Intraocular pressure is the norm, symptoms,treatment in adults, causes and measurement of IOP

With the concept of “intraocular pressure” implying enhancement
or reducing the onslaught of the liquid contents of the eyeball on the sclera
and the cornea of ​​the eye, often enough to face
ophthalmologists. Increase or decrease of this indicator
is a deviation from the norm, which entails a deterioration
quality of vision.

Intraocular pressure has a certain fixed
the amount due to which the normal form of the eye is maintained
apple, ensured normal vision. It is worth understanding
what determines the pressure inside the eye, how it is measured, what
drugs and other ways to reduce these indicators.

The reasons

Внутриглазное давление

Intraocular pressure is provided by the difference in speed.
adding and reducing moisture in the chambers of the eye. The first provides
moisture secretion by the processes of the ciliary body, the second is regulated
resistance in the outflow system – the trabecular network in the corner
front camera. Normal pressure maintains overall tone
eyes, contributes to the preservation of its spherical shape. Will consider
the main reasons for the occurrence of IOP.

The reasons при повышенном внутриглазном давлении

Provoke temporary or permanent overpressure
There are various factors inside the eye. Cause permanent
Enhancement is usually glaucoma, which in turn may
develop under the influence of:

  • vegetative vascular dystonia;
  • psycho-emotional stress, chronic stress;
  • diseases of the heart and blood vessels
  • kidney disease
  • inflammatory process localized in the organ of vision;
  • diencephalic pathology;
  • traumatic brain injury;
  • diabetes;
  • constant intense strain on the eyes that can manifest
    while sitting at the computer, working with papers, because
    many other factors.

All the above reasons contribute to the periodic appearance.
increased intraocular pressure. If the disease proceeds
long enough, it can contribute to the development of glaucoma.

Increased intraocular pressure is often a sign
glaucoma, the risk of which increases markedly in adults
after 40 years.

Low IOP: Main Causes

Low IOP although rare, but no less
dangerously. Factors contributing to the reduction of intraocular
pressures are not as diverse as the reasons that increase it. TO
These include:

  • Eye injury in the past;
  • Purulent infections;
  • Diabetes;
  • Dehydration
  • Hypotension;
  • Alcoholic beverages and drugs (marijuana);
  • Glycerin (when consumed inside).

If a low IOP lasts more than a month, the power is disturbed.
structures of the eye, and as a result of the eye may die.

Ophthalmotonus of an adult should not normally go beyond
the limits of 10-23 mm Hg. Art. This level of pressure allows
keep microcirculation and metabolic processes in the eyes, and
also supports normally the optical properties of the retina.

Types of increased intraocular pressure

  1. Stable increase in IOP. In this case, the pressure inside the eye
    always exceeds the permissible limits, i.e. is a clear sign
    glaucoma;
  2. Transient boost. This condition is characterized by
    short-term single deviations from the norm. Occurs after
    surge in blood pressure and may also increase due to
    fatigue, long work with a computer;
  3. Lab increase. It rises periodically, but then again
    returns to normal.

Experts recommend that after 40 years you need to check
considered indicator in order to identify possible ills in
the future. Honest attitude to your health will help reduce
chances of developing eye diseases.

Symptoms

Intraocular pressure may manifest a number of pathological
расстройств, рассмотрим все симптомы в таблице ниже.

Symptoms
Increased intraocular pressure The most characteristic signs of increased intraocular
pressure resulting from impaired circulation of watery
moisture is:

  • tiredness and redness of the whites of the eyes,
  • the occurrence of pain in the temples and eyebrows,
  • blurred vision, reduction of visual field;
  • consolidation of the eyeball on palpation;
  • pain in the head;
  • the appearance of a rainbow halo and black flies when looking at the source
    Sveta.
Low IOP  Frequent signs of illness:

  • reduced vision;
  • dry sclera and corneas;
  • decrease in the density of the eyeball on palpation.

But more often than not, in the case of a gradual and lengthy decline,
symptomatology is completely absent. Sometimes for the presence of hypotension may
indicate vision impairment in general.

Complications

Complications повышенного внутреннего глазного давления достаточно
heavy:

  • glaucoma,
  • atrophy of the optic nerve,
  • retinal disinsertion.

These pathologies can lead to a significant reduction in vision.
and to blindness.

Diagnostics

Measuring intraocular pressure is one way
eye health diagnosis used in ophthalmology. Disease
ophthalmologists are diagnosed with the help of special devices:

  • tonometer Maklakova;
  • electrotonography;
  • пневмоtonometerа.

In addition, the therapist can send the patient to narrow
specialists: cardiologist, neurologist, etc.

Fighting increased intraocular pressure is key
confrontation with glaucoma, otherwise if the indicators are not timely
to stabilize, then the person faces irreversible loss of vision.

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The rate of intraocular pressure

Normal in an adult is considered an indicator in the range of 10
– 22 millimeters of mercury. If the indicator is constantly
It turns out to be too high, we can talk about the development of glaucoma. With this
age usually does not increase intraocular pressure, it can
increase by only a couple of points.

Table with normal values ​​and deviations

IOP Stage Intraocular pressure in mm Hg
Norm 10-22
Suspicion of glaucoma 23-25
initial stage 25-27
Developed 27-30
Heavy 30 and more

It is worth noting that IOP, regardless of species, may be
changeable or change throughout the day. Rate indicator can
fluctuate within 2-2.5 mm. Hg Art.

Indicators can deviate both to the big, and to the smaller
the side. That is, both increase and decrease are possible. Both of these
states are not normal and do not develop spontaneously.
Usually to changes in the volume or composition of intraocular contents
cause certain problems, negative factors or
pathology.

Measurement of intraocular pressure in adults

In medical institutions, doctors use proven methods
by which they get the right results. TO их числу
относится tonometerия according to Maklakov и according to Goldman. It is effective
methods used over the years.

Measurement of intraocular pressure: Description of the procedure
according to Maklakov The essence of the procedure is that a small weight is put on the eye,
wetted with paint. After that an imprint is made on the paper.
special measurements are carried out. The higher the IOP, the less paint
washed off the plates. This is because the cornea under
weight weights flattened quite a bit. Therefore contact with
the surface of the convex part of the eye is minimal.
according to Goldman В современной офтальмологии для измерения показателей
чаще используют бесконтактный tonometer Гольдмана. With this type
determine the level of pressure rate is about 11-13 mm
HgArt. Goldman’s tonometer releases a certain amount of air under
given pressure. Using a special sensor device
reads the cornea stress, which changes shape according to the influence
air flow. After that, the level is calculated
intraocular pressure. Устройство tonometerа Гольдмана отличается
complexity, so use this device yourself
can not.

TOак измеряют внутриглазное давление без помощи приборов?

TOонечно, данная методика позволяет оценить состояние глаза очень
approximately, but still doctors advise everyone to master it
man Palpation of the eyeball through closed
eyelids with one finger. In order to evaluate the result, you need
make a slight pressure. Normal finger should
feel the elastic ball, which is slightly pressed.

Measurement of IOP:

  • If the eye is as hard as a stone, it is not deformed at all when
    Pressing means that the intraocular
    pressure increased.
  • If it is impossible to find a spherical shape at all, and a finger
    easily “falls” inside the eye, this indicates
    сильном снижении intraocular pressure.

According to medical recommendations each person at least 1 time.
a year must visit the office of the ophthalmologist. In case if
there are discomfort in the eyes or the quality deteriorates
of view, you must unscheduled visit the office of an ophthalmologist. Many
serious illness can be prevented if timely
diagnose the cause of the pressure change and start
appropriate treatment.

Treatment

Treatment внутриглазного давления зависит от спровоцировавших
of his reasons. If the cause is a particular disease, then
only with its complete cure can the eye pressure be reduced to
the norm. If the cause was any ocular pathology, then
the treatment will be performed by an ophthalmologist, prescribing the necessary ophthalmic
drops.

Increased intraocular pressure лечится при помощи
use of conservative techniques. We list them:

  • TOапли, направленные на питание клеток ткани и отток
    fluid.
  • Treatment основного недуга в случае если повышенное ВГД – это
    symptom of a systematic nature.
  • The laser is used in the ineffectiveness of medication.
    methods.
  • Surgery (microsurgery).

TOапли при внутриглазном давлении

When the pressure rises, the specialist usually prescribes drops,
have a positive effect on the process of tissue nutrition
eye or outflow of intraocular fluids. If the cause of the increase
pressure is some kind of external disease, then the doctor will take
all measures to treat this disease.

The following types are used to regulate IOP.
drops:

  1. TOсалатан воздействуют на снижение давления посредством
    outflow regulation; fluid. Apply 1 time per day preferably
    for the night;
  2. Travatan regulate the outflow of water in the area of ​​the lens and
    предотвращают появление glaucoma;
  3. Betoptik. Application of this drop restores and reduces
    the formation of intraocular fluid, due to what happens
    normalization of hypertension. It is recommended to use regularly,
    While undergoing treatment, use twice a day, one at a time.
    a drop in each eye;
  4. Timolol reduces the production of ophthalmic fluid and normalizes
    pressure.

Separate eye instillation preparations can cause a number
side effects that are expressed as:

  • burning sensation;
  • eye redness;
  • development of arrhythmia;
  • heart palpitations;
  • headaches.

If unpleasant symptoms occur, refer to
to the attending physician and replacement of the drug.

Physiotherapy

The use of physiotherapy is also shown by
appointment of a specialist. Their use contributes to the preservation
visual functions in cases of glaucoma, affect
color pulse therapy, phonophoresis, vacuum massage and
infrasound. Widely used portable device for the eyes.
Sidorenko “, which can be successfully used at home
conditions, including for children with three years of age.
age

Surgery (microsurgery)

The most radical method of treatment of intraocular pressure –
microsurgical technologies: goniotomy with or without a combination
goniopunktura, as well as trabeculotomy. When goniotomy dissected
iris-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Trabeculotomy, in
turn is a dissection of the trabcular mesh
eyes – tissue connecting the ciliary edge of the iris to the back
the plane of the cornea.

Nutrition

If possible, remove sugar, salt, reduce to
минимуму быстрые углеводы и животные жиры. If there is
obesity, you need to lose weight. Strictly monitor calorie, eat often
and in small portions.

And what products must be:

  • Berries;
  • TOрасные овощи и фрукты.
  • Meat, especially red and lean;
  • A fish;
  • Nuts;
  • Vegetable oils;
  • Bitter chocolate (the darker the better);
  • Spices (sage, turmeric, mint).

To maintain and repair the cells and tissues of the eye and the whole
organism in the first place in the diet should be included
vitamins. Among all groups of vitamins, vitamins A are most important.
(beta carotene), E and C. They have high antioxidant
properties, largely preventing progression
diseases.

Take vitamin and mineral eye complexes and similar
facilities:

  • Рыбий жир и вообще ненасыщенные жирные кислоты;
  • Витамины А, С, Е и группа В;
  • Trace elements magnesium, phosphorus, zinc;
  • Amino acids, especially L-carnitine and melatonin.

Prevention

Preventive measures:

  1. give up smoking and drinking too much
    also salts;
  2. use a balanced diet, avoid
    cholesterol-containing foods;
  3. do physical education;
  4. provide yourself a good rest;
  5. walking in the open air more often;
  6. avoid stressful situations;
  7. replace tea and coffee with fruit drinks, juices and herbal drinks;
  8. perform light massage near the eyeballs and special
    gymnastics for the eyes;
  9. monitor time spent at the computer or near
    TV, in the process of reading, knitting, beadwork, embroidery and
    other activities that require eye strain.

So, we found out that intraocular pressure is necessary
maintain a normal level. Otherwise may develop
коварное и опасное заболевание – glaucoma, которое может привести к
complete loss of vision. Prevent the development of various eye
diseases, including blindness, is possible only with timely
appeal to a doctor. In the presence of the slightest discomfort and deviations in
eye functionality, it is necessary to consult an ophthalmologist.

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