann-Mau disease develops during adolescence
predominantly in boys, and is expressed in the formation
wedge-shaped vertebrae in the lower thoracic or upper lumbar region
spine and changes in the ligamentous apparatus

Congenital kyphosis

It is caused by a genetic mutation and transmitted by
hereditary defect in the development of the vertebral bodies (anterior divisions)

Paralytic Kyphosis

Paralytic Kyphosis обусловлен заболеваниями, сопровождающимися
парезами и параличами мышц спины (ДЦП, полиомиелит и
etc.). With ДЦП отмечается усиление грудного кифоза и
increase its length (bending extends to the upper
part of the lumbar region). Kyphosis can be combined with scoliosis.
Characterized by a gradual progression of deformation. Treatment usually
conservative, complex, long-lasting.

Rachitic

Develops in children with rickets, starting from the sixth month
of life. However, quite often, ricitic kyphosis is also formed in more
older children or adolescents who have suffered in early childhood
rickets.

Posttraumatic kyphosis

Withчиной развития заболевания является предшествующее
травмирование spine. Disease progression in
further becomes a cause of compression in the spinal column
nerve structures. With переломе позвоночника в области грудного или
lumbar kyphosis develops to one degree or another on
based on the severity of the injury
treatment, which, in turn, can be as conservative,
and surgical.

Postoperative

Develops infrequently after previous vertebral surgery.
post about the injury, displacement of the vertebra anteriorly due to
congenital overgrowth of the vertebral arch with his body
(spondylolisthesis), intervertebral disc prosthetics and
others.

Senile (degenerative) kyphosis

This type of curvature due to dystrophic changes.
vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs, which are accompanied by so
called “spinal sagging”, as well as the weakening of its
ligament apparatus

Withчины возникновения

Kyphosis may occur in both children and adults as well
elderly people. And in each case, to him are different
reasons, therefore, depending on them, there are several main
types of kyphosis.

Statistics indicate that up to 10% of people worldwide live
with kyphosis of varying severity. To a greater degree to him
subject to children and adolescents male.

There are many reasons that can cause
kyphosis. Withобретенное искривление грудного отдела позвоночника
may be due to:

  • Surgery performed on the spinal column or
    accompanied by the opening of the chest.
  • Spinal injuries, especially with vertebral fractures.
  • Degenerative changes, most often – osteochondrosis and
    herniated disc and spondylosis.
  • Age-related disorders occurring in the vertebrae and intervertebral
    disks.
  • Partial paralysis of the muscles of the back, weak muscular system.
  • Pathological changes in the ligamentous apparatus.
  • Нарушений осанки, пассивного образа of life.
  • Rachitis suffered in infancy.
  • Tuberculosis Bone.

Taking into account the angle of curvature, normal, reinforced (with
increased angle) and straightened (with a reduced angle) kyphosis.

The greatest distribution was received by a chest kyphosis. It can
considered pathological if the curvature exceeds 31 degrees. AT
depending on the severity of the bend, there are 4 degrees of thoracic
kyphosis:

1 degree
  • tilt angle from 31 to 40 degrees
2nd
  • 41–50 degrees
3rd
  • 51–70 degrees
4 degree
  • 71 and more degrees

It should be distinguished from true kyphosis kyphotic posture,
associated with muscle weakness. With ней в положении лежа на животе на
solid surface is flattened.

Kyphosis также может отличаться особенностями прогрессирования
deforming process. So, when increasing the slope to 7 degrees for
год говорят о медленно прогрессирующей форме kyphosis.
Accordingly, with rapidly progressive kyphosis
pathological change in the angle of inclination is 7 or more
degrees per year.

Symptoms of kyphosis of the thoracic spine

AT подавляющем большинстве случаев кифоз диагностируется в
детском или юношеском возрасте, в период формирования spine.
External symptoms such as:

  • bent back,
  • sunken chest
  • protruding belly,
  • retracted shoulders and divorced shoulder blades.

But problems are not limited to only the aesthetic side.
Although the deterioration of the appearance is in itself – heavy
psychotrauma, especially for children and adolescents.

Из-за формирования горба у человека возникают такие
symptoms:

  • боль в сердце (человек может принять такие боли за
    manifestation of cardiovascular pathologies);
  • respiratory failure, dyspnea during small physical
    нагрузках и даже в состоянии покоя;
  • разные проявления нарушений со стороны пищеварительного
    tract.

Pain in kyphosis occurs in most cases. Painful
the syndrome is caused by strong tension in the muscles of the back, as well as
compression of internal organs and partial destruction
intervertebral discs.

With кифозе смещается вертикальная ось тела, а вместе с ней –
the center of gravity. There is an excessive load on the feet, and in
the result of this is flatfoot formation.

In young children, perpetrators of kyphosis of the thoracic region
позвоночника являются туберкулез костей и rickets. Risk of occurrence
the disease rises during adolescence, especially for him
susceptible boys. In young people under 30 years of age, violations can
develop as a result of engaging in hard labor and frequent
being in the wrong posture. AT пожилом возрасте чаще всего
affects women.

Complications

Ошибочно думать, что такое заболевание не является опасным.
Если его не лечить, повышается давление на позвоночник, из-за
what develops osteochondrosis, herniated intervertebral disc. Besides
Moreover, the hump is gradually forming.

Due to excessive pathological curvature of the spine
there is a negative impact on the spine itself, as well as on all
adjacent organs. With этом уменьшается объем грудной
cells and, as a result, the maximum capacity of the lungs. AT результате
such changes occur circulatory disorders and saturation
tissue oxygen. It also negatively affects the heart and
leads to disruption of the cardiovascular system.

With сильном искривлении позвоночника развиваются такие
diseases:

  • gastritis, gastric ulcer;
  • liver inflammation;
  • воспаление толстого и тонкого кишечника, иногда —
    obstruction;
  • cholecystitis;
  • cardiovascular failure;
  • circulatory disorders of the brain.

Diagnostics

Diagnostics кифоза грудного отдела позвоночника находится в
competence of an orthopedic surgeon.

  1. To begin with, the patient is interviewed, after which the doctor performs
    his inspection. ATажно уточнить особенности болей, их локализацию,
    presence of neurological disorders.
  2. ATо время осмотра, ортопед пальпирует шею и спину, уточняет
    muscle strength and skin sensitivity.
  3. Besides того, врач выслушивает сердечный ритм и легкие, оценивает
    tendon reflexes on a specialized test suite.

From kyphotic degree curvatures depend not only the main
manifestations of the disease, but also the tactics of treatment of the pathological condition.
Therefore, before treating kyphosis of the thoracic spine
the doctor will send the patient to an x-ray
spinal examination, computed tomography or
MRI

Additional instrumental studies are needed for
determine the degree of kyphosis and identify associated pathologies.
These include:

  • radiography of the interested spine in two
    projections. The degree of kyphotic deformities the doctor determines
    lateral radiograph by calculating the angle of inclination
    spine;
  • МРТ, КТ – показаны для более детальной диагностики, они
    visualize the bone structure of the vertebrae, intervertebral discs,
    ligament apparatus;
  • angiography (the study of blood vessels) – relevant for cervical
    kyphosis.

How to independently identify thoracic kyphosis?

For self-diagnosis of thoracic kyphosis and for
seeking treatment can be carried out several tests.

  1. Stand with your back to the wall and lean on it, try
    reach the back of the head to the surface without moving the head back. With
    the presence of the disease will be difficult to perform.
  2. Bend forward towards the floor and look at your bend.
    in the mirror. Если имеется деформация, то хребет не
    bend to the end.

How to treat kyphosis of the thoracic?

Treatment of kyphosis begins with a mandatory visit to the doctor and
thorough diagnosis of the disease, after which he is appointed
individual course of therapy:

  • Manual therapy;
  • Therapeutic gymnastics (exercise therapy);
  • Wearing corrective posture fixtures;
  • Physiotherapy;
  • Symptomatic treatment;
  • Surgical treatment (surgery);
  • Spa treatment.

In case of severe pain, use is indicated.
different groups of analgesics, often non-steroid
anti-inflammatory drugs (ketorol, etc.) that do not allow
only get rid of obsessive pains, but also reduce
inflammatory lesion. These drugs are shown to take
according to the doctor’s prescription every day and not in moments of pain
seizures. therapy

Manual therapy (massage)

To treat severe spinal curvature costs with
the use of manual therapy and massage. The osteopath presses down
on certain areas of the back, thereby helping the vertebrae to become on
a place. The basis of manual therapy is the application of a certain
pressure on a specific area of ​​the motor segment.

Thanks to this method of treatment, stress is removed from the muscles and
nerves. Kyphosis of the thoracic spine requires
manual procedures every 3-4 days. Thanks to therapeutic massage
blood flow is activated, muscle tone increases.

Treatment of kyphosis with exercise therapy

Before correcting kyphosis of the thoracic spine,
the doctor prescribes a complex of diagnostic measures for the patient,
aimed at determining the extent of the disease and assessing the condition
vertebrae, the presence of hernia and the like. If a person has
first or second degree curvature diagnosed, then he
Exercises for kyphosis of the thoracic spine are shown.

Their essence is to strengthen the muscular corset of the back,
resume normal blood supply to the affected area and
increase the mobility of the vertebral joints.

Exercises:

  1. Rest your palms and chest against the wall, your back is maximal
    bend back. Stand in this position for 3-4 minutes daily.
  2. Turn your back to the wall, throw your hand back above your head and
    grab it. Keep your back in the bent position for 30-40 seconds,
    after that, change your hand and repeat the exercise for kyphosis.
  3. Feet shoulder width apart. We get a stick behind our back, pressing it to
    shoulder blades. Breathing in, lift the stick up, throw back his head
    backwards Exhaling, we return to the initial position.
  4. Lie on your stomach, brush your shoulders. Further, inhaling, try
    throw back your head, while raising the chest.
    Try to rise as high as possible. Exhale come back
    in a recumbent position.
  5. Feet shoulder width apart. We get a stick behind our back, pressing it to
    shoulder blades. Breathing in, lift the stick up, throw back his head
    backwards Exhaling, we return to the initial position.

Wearing a caste

Adult corset, kyphosis, a corset will help
prevent the development of pathology, but to align the already formed
spine he is not capable. In childhood, the basis of the skeleton
subject to change due to its cartilage structure, therefore
wearing a corset will help to completely correct the deformation.

Corsets are used for fixing different parts of the vertebral
pillar: lumbar, sacral, thoracic or cervical.

Tasks of the corset:

  • formation of correct posture
  • maintaining the spine in a physiologically correct position
    with curvature
  • fixation of the spine after surgery or injury,
    in the presence of a herniated disc and other diseases

Corset wearing rules:

  • no more than six hours a day
  • need to take off at night
  • do not tighten too tightly because it is locally broken
    circulation
  • wear if necessary: ​​doing physical work,
    trip to transport and so on
  • wear over the underwear so that the details of the corset do not rub the skin

Spinal surgery for kyphosis of the thoracic region

The indication for surgery is:

  • Persistent pain that can not be eliminated
    conservative methods.
  • The rapid progression of kyphosis, especially – accompanied
    neurological disorders as well as impaired lung function and
    hearts.
  • Cosmetic defect that significantly reduces the quality of life
    patient and prevent the implementation of professional
    duties.

The challenge for the surgeon is to fix
the angle of inclination of the spinal column and in stopping the progression
diseases. It is important to eliminate the clamping of the nerve endings as well
prevent their compression later.

Surgical intervention is carried out in two stages: first
the surgeon removes the defect and then corrects the spine with
using metal structures. The pedicle design consists
from rods and screws. The surgeon always relates the risk of operating
complications and benefit interventions.

Lifestyle after surgery

After the surgical correction of the spine of the patient
gradually returns to normal, respecting everything
doctor’s orders:

  • complexes of exercise therapy, differing in intensity of load in
    the postoperative and late recovery periods;
  • massage, physiotherapy;
  • elimination of adverse factors affecting the formation
    incorrect posture;
  • swimming, ball games;
  • skiing, walking;
  • good sleep, food.

Prevention

To prevent the development of the disease is possible! For this
just follow some recommendations:

  1. Time to treat infectious diseases, to carry out treatment
    chronic diseases, pay attention to the spine.
  2. Sleep on a hard mattress and comfortable pillow.
  3. Properly organize the workspace to ensure
    correct posture during the day.
  4. Fight with excess weight, do not allow overeating.
  5. Lead a healthy and active lifestyle. During sports
    practice keep your back and neck, prevent injury.
  6. Regularly hold a gymnastic complex for proper
    posture.
  7. Older people need to think about health as early as possible.
    spine. Withем витаминов и хондропротекторов, а также
    daily physical therapy will help you stay long
    form and forget about problems with the spine.

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