Дисбактериоз – состояние, вызываемое нарушением микрофлоры
intestines associated with changes in the species composition of bacteria.
The number of beneficial bifidus and lactobacilli is reduced, and
the number of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms increases.
Intestinal dysbiosis is not an independent disease.
Often it is the result of other ailments (sometimes enough
terrible). According to statistics, it is observed in 90% of adults.
More on what kind of disease, what are the first signs
и симптомы, а также как правильно лечить с помощью диеты и
What is dysbacteriosis?
Intestinal dysbiosis (also dysbiosis) – this represents
the state of microbial imbalance on the body or inside it. With
dysbacteriosis, the ratio of beneficial and opportunistic
microorganisms, for example, in the intestines or in reproductive
In the intestines of an adult person normally contains about 2-3 kg
various microorganisms (about 500 species). 60% of all
microorganisms settled in the digestive tract.
Microorganisms help digest food, synthesize vitamins,
remove toxins and carcinogens, break down all unnecessary
items. The main representatives of the intestinal flora are aerobic
lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidobacteria.
In the human body in the processes of digestion take
involved three types of bacteria:
- useful (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). Support
the ratio of the remaining bacteria in the stomach, prevent the development
allergic diseases, weakening of the immune system and many others
negative effects on the human body. They also control
the number of harmful bacteria;
- neutral. They live in a certain place. Do not bring special
good or bad;
- вредные (грибок кандида, стафилококк, стрептококк).
They provoke various diseases and malfunctions.
Количество каждого вида бактерий, которые живут в
intestine, governed by the laws of natural selection: strongly
multiplied do not find their own food, and the extra die, or others
bacteria create unbearable conditions for them to live. But there are
ситуации, в которых нормальный баланс меняется.
Withчинами угнетения нормофлоры кишечника при дисбактериозе могут
The following factors should be:
- Withем некоторых лекарств (антибиотиков, слабительных,
immunosuppressants, hormones, psychotropic, secretolytic,
adsorbents, anticancer drugs, tuberculosis and
- Improper diet, lack of necessary diet
components, its imbalance, the presence of various kinds
chemical additives that contribute to the suppression of flora, failures in
nutrition, a dramatic change in the nature of the diet.
- The presence of any diseases of the digestive system (peptic ulcer,
хронический холецистит, болезнь Крона, цирроз печени,
целиакия, панкреатит other);
- Parasitic bowel disease (ascariasis), secrete
substances that destroy normal flora microbes
- Undergone surgery on the intestines, stress, neurological
disorders that result in a disturbed normal
Sometimes dysbacteriosis can almost completely suffer.
healthy people. In this case, the reason should be sought in the features
profession, or in seasonal changes in nutrition.
Depending on the cause of intestinal syndrome
dysbiosis in modern medicine is divided into several
- Dysbacteriosis occurring in healthy people:
- Professional (violations occur due to harmful
- Age (flora is disturbed due to aging
- Nutritional (associated with malnutrition)
- Seasonal (flora varies with the seasons,
mostly in cold weather).
- medium heavy;
With the flow:
- acute (up to 30 days);
- затяжная (до four месяцев): с клиническими проявлениями
(continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations;
- хроническая (более four месяцев): с клиническими проявлениями
(continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations.
Small intestinal dysbiosis
Dysbacteriosis of the small intestine begins to manifest itself when its excess
seeding. In this case, the microbial composition changes, which
provokes disruption of the normal operation of the digestive tract. Pain is localized
in the navel area.
Colon dysbacteriosis is extremely common
pathology that violates the microflora simultaneously in the stomach,
двенадцатиперстной кишке, intestines. The disease may have
lasting nature, take a more severe form and break
normal human life.
Symptoms дисбактериоза кишечника
The clinical picture of the development and course of dysbiosis depends on how
from the stage and from the microbiological variant of the disorder.
Characteristic signs of dysbiosis in adults:
- Disorders of the chair. Disorders of stool with dysbiosis are
one of the most common and characteristic symptoms. More often Total
manifests as loose stools (diarrhea). With возрастном (у
пожилых людей) дисбактериозе, чаще Total развивается запор, который
due to a decrease in intestinal motility (due to lack of
- With выраженных процессах гниения и брожения, которые
only 25% of patients are observed, the composition, shape and color are disturbed
kala. It becomes frothy, liquid, acquires a light color and
sour smell. There may be a burning sensation in the back.
- change in the smell of feces (it becomes sharply putrid or
- increased gas formation (gases are offensive and odorless,
sonorous and not);
- abdominal distention of varying intensity (it is more pronounced by
in the evenings, may be aggravated after some products);
расстройства: тошнота, рвота, отрыжка, снижение
appetite, are the result of impaired digestion;
- The intestine is not fully emptied.
- Rotten taste, belching.
Symptoms that manifest when dysbiosis, not everyone can
observed, these are individual signs. Withмерно половина
suffering for this disorder does not feel anything but liquid
stool or constipation.
With дисбактериозе больше Total страдает пищеварение. Because
the food in the intestine is broken down by bacteria first, and only then
absorbed into the blood. Without the help of microorganisms, the body can not
absorb many nutrients. Therefore, nausea appears
vomiting, loose stools.
Stages of dysbiosis in adults
There are such stages of the disease:
With дисбактериозе кишечника возможны и другие симптомы и
manifestations, but they will relate rather to complications
diseases or aggravation of comorbidities. Directly these
symptoms are not associated with impaired intestinal microflora. Are possible
for example, signs of hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis. Disadvantage
vitamin is related to the fact that it is not digested normally in
With дисбактериозе кишечника наблюдаются симптомы
как при колите, энтероколите, гастрите, воспалении толстого,
small intestine. The task of the doctor is to make the correct diagnosis.
исключив вышеперечисленные патологии органов digestion.
It is difficult to diagnose dysbacteriosis without tests. Symptoms
disease is very similar to the symptoms of other diseases. To deliver
diagnosis, the doctor must have diagnostic results. After collection
patient complaints and palpation, the specialist prescribes 2-3 necessary
An accurate diagnosis will help:
- Анализ kala. The most specific laboratory technique
диагностики кишечного дисбактериоза – анализ и бакпосев kala.
- A blood test – shows the presence of inflammation and
возможного кровотечения в intestines. With выраженном дисбактериозе
отмечается анемия – снижение уровня гемоглобина в крови.
- Colonoscopy. Allows you to assess the condition of the intestinal segment
up to one meter long.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. With his help
You can detect comorbidities.
- Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy. Is to inspect
the mucous membrane of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum,
which is carried out using an endoscope.
- X-ray of the intestine. To detect pathological
changes, during the procedure applied contrast
Treatment of dysbiosis in adults
With легкой степени дисбаланса в микрофлоре кишечника, может быть
enough to eliminate these causes through nutrition
taking prebiotics or probiotics. With тяжелом нарушении
simultaneously with complex antimicrobial therapy also shown
How to treat intestinal dysbiosis? Treatment activities
- elimination of excess bacterial contamination fine
- восстановление нормальной микробной флоры толстой guts;
- improving intestinal digestion and absorption;
- restoration of impaired intestinal motility;
- stimulate the body’s reactivity.
For лечения дисбактериоза применяются препараты, которые
contribute to restoration of normal intestinal flora. Usually
select the means of one of the following groups:
- Antibacterial drugs are needed primarily for
suppressing the excessive growth of microbial flora in the small intestine.
The most widely used antibiotics are from the tetracycline group,
penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones (tarivid, nitroxoline) and
- Bacteriophages (entertibacteriophage, staphylococcal bacteriophage,
pyobacteriophage, coliprotein bacteriophage, etc.);
- Antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins,
macrolides, aminoglycosides, etc.);
- Probiotics for dysbacteriosis (sporobacterin, enterol,
Cereobiogen, baktisubtil, etc.).
- Antifungal agents. Assigned when detected in
intestinal contents of an increased amount of yeast fungi.
- Enzymes are appointed in case of pronounced violations.
digestion. Таблетки Мезим по one таблетке 3 раза в день,
before eating. In order to improve the function of suction prescribed
Essentiale, Legalon or Kars, since they stabilize the membranes
intestinal epithelium. Improve intestinal function
Imodium (loperamide) and trimebutin (debridate).
- Sorbents are prescribed for signs of intoxication.
Activated carbon is assigned to 5-7 tablets at a time, in
for 5 days.
Prescribe medications for dysbiosis, determine
their dosage and duration of administration can only doctor.
Self-medication threatens the occurrence of complications.
With long-term antibiotic treatment, it is imperative to include in
special diet therapy containing foods rich in health
bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, as well as
|Degree of dysbiosis||Treatment for adults|
|2||With 2 degrees of dysbiosis is recommended:
|3||With 3 degrees of intestinal dysbiosis, treatment with drugs
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is prescribed comprehensively in
depending on the degree of the disease. Because заболевание
develops under the influence of many factors, it is important to eliminate
the reason for its development, otherwise the intake of probiotics will not give
positive effect. Elimination of foci of infection and chronic
diseases the main task in the treatment.
Diet and proper nutrition
There is no special diet for each person, it just follows
follow some rules, avoid unwashed fruits,
substandard foods and take food every three hours in
small portions. It is important to consume hot liquid every day.
food: soup, broth.
The basic principles of proper nutrition for dysbacteriosis:
- regular meals at the same time;
- eating warm food (within 25-four0 degrees) and
avoid cold or hot foods;
- avoidance of aggressive and sharp foods;
- chewing food thoroughly;
- eating food often (every two and a half hours) and
in small portions;
- drink plenty of water, but not while eating (so as not to interfere
With a diet, it is allowed to eat such foods.
- white or rye bread – not fresh, but yesterday’s;
- soups on low-fat broth with grated groats and vegetables;
- boiled, steamed or stewed meat dishes;
- lean meats;
- lean fish, boiled, steamed, stewed or fried without
- vegetables (excluding cabbage, beans and mushrooms) in boiled,
baked or steamed;
- fruits and berries in the composition of kissel, compote, mashed potatoes or mousse;
- baked or raw ground apples;
- low-fat dairy products;
- butter in small quantities;
- spice-free sauces;
- all drinks except alcohol, carbonated, kvass and
Along with the diet, probiotics and
prebiotics. These drugs improve intestinal function and
restore the healthy composition of the flora.
Traditional medicine, if properly applied proven
remedies, can improve the condition and relieve symptoms
diseases. But it can only be used as a supplement to
The main treatment prescribed by the doctor.
As a national treatment allowed:
- antiseptic plants: diluted with water
pomegranate and rosehip juice, strawberries, raspberries;
- an analgesic effect gives mint extract, chamomile tea, decoctions
- have astringent, anti-inflammatory blueberries,
bird cherry, beets.
Traditional methods include the use of the following tools:
- Oak bark. Broth oak bark has an astringent effect and
helps with diarrhea, often accompanying dysbacteriosis. Dining room
spoon raw materials, poured 250 ml of boiling water, languishing on low heat a quarter
hours The liquid is cooled, filtered and taken in half a glass.
up to 3 times a day.
- Garlic. Its composition contains antibacterial
compounds that destroy pathogens and prevent
development of putrefactive processes. For drug preparation
It is necessary to crush a clove of garlic in a mortar and pour it with a glass
skimmed yogurt. Drink 2 glasses each day.
- A useful and tasty cure for dysbiosis is a mixture
sunflower seeds, pumpkins and walnut kernels. Good
the dried ingredients must be ground in a coffee grinder and daily
take 2 tablespoons of the resulting powder, drinking it down
- Serum. Sold in stores or left after
cooking homemade cottage cheese. Warm serum drink in the morning
натощак на протяжении месяца по one стакану.
- In case the digestion of food is accompanied by swelling
belly. Fill four spoons of dill seeds with a glass of hot water, 2 hours
insist, then strain and drink during the day every 2
- On the basis of propolis honey: a teaspoon of such honey is needed
dilute in a glass of warm water or dogrose broth and take 2
раза в день после еды на протяжении one,5 месяца.
- The simplest options for herbal decoction are eucalyptus and
mint. For приготовления первого 3 ст.л. dry eucalyptus
500 ml of boiling water are poured. For второго рецепта кипятка берется в 2
less time – 250 ml. Eucalyptus broth is drunk on a quarter cup
3 times a day, and mint for 3 quarters of a glass four times a day. Course
лечения рассчитан на onefour дней.
Herbal treatment is only possible in the case of lung.
dysbacteriosis. In other cases, folk methods are only
addition to the main treatment prescribed by a specialist.
Профилактические меры включают в себя соблюдение
recommendations on proper nutrition, hygiene and
carrying out sanitary and hygienic processing of products.
The main preventive measures for adults are
- healthy eating;
- taking antibiotics solely on prescription;
- timely treatment of diseases of the digestive system.
For избавления от дисбактериоза и предотвращения дальнейших
relapse is most effective to use an integrated approach. With
first symptoms, be sure to ask for help
a gastroenterologist. Stay healthy and always watch your
way of life!