Какие the symptoms при заболеваниях щитовиднойglands?

Content:

  • Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
  • What are the symptoms of thyroid disease?
    hypothyroidism
  • Symptoms of thyroid cancer
  • What is goiter?
  • Symptoms of various goiter

The thyroid gland is an organ of internal secretion, throwing out in
blood hormones regulating many metabolic processes in
the body. Thyroid hormones include thyroxin, triiodothyronine
and thyrocalcitonin.

Triiodothyronine and thyroxin are produced by gland follicles. Their
synthesis is associated with iodine. These hormones are responsible for producing and
heat loss by the body, increase protein synthesis, are responsible for
development and maturation of the central nervous system.

Soже с ними связано повышение создания глюкозы из белков и
fat (gluconeogenesis), fat breakdown, the formation of red blood cells.
The level of sex hormones, and, consequently, sexual development, too
depend on these hormones.

Calcitonin is regulated by calcium-phosphorus metabolism. About t
it depends on the height of a person, the strength of his bones and teeth. Job
the thyroid gland itself is controlled by a thyroid-stimulating hormone,
which is produced by the pituitary gland. Among the pathologies of the thyroid gland
distinguish: inflammatory (thyroiditis), goiter and tumors.
Аутоиммунные заболевания щитовидной железы, (the symptoms которых
are similar to thyroiditis), and tumors occur in several
stages.

The clinic of these pathologies most often depends on the functional
organ activity. Therefore, depending on the level of
тиреоидных гормонов различают эутиреоз, hypothyroidism и
hyperthyroidism:

  • Euthyroidism is considered a normal amount of thyroid
    hormones that do not manifest pathological symptoms.
    Laboratory indicators of euthyroidism correspond to 1.2-2.8 mIU per liter
    total triiodothyronine (T3), 60-160 nmol per liter of total thyroxin
    (T4) and 0.17-4.05 mIU per liter of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
  • Hyperthyroidism – increased thyroid function, with an increased
    hormone release into the blood. This leads to the acceleration of metabolic processes.
    and is accompanied by a number of deviations in health and behavior
    person
  • Hypothyroidism is a lack of thyroid hormone production.
    glands that slows down the metabolic processes, inhibits the psyche, sexual
    function and slows the development of the body in childhood.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

When triiodothyronine and thyroxine are too much, they cause
the body is a real storm that not only stirs the vegetative
нервную систему, но может поставить вверх дном и психику person
When hyperthyroidism is expressed, they speak of thyrotoxicosis, that is,
отравлении организма гормонами thyroid gland.

Vegetative disorders affect the rate of exchange
processes, the state of the cardiovascular system:

  • Palpitations of patients accelerate over 90 per minute. Acceleration
    heartbeats and heartbeats can occur in moments of nervous
    excitement or in complete rest. Frequent episodes of night heartbeats.
    In addition to the increase in heart rate may appear
    heart rhythm disturbances (extrasystole with loss of strokes,
    atrial fibrillation with a completely uneven pulse and fear
    of death).
  • The skin of patients is warm and moist.
  • Hand shake first appears as a small finger tremor
    with strong agitation. In the future, such episodes may be repeated.
    and without any excitement and go into a sweeping tremor
    hands and head, resembling parkinsonism.
  • The sensation of heat associated with the acceleration of energy metabolism.
    First, intolerance of too hot blankets and
    premises. Then the person sweats profusely at normal room.
    temperature or the slightest exertion. Heat can
    accompanied by reddening of the face and even a feeling of suffocation.

The main types of exchange are accelerated and lead to the following
changes:

  • Increased appetite and
    acceleration of splitting of the main substances. Urging to stool may
    increase in patients from two to five to six times a day. Can
    быть боли в животе и увеличение размеров the liver.
  • Weight loss is quite dramatic and is triggered by one.
    hand, the rapid evacuation of food from the intestines, and on the other,
    accelerating the breakdown of fats and even proteins. In addition to the loss of fat
    with marked hyperthyroidism, a decrease in muscle mass occurs.
    Gradually exhaustion leads to the development of weakness and decay.
    forces

Sexual function with moderate hyperthyroidism may not suffer, and
libido even go up. However, women have frustration.
menstrual cycle and there is a risk of miscarriage
pregnancy, while men develop erectile dysfunction and
swelling of the mammary glands.

The nervous system responds to the thyroid re-stimulation
hormones arousal. In the initial stages of hyperthyroidism
gland increases reaction rate, performance. But,
this is accompanied by mild irritability, motor and
speech disinhibition. Gradually, a person’s character is noticeable.
spoils, he gets annoyed over trifles, becomes intolerable. Soже
he is tormented by anxiety and fears. Can развиваться навязчивые
states. Emotional lability explains tearfulness
excessive emotionality of patients.

Sometimes the release of hormones occurs as a crisis, and then they say
about thyroid storm, which is accompanied by:

  • heart palpitations
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • fever
  • anxiety and fear
  • followed by muscle weakness and coma.

To hyperthyroidism lead:

  • viral or autoimmune thyroiditis
  • tumors (cancer)
  • gobs (disease of Bazedov, Plummer, Graves)
  • Also with ovarian teratomas produced by thyroid
    hormones, pituitary tumors, when produced a lot
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (Truell-June syndrome).
  • Rare forms are hyperthyroids in patients receiving amiodarone.
    (medications for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias).

What are the symptoms of thyroid disease?
hypothyroidism

When the body is deficient in thyroid hormones, it
responds by slowing down metabolic processes and, in general, seems to freeze,
saving energy that is not sufficiently produced. There is almost all
symptoms develop exactly the opposite than when
hyperfunctions.

  • Heartbeat slows down – the pulse may fall below 55, which
    may cause darkening of the eyes or loss of consciousness during
    rising abruptly. Paradoxical condition can be
    приступообразное учащение сердцебиений в начале hypothyroidismа
    (sympathetic adrenal crisis). Часто в исходе hypothyroidismа развивается
    heart failure and myocardial dystrophy.
  • The skin becomes dry and pale, cold to the touch. Man all
    time is cold. Hair and nails are dull and brittle.
    Characteristic loss of the outer edge of the eyebrows. May occur
    baldness of the head and body.
  • Swelling, low voice – in the subcutaneous tissue of the face, legs, hands
    there are edemas that are poorly cleaned by diuretics and sufficiently
    tight to the touch. Puffiness of the vocal cords makes the voice deaf and
    low. The so-called myxedema edema can spread
    on the nasal mucosa, making it difficult for nasal breathing and middle ear, lowering
    hearing.
  • Digestive disorders – patients suffer from constipation, disorders
    appetite, problems with digestion. They may have
    reduced production of gastric juice and intestinal enzymes. because of
    biliary tract motor disorders may appear
    yellowness of the skin and eyes. Frequent manifestations of gastritis and an increase
    the liver.
  • The weight of patients is increasing, but there are no gross forms of obesity, since
    reduced appetite. Muscle weakness increases significantly.
    Efficiency and interest in life are falling. Appear fast
    fatigue and drowsiness.
  • Muscle pain can be combined with crawling and
    polyneuropathy of limbs that may interfere with motor
    activity.
  • Emotional sphere gradually grows dull: emotions get poorer
    external stimuli cease to interest. Man closes in
    to myself. Frequent depressive disorders. For severe forms
    hypothyroidismа страдает память и мышление, существенно снижается
    ability to learn and creative activity. Activity
    more acquires a mechanistic shade, man is good
    performs only those operations that have been worked out over the years. With
    запущенном hypothyroidismе со значительным гормональным дефицитом
    muscle weakness can become total and not even give the patient
    serve yourself.
  • Reproductive functions are affected in women (infertility, impaired
    cycle). Persons of both sexes have reduced sexual desire.
  • Из сопутствующих заболеваний, которые провоцирует hypothyroidism,
    known anemia, secondary immunodeficiency.
  • У детей — наиболее грозен hypothyroidism в детском возрасте. So
    how maturation and growth of the central nervous system is directly related
    с тиреоидными гормонами, дети с hypothyroidismом угрожаемы по развитию
    imbicity, moronity or oligophrenia. Withчинами таких
    diseases in this case becomes iodine deficiency in food and water
    (endemic goiter leading to cretinism), underdevelopment
    thyroid gland in utero.
  • Микседематозная кома – это осложнение hypothyroidismа при резком
    a fall in thyroid hormone levels. It most commonly affects older people.
    женщин, у которых hypothyroidism длился много лет. With этом на фоне
    усиления всех проявлений hypothyroidismа пациент теряет сознание и
    may die on the background of heart or respiratory failure.
    To provoke anyone can any acute illness, hypothermia,
    prolonged immobility.

Clinically distinguish primary (with lesions
thyroid gland), secondary (with damage to the pituitary gland) and tertiary
(гипоталамический) hypothyroidism.

К первичному hypothyroidismу чаще всего приводят поздние стадии
thyroiditis, when the gland tissue is sclerosed after inflammation,
conditions after surgical removal or radiation treatment
glands about goiter or tumor. Iodine deficiency in endemic areas
также может стать причиной hypothyroidismа.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer

  • swollen lymph nodes or nodules
    thyroid education
  • with the progression of the tumor: a violation of swallowing, hoarseness
    voices, pain, shortness of breath, coughing, choking
  • general condition of the patient: weight loss, weakness, deterioration
    appetite, increased sweating

In children – for more favorable and slow In young
people – lymphogenous metastasis of a tumor occurs more often in humans
middle-aged – germination near the organs of the neck
elderly people – more often, high-grade forms of cancer occur and
very rapid progression of the cancer process.

What is goiter?

Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. Soже этим
The term refers to a number of diseases of the body. Most often goiter
called the proliferation of the follicular area of ​​the thyroid gland, which leads to
increase its size. Part of the goiter is accompanied by a clinic
hyperthyroidism.

Goiters are distinguished by degrees:

  • With нулевом зобе щитовидная железа не прощупывается и не видна
    eye (with the exception of too thin necks).
  • With зобе первой степени железу можно прощупать.
  • With второй степени железа прощупывается и видна при
    swallowing.
  • With третьей степени контуры щитовидки нарушают форму шеи.
  • The fourth degree is characterized by a very noticeable goiter.
  • With пятой степени зоб сдавливает органы и сосуды шеи. With
    compression of the larynx and trachea makes breathing difficult. If squeezed
    esophagus, it is difficult to swallow (first solid food, and then
    fluid). With компрессии сосудов появляются головокружения, шум в
    tinnitus, memory and sleep disorders, there may be loss of consciousness.
    Compression of the nerve trunks leads to chronic pain
    syndrome.

Symptoms of various goiter

Eye symptoms

This is the result of autoimmune inflammation in the tissue behind the eye.
Developed due to the similar antigenic structure of this tissue and
thyroid gland. The most characteristic is the bulging of the eyeballs and
even their eversion in severe cases. The most characteristic symptoms
are:

  • feeling of fullness and sand in the eyes, swelling of the eyelids,
    lacrimation
  • lag of the upper eyelid when looking down (Kocher symptom)
  • when looking up, the appearance of a white strip between the upper eyelid and
    iris (symptom Graefe)
  • wrinkling forehead when looking up (Geoffroy symptom)
  • inability to focus on a close subject (symptom
    Mobius)
  • rare blinking (symptom of Stelvag)
  • fine tremor in closed eyelids (Rosenbach symptom)
Зоб Грейвса (диффузный токсический зоб,
bazedovoy disease)
Зоб Пламмера (узловой токсический зоб) Зоб диффузный нетоксический
(euthyroid)
Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis
Eye symptoms characteristic single or bilateral exophthalmos and ocular
the symptoms
глазные the symptoms не характерны ophthalmopathy does not cause может вызывать lacrimation, снижение остроты зрения, мушки
before your eyes
Hormonal activity pronounced thyrotoxicosis, developing very quickly with compensated phase weak hyperthyroidism with decompensation
– thyrotoxicosis
not accompanied by hormonal disorders gives mild or moderate thyrotoxicosis, developing
длительно и быстро сменяющийся hypothyroidismом
How to feel iron when probing elastic and of the same density at all
plots
  • single or multiple nodes in the thickness of the gland.
  • the node with clear contours shifts when swallowed,
    painless
  • lymph nodes in the neck are not enlarged
characterized by a uniform increase in glands of varying degrees
(from 0 to 5) homogeneous consistency
  • in the thyrotoxic phase gives a diffuse enlargement of the gland
  • when probing it is unevenly dense
  • goiter slowly grows, maybe large
  • sometimes only one lobe is affected.
Laboratory diagnosis
  • TTG reduced, increased T3, T4
  • with subclinical thyrotoxicosis, TSH is reduced, and T3 and T4 in
    the norm
  • antibodies to TSH receptors are elevated with thyrotoxicosis
T3 increased more than T4. Increased serum thyroglobulin.
Тиротропин снижен или в the norm. Antibodies to TSH receptors increased
with hyperthyroidism
gives you normal hormone levels
  • during thyrotoxicosis, laboratory diagnostics is similar
    Graves Goiter
  • в период склерозирования (hypothyroidismа) повышен ТТГ и снижены Т3
    and T4
Radioisotope scanning (scintigraphy) uniform increased isotope accumulation in iron With радиоизотопном сканировании определяется “горячий” узел,
absorbing isotope
accumulation and foci does not gives a uniform accumulation of the isotope during the period of hyperthyroidism and
decrease in hypothyroid stage

Symptoms of thyroid disease can be very diverse.
and even opposite at different stages of the same disease,
therefore require attentive attitude. If any
the pathological signs listed in the article bother you
visit the doctor wisely.

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