Intestinal dysbacteriosis – causes, signs,symptoms and treatment of dysbiosis in adults, nutrition andprevention

Дисбактериоз – состояние, вызываемое нарушением микрофлоры
intestines associated with changes in the species composition of bacteria.
The number of beneficial bifidus and lactobacilli is reduced, and
the number of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms increases.
Intestinal dysbiosis is not an independent disease.
Often it is the result of other ailments (sometimes enough
terrible). According to statistics, it is observed in 90% of adults.

More on what kind of disease, what are the first signs
и симптомы, а также как правильно лечить с помощью диеты и
drugs.

What is dysbacteriosis?

Дисбактериоз кишечника

Intestinal dysbiosis (also dysbiosis) – this represents
the state of microbial imbalance on the body or inside it. With
dysbacteriosis, the ratio of beneficial and opportunistic
microorganisms, for example, in the intestines or in reproductive
organs.

In the intestines of an adult person normally contains about 2-3 kg
various microorganisms (about 500 species). 60% of all
microorganisms settled in the digestive tract.

Microorganisms help digest food, synthesize vitamins,
remove toxins and carcinogens, break down all unnecessary
items. The main representatives of the intestinal flora are aerobic
lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidobacteria.

In the human body in the processes of digestion take
involved three types of bacteria:

  • useful (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). Support
    the ratio of the remaining bacteria in the stomach, prevent the development
    allergic diseases, weakening of the immune system and many others
    negative effects on the human body. They also control
    the number of harmful bacteria;
  • neutral. They live in a certain place. Do not bring special
    good or bad;
  • вредные (грибок кандида, стафилококк, стрептококк).
    They provoke various diseases and malfunctions.
    gastrointestinal tract.

Withчины

Количество каждого вида бактерий, которые живут в
intestine, governed by the laws of natural selection: strongly
multiplied do not find their own food, and the extra die, or others
bacteria create unbearable conditions for them to live. But there are
ситуации, в которых нормальный баланс меняется.

Withчинами угнетения нормофлоры кишечника при дисбактериозе могут
The following factors should be:

  1. Withем некоторых лекарств (антибиотиков, слабительных,
    immunosuppressants, hormones, psychotropic, secretolytic,
    adsorbents, anticancer drugs, tuberculosis and
    other);
  2. Improper diet, lack of necessary diet
    components, its imbalance, the presence of various kinds
    chemical additives that contribute to the suppression of flora, failures in
    nutrition, a dramatic change in the nature of the diet.
  3. The presence of any diseases of the digestive system (peptic ulcer,
    хронический холецистит, болезнь Крона, цирроз печени,
    целиакия, панкреатит other);
  4. Parasitic bowel disease (ascariasis), secrete
    substances that destroy normal flora microbes
    intestines;
  5. Undergone surgery on the intestines, stress, neurological
    disorders that result in a disturbed normal
    intestinal motility.

Sometimes dysbacteriosis can almost completely suffer.
healthy people. In this case, the reason should be sought in the features
profession, or in seasonal changes in nutrition.

Kinds

Depending on the cause of intestinal syndrome
dysbiosis in modern medicine is divided into several
species.

  • Dysbacteriosis occurring in healthy people:
  • Professional (violations occur due to harmful
    professional activity)
  • Age (flora is disturbed due to aging
    body)
  • Nutritional (associated with malnutrition)
  • Seasonal (flora varies with the seasons,
    mostly in cold weather).

By gravity:

  • easy;
  • medium heavy;
  • heavy

With the flow:

  • acute (up to 30 days);
  • затяжная (до four месяцев): с клиническими проявлениями
    (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations;
  • хроническая (более four месяцев): с клиническими проявлениями
    (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations.

Small intestinal dysbiosis

Dysbacteriosis of the small intestine begins to manifest itself when its excess
seeding. In this case, the microbial composition changes, which
provokes disruption of the normal operation of the digestive tract. Pain is localized
in the navel area.

Colon dysbacteriosis

Colon dysbacteriosis is extremely common
pathology that violates the microflora simultaneously in the stomach,
двенадцатиперстной кишке, intestines. The disease may have
lasting nature, take a more severe form and break
normal human life.

Symptoms дисбактериоза кишечника

The clinical picture of the development and course of dysbiosis depends on how
from the stage and from the microbiological variant of the disorder.

Characteristic signs of dysbiosis in adults:

  • Disorders of the chair. Disorders of stool with dysbiosis are
    one of the most common and characteristic symptoms. More often Total
    manifests as loose stools (diarrhea). With возрастном (у
    пожилых людей) дисбактериозе, чаще Total развивается запор, который
    due to a decrease in intestinal motility (due to lack of
    normoflora).
  • With выраженных процессах гниения и брожения, которые
    only 25% of patients are observed, the composition, shape and color are disturbed
    kala. It becomes frothy, liquid, acquires a light color and
    sour smell. There may be a burning sensation in the back.
    aisle
  • change in the smell of feces (it becomes sharply putrid or
    sour);
  • increased gas formation (gases are offensive and odorless,
    sonorous and not);
  • abdominal distention of varying intensity (it is more pronounced by
    in the evenings, may be aggravated after some products);
  • Dyspeptic
    расстройства: тошнота, рвота, отрыжка, снижение
    appetite, are the result of impaired digestion;
  • The intestine is not fully emptied.
  • Rotten taste, belching.

Symptoms that manifest when dysbiosis, not everyone can
observed, these are individual signs. Withмерно половина
suffering for this disorder does not feel anything but liquid
stool or constipation.

With дисбактериозе больше Total страдает пищеварение. Because
the food in the intestine is broken down by bacteria first, and only then
absorbed into the blood. Without the help of microorganisms, the body can not
absorb many nutrients. Therefore, nausea appears
vomiting, loose stools.

Stages of dysbiosis in adults

There are such stages of the disease:

one стадия
  • Первая степень дисбактериоза кишечника характеризуется
    decrease in protective endogenous flora by no more than two orders of magnitude.
    Bifidoflora and lactoflora are not violated, clinical signs
    no diseases. This degree is characteristic of the latent phase.
    development of the disease.
2
  • In this case, the reduction of beneficial microorganisms – lacto – and
    bifidobacteria – becomes critical. Along with this development
    pathogenic microflora grows extremely rapidly. On this
    stage, there are first signs of dysbiosis, which
    indicate a violation in the functioning of the intestines.
3
  • The inflammatory process begins to break the intestinal wall, which
    усугубляет хроническое расстройство digestion. This stage of the disease
    requires serious treatment not only the correct diet, but also
    medicines.
four
  • развивается, когда лечение дисбактериоза отсутствует либо
    it is not intense enough. At this stage, harmful microorganisms
    practically replacing the useful ones, which leads to the development of such
    болезней, как авитаминоз, депрессия, кишечные болезни, которые
    are dangerous not only to health, but also to life
    the patient.

With дисбактериозе кишечника возможны и другие симптомы и
manifestations, but they will relate rather to complications
diseases or aggravation of comorbidities. Directly these
symptoms are not associated with impaired intestinal microflora. Are possible
for example, signs of hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis. Disadvantage
vitamin is related to the fact that it is not digested normally in
intestines.

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Diagnostics

With дисбактериозе кишечника наблюдаются симптомы
как при колите, энтероколите, гастрите, воспалении толстого,
small intestine. The task of the doctor is to make the correct diagnosis.
исключив вышеперечисленные патологии органов digestion.

It is difficult to diagnose dysbacteriosis without tests. Symptoms
disease is very similar to the symptoms of other diseases. To deliver
diagnosis, the doctor must have diagnostic results. After collection
patient complaints and palpation, the specialist prescribes 2-3 necessary
procedures.

An accurate diagnosis will help:

  • Анализ kala. The most specific laboratory technique
    диагностики кишечного дисбактериоза – анализ и бакпосев kala.
  • A blood test – shows the presence of inflammation and
    возможного кровотечения в intestines. With выраженном дисбактериозе
    отмечается анемия – снижение уровня гемоглобина в крови.
  • Colonoscopy. Allows you to assess the condition of the intestinal segment
    up to one meter long.
  • Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. With his help
    You can detect comorbidities.
  • Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy. Is to inspect
    the mucous membrane of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum,
    which is carried out using an endoscope.
  • X-ray of the intestine. To detect pathological
    changes, during the procedure applied contrast
    substance.

Treatment of dysbiosis in adults

With легкой степени дисбаланса в микрофлоре кишечника, может быть
enough to eliminate these causes through nutrition
taking prebiotics or probiotics. With тяжелом нарушении
simultaneously with complex antimicrobial therapy also shown
diet food.

How to treat intestinal dysbiosis? Treatment activities
consist of:

  • elimination of excess bacterial contamination fine
    guts;
  • восстановление нормальной микробной флоры толстой guts;
  • improving intestinal digestion and absorption;
  • restoration of impaired intestinal motility;
  • stimulate the body’s reactivity.

Medications

For лечения дисбактериоза применяются препараты, которые
contribute to restoration of normal intestinal flora. Usually
select the means of one of the following groups:

  1. Antibacterial drugs are needed primarily for
    suppressing the excessive growth of microbial flora in the small intestine.
    The most widely used antibiotics are from the tetracycline group,
    penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones (tarivid, nitroxoline) and
    metronidazole.
  2. Bacteriophages (entertibacteriophage, staphylococcal bacteriophage,
    pyobacteriophage, coliprotein bacteriophage, etc.);
  3. Antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins,
    macrolides, aminoglycosides, etc.);
  4. Probiotics for dysbacteriosis (sporobacterin, enterol,
    Cereobiogen, baktisubtil, etc.).
  5. Antifungal agents. Assigned when detected in
    intestinal contents of an increased amount of yeast fungi.
  6. Enzymes are appointed in case of pronounced violations.
    digestion. Таблетки Мезим по one таблетке 3 раза в день,
    before eating. In order to improve the function of suction prescribed
    Essentiale, Legalon or Kars, since they stabilize the membranes
    intestinal epithelium. Improve intestinal function
    Imodium (loperamide) and trimebutin (debridate).
  7. Sorbents are prescribed for signs of intoxication.
    Activated carbon is assigned to 5-7 tablets at a time, in
    for 5 days.

Prescribe medications for dysbiosis, determine
their dosage and duration of administration can only doctor.
Self-medication threatens the occurrence of complications.

With long-term antibiotic treatment, it is imperative to include in
special diet therapy containing foods rich in health
bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, as well as
antihistamine therapy.

Degree of dysbiosis Treatment for adults
one
  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents;
  • Prebiotics.
2 With 2 degrees of dysbiosis is recommended:

  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents;
  • Probiotics.
3 With 3 degrees of intestinal dysbiosis, treatment with drugs
following:

  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents;
  • Antibacterial therapy, bacteriophages, intestinal
    antiseptics;
  • Probiotics.

Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is prescribed comprehensively in
depending on the degree of the disease. Because заболевание
develops under the influence of many factors, it is important to eliminate
the reason for its development, otherwise the intake of probiotics will not give
positive effect. Elimination of foci of infection and chronic
diseases the main task in the treatment.

Diet and proper nutrition

There is no special diet for each person, it just follows
follow some rules, avoid unwashed fruits,
substandard foods and take food every three hours in
small portions. It is important to consume hot liquid every day.
food: soup, broth.

The basic principles of proper nutrition for dysbacteriosis:

  • regular meals at the same time;
  • eating warm food (within 25-four0 degrees) and
    avoid cold or hot foods;
  • avoidance of aggressive and sharp foods;
  • chewing food thoroughly;
  • eating food often (every two and a half hours) and
    in small portions;
  • drink plenty of water, but not while eating (so as not to interfere
    digesting food).

With a diet, it is allowed to eat such foods.
Products:

  • white or rye bread – not fresh, but yesterday’s;
  • crackers;
  • soups on low-fat broth with grated groats and vegetables;
  • boiled, steamed or stewed meat dishes;
  • lean meats;
  • lean fish, boiled, steamed, stewed or fried without
    breading;
  • vegetables (excluding cabbage, beans and mushrooms) in boiled,
    baked or steamed;
  • fruits and berries in the composition of kissel, compote, mashed potatoes or mousse;
  • baked or raw ground apples;
  • low-fat dairy products;
  • butter in small quantities;
  • spice-free sauces;
  • all drinks except alcohol, carbonated, kvass and
    mors.

Along with the diet, probiotics and
prebiotics. These drugs improve intestinal function and
restore the healthy composition of the flora.

Folk remedies

Traditional medicine, if properly applied proven
remedies, can improve the condition and relieve symptoms
diseases. But it can only be used as a supplement to
The main treatment prescribed by the doctor.

As a national treatment allowed:

  • antiseptic plants: diluted with water
    pomegranate and rosehip juice, strawberries, raspberries;
  • an analgesic effect gives mint extract, chamomile tea, decoctions
    Hypericum;
  • have astringent, anti-inflammatory blueberries,
    bird cherry, beets.

Traditional methods include the use of the following tools:

  1. Oak bark. Broth oak bark has an astringent effect and
    helps with diarrhea, often accompanying dysbacteriosis. Dining room
    spoon raw materials, poured 250 ml of boiling water, languishing on low heat a quarter
    hours The liquid is cooled, filtered and taken in half a glass.
    up to 3 times a day.
  2. Garlic. Its composition contains antibacterial
    compounds that destroy pathogens and prevent
    development of putrefactive processes. For drug preparation
    It is necessary to crush a clove of garlic in a mortar and pour it with a glass
    skimmed yogurt. Drink 2 glasses each day.
    drink.
  3. A useful and tasty cure for dysbiosis is a mixture
    sunflower seeds, pumpkins and walnut kernels. Good
    the dried ingredients must be ground in a coffee grinder and daily
    take 2 tablespoons of the resulting powder, drinking it down
    heated water.
  4. Serum. Sold in stores or left after
    cooking homemade cottage cheese. Warm serum drink in the morning
    натощак на протяжении месяца по one стакану.
  5. In case the digestion of food is accompanied by swelling
    belly. Fill four spoons of dill seeds with a glass of hot water, 2 hours
    insist, then strain and drink during the day every 2
    hours
  6. On the basis of propolis honey: a teaspoon of such honey is needed
    dilute in a glass of warm water or dogrose broth and take 2
    раза в день после еды на протяжении one,5 месяца.
  7. The simplest options for herbal decoction are eucalyptus and
    mint. For приготовления первого 3 ст.л. dry eucalyptus
    500 ml of boiling water are poured. For второго рецепта кипятка берется в 2
    less time – 250 ml. Eucalyptus broth is drunk on a quarter cup
    3 times a day, and mint for 3 quarters of a glass four times a day. Course
    лечения рассчитан на onefour дней.

Herbal treatment is only possible in the case of lung.
dysbacteriosis. In other cases, folk methods are only
addition to the main treatment prescribed by a specialist.

Prevention

Профилактические меры включают в себя соблюдение
recommendations on proper nutrition, hygiene and
carrying out sanitary and hygienic processing of products.

The main preventive measures for adults are
following:

  • healthy eating;
  • taking antibiotics solely on prescription;
  • timely treatment of diseases of the digestive system.

For избавления от дисбактериоза и предотвращения дальнейших
relapse is most effective to use an integrated approach. With
first symptoms, be sure to ask for help
a gastroenterologist. Stay healthy and always watch your
way of life!

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