Insect bites: mosquitoes, midges, bees and wasps,first aid for allergic reactions to bites

Update: October 2018

Each of us has ever been bitten by an insect. Bites
these little representatives of the fauna are fraught with unpleasant
the consequences. In this article we will look at how the bites look.
different insects, what symptoms occur and how to help in such
situations.

Bites комаров

The most active representative of “biting” insects is a mosquito.
Insect activity falls on May-September. Bite only
female mosquitoes – for them the blood of warm-blooded animals and humans
is the only way to extend your offspring. Insect
can actively attack at night, depriving a person of normal
sleep.

For a healthy adult, a mosquito bite is not
any danger, except perhaps an unpleasant sensation. But
people with allergies, small children, they can deliver a lot
troubles in the form of a serious inflammatory reaction
allergic nature.

Interesting facts about mosquitoes

Писк, сопровождающий поyears old комара – это колебания его крыльев с
up to 600 per second. The mosquito feels the smell of food for 50
метров, а в поисках пропитания насекомое может преодоyears oldь до 64
km

Dangerous mosquito species

We all know about the malaria mosquitoes that inhabit the tropics and
about 3 million people are “killed” annually. In terms of our latitudes all
malaria cases are imported, i.e. a person becomes infected at the moment
stay in the endemic area of ​​the disease. Mosquitoes of the species Aedes
tolerate dangerous yellow fever, hepatitis and encephalitis. Virus
tropical fever is also tolerated by mosquitoes.

Who is most at risk

  • small children (thin skin and accelerated exchange
    substances);
  • people with excessive sweating;
  • rural residents;
  • people visiting forests and swamps (natural habitat
    mosquito).

Symptoms укуса комара

  • unpleasant, stabbing sensation at the moment of bite;
  • зуд skin;
  • redness;
  • puffiness

AT более heavy случаях и у детей может наблюдаться сильная
inflammatory response in the form of:

  • hemorrhages at the point of entry;
  • blister;
  • puffiness up to edema of the limb, face (bite zone);
  • allergic rash near;
  • temperature rise;
  • sleep disturbance, anxiety, loss of appetite;
  • enlarged regional lymph nodes;
  • infection: the accession of a secondary bacterial infection,
    which is considered a complication.

Spots like mosquito bites

It is sometimes difficult to identify a mosquito bite from a different rash,
This is especially true of children. A mosquito bite always has a point in
center of the outbreak, but an allergic rash that may appear
after a while, is no different from any
another allergen.

A rash on a child’s skin may be allergic, and
infectious nature. If you can still handle the first
independently by taking antihistamine drugs, then the second
may indicate the development of the disease. What can it
be:

  • bite of another insect (bug, midge);
  • allergic reaction to a specific irritant;
  • disease, one of the symptoms of which is rash
    (dermatitis, roseola, etc).

Allergy to mosquito bites

Bites комаров у детей – особая тема. Lately
there is an increase in the number of children giving serious allergic
reaction to this, which develops pretty quickly. At the time of the bite
the insect injects a special anticoagulant poison into the skin, which reduces pain,
inhibits blood clotting and softens the vascular wall.

The immune system instantly reacts to such penetration.
inflammatory reaction in the form of a small swelling and redness – so
occurs in healthy adults. In children, with
imperfect immunity and adults with allergies who have failures in
work of immunity, hyperreaction of the immune system is formed on
protein components of insect venom.

According to the severity of allergies to insect bites
is divided into:

  • Local – swelling at the bite to 10 cm, which holds more
    24 hours
  • General mild to moderate severity – severe itching,
    allergic rash (urticaria), angioedema, increased
    temperature
  • General severe – nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, vascular
    collapse right down to anaphylactic shock. It is extremely
    seldom.

First aid and treatment of allergic reactions after mosquitoes
bites

With the development of a general reaction of any severity should
visit the doctor and as soon as possible. First Aid and Action
with the development of only a local reaction, the following:

  1. Тщательно промыть место укуса холодной водой и с soap;
  2. Treat the area with any antiseptic (hydrogen peroxide,
    Furacilin, Chlorhexidine, Dekasan);
  3. To exclude combing of the wound;

This is enough for a healthy adult to
in half an hour to forget about the bite, i.e. Without
local inflammatory reaction there is no need to apply
antihistamine drugs.

  1. Cool this place to reduce swelling – attach a special
    cooling pad, pieces of ice wrapped in cloth.
  2. Lubricate with antihistamine ointment (Fenistil, Soventol). AT heavy
    cases and in the absence of other means can be put in place
    bite ointment with hydrocortisone. However, this is an extreme measure, the reaction
    a hormonal drug can be very serious
    especially in children. If you already had to use this ointment, better
    use the drug with the lowest concentration of hormone (0.25
    %).
  3. In the absence of antihistamine ointments, you can attach a lotion with
    soda solution (1 tsp. soda in a glass of water) and stand 15-20
    minutes (until the swelling is reduced);
  4. Take an oral antihistamine (Fencarol, Loratadine,
    Suprastin) and continue to receive it according to the instructions for 3-5
    days

Insect protection

Common events include

  • prevent insects from entering the premises (use
    home-made or industrial mosquito nets on the windows,
    special ultrasonic repelling systems or fumigators –
    Raptor, Aokeman).
  • the destruction of insects caught in the room (use
    plates and liquids from mosquitoes, which are also available for
    applications in children’s rooms – Raptor, Mosquitall, Fumitoks),
    mechanical destruction.

Personal prevention includes

  • Wearing closed clothes when visiting the forest, park, walks
    along reservoirs;
  • The use of special protective nets for children
    pram;
  • The use of repellent emulsions, patches, pencils
    aerosols and creams to be applied to exposed areas
    skin. It is preferable to use creams and emulsions since they are
    create a uniform film on the skin. Aerosols are difficult to dose, to
    besides, they can get into the respiratory system. Pencils often create
    sticky film that quickly collapses when touched.
  • If you do not want to use chemicals, you can
    use natural repellents (essential oils of cloves,
    geraniums, eucalyptus, lavender) – put on a drop of oil on clothes,
    baby carriage), but only in the absence of allergy to the data
    plants!
  • Soaking clothes with special repellents (Gardeks, Det,
    Off, Medilis), wearing mosquito anti-mosquito bracelets (Bugs
    Lock, Gardeks).

Do not forget that any repellent applied to the skin or
clothes, has a specific time of action, after which the application
drug should be repeated! And yet – do not seek to buy
the agent with the longest protection – the longer it is, the stronger and
toxic substance at the base of the repellent, but the presence of a prolongator
in its composition is a plus, it allows you to extend the action without
increasing the concentration of the toxic component.

The most effective repellents for children

тайга
MOSQUITUSH, organic oil, suitable for children from birth,
approximate price of 700 rubles.
OUR MOTHER: cream and emulsion from 18 months, 150 rub. OFF cream with 3 years MOSKITOL: Baby Protection Line (cream, milk, gel) with 1
years, the line “Gentle protection” (220 rubles, gel, spray, napkins) from 3
years old
МАГИКОПЛАСТ пластырь с 2 years old (только на одежду!) 150 руб. TAIGA carnation spray for children from birth
Reftamid Repellent (Reftamide) ГАРДЕКС: спреи с 1 года, карандаш с 2 years old, крем-гель и аэрозоль
с 12 years old
ДЭТА: крем и молочко с 2 years old

Midge bites

The midge, a millimeter insect, is almost common
all over the globe. There are many insect subspecies, but all
they attack a person for one purpose – to get food. Saliva
midges contain toxic substances for which one or another
reaction of the human body responds. The midge is most active in
жаркие месяцы years oldа, основной ареал обитания – леса и растительность
along the reservoirs.

They do not have night activity, they attack in the morning and in the afternoon.
time. Most often the midges attack en masse, i.e. there are always a lot of bites
but single individuals are also actively seeking food. In view of its
размера, насекомое подyears oldает и садится на человека незаметно,
favorite places – hands and feet. Selectivity to the victims not
possesses, equally attacks both adults and children.

Symptoms

This pain and burning at the time of the bite. This symptom is always
differs in intensity depending on saliva toxicity
midges – the more toxic it is, the greater the pain. When attacking midge
gnaws the top layer of the epithelium, actively lubricating the wound
surface saliva containing anesthetic. This is why pain can and
not to be, or it begins to be felt after an insect
left the place of the meal.

  • strong and persistent itching that forces a person to comb
    bite site;
  • swelling of varying severity;
  • allergic rash;
  •  further infection of the affected skin due to
    combing

Midge bite allergy

Hemolyzing and allergenic substances saliva midges often cause
аллергическую реакцию, especially in children. Allergic response
the human body can be in the form of a local or general reaction:

Local Overall
Redness of the skin, rash of a different nature (spots, papules,
blisters), prolonged itching and pain in the bite, swelling
limbs.
Hyperthermia up to 39 C, tachycardia, decrease in pressure,
soreness and an increase in regional lymph nodes,
anaphylactic shock (extremely rare).

First Aid and Allergy Treatment

Bite action algorithm midges exactly the same as when
mosquito. Overall реакция всегда требует врачебного вмешательства,
as well as multiple bites of children regardless of development
allergies.

  • It is necessary to take into account one peculiarity: always
    very itchy. If an adult can still control
    yourself and not combing the skin, then the child is difficult to do.
  • After treatment, the affected skin can be applied.
    aseptic dry dressing or wet dressing with furatsilinom or
    half-alcohol solution, for adults it is possible to use 0.5%
    solution of novocaine.
  • For the prevention of infection should handle the site of the bite.
    salicylic zinc paste or Zindol, which is also removed
    inflammation.

Protection against blackflies

Blackfly bite protection is no different.
for protection against mosquitoes. Almost all modern repellents
act equally against mosquitoes and against black flies.

Bites wasps, bees, hornets

The bites of bees, wasps and hornets often lead to development.
severe allergic reaction. The sad statistic is that
from the attack of bees die 3 times more people than from poisonous
snakes – about 500 insect bites are deadly for
and some people who are allergic to bees have enough
one or two.

These representatives of insects “bite” in a special way, thrusting the sting with
poison into human skin. Hymenoptera poisons possess much
greater toxicity than the poisons of black flies and mosquitoes, the response
always develops, but for each person it has a different degree
expressiveness.

Comparative characteristics of insects

gxtkf

  • Bees
jcf

  • Wasps
ithitym

  • Hornets
Aggressiveness Average High Low
Sting With notches (remains in the skin) Smooth, does not remain in the skin Smooth, does not remain in the skin
Poison action Destroys red blood cells, stimulates nerve structures, increases
motor activity and vascular permeability, causes swelling,
redness, pain and inflammation
Dilates blood vessels, causes pain and inflammation, redness
promotes hemolysis of erythrocytes, reduces smooth muscles
Peculiarity of the insect Dies after being bitten Can bite repeatedly, do not die after being bitten
Cause of human death Stop the respiratory center Heart failure, asphyxiation

 Symptoms:

LOCAL REACTION (usually 1-2 bites) GENERAL REACTION (multiple bites) FEATURES OF THE FACE AND HEAD BIT
  • Burning pain
  • Papule – pale dense elevation
  • Edema (1-5 days)
  • Redness
  • Chills, hyperthermia
  • Dizziness, headache
  • Palpitations, shortness of breath, pain in the heart
  • Less commonly – nausea, vomiting, fainting
  • Often accompanied by inflammation of the lymph nodes.
  • Отек более выраженный, сохраняется до 8 days
  • A bite in the eye can cause panophthalmitis – inflammation of all
    eye tissues.
  • If you are bitten in the mouth, lips, or the sky, severe swelling may develop.
    tissues right up to choking.

Allergic reaction to bee stings, wasps, hornet

Allergy to bite in the form of a hyper-response of the immune system to
components of insect venom can even develop into a single
insect bite, reaction rate – 0.5-2% of cases.

If you once had a bee sting allergy – with
each subsequent bite the body’s allergic response will
stronger! Be carefull!

Variants of the immune response:

  • Urticaria: severe and persistent itching, pale pink blisters,
    which localization is different.
  • Quincke’s edema: an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the deep layers of the skin,
    more often on the face, neck, upper respiratory tract. Extremely dangerous
    laryngeal edema that can lead to suffocation: hoarseness,
    difficulty breathing, turning blue, then pallor of the face, loss
    of consciousness.
  • Anaphylactic shock – extreme allergic reaction,
    occurs immediately after the bite. The earlier the shock developed, the harder
    its flow.

Symptoms анафилактического шока по возрастанию: покраснение
skin, swelling of the face, rash and itching of the whole body, chills, nausea, difficulty
and increased breathing, decreased pressure, dizziness, tachycardia,
потеря of consciousness. Forms of anaphylactic shock:

Dermal Cardiovascular Pulmonary Cerebral Renal
Rash (urticaria) and bleeding Heart failure, coronary spasms, angina,
heart attack
Bronchospasm, bronchitis Cerebral edema, convulsions, coma Acute renal failure

 First aid for bee sting, wasp

When to call an ambulance / see a doctor:

  • Multiple bites are dangerous due to the large
    the amount of poison in the body;
  • Bites to the head, face – can end in suffocation.
  • With a known allergy to insect bites.
  • With the development of symptoms of an allergic reaction (see above).

What not to do:

  • Tighten with the removal of the sting from the skin, since, remaining there,
    it continues to secrete poison.
  • Take alcohol – speeds up circulation and absorption
    poison.
  • Apply to the wound lotions with water from the reservoir, puddles,
    cooling the skin with earth is fraught with infection.
  • Rubbing or pinching a bite – promotes
    распространению poison.
  • Kill a stinged bee, because the smell that gives off
    насекомое при ранении, сyears oldаются другие пчелы.

Step-by-Step First Aid Algorithm

Remove sting from skin

  • If it is seen, you can gently pick it up with tweezers or
    with a fingernail, trying not to press on the bag of the sting because it is there
    poison.
  • If the sting is under the skin, you can pick it up with sterile
    needle from a syringe. Squeeze the sting is not worth unskillful actions
    You can drive it even deeper.

Pull out the skin poison

  • apply a soda lotion to the wound for 20 minutes (1 tsp of soda on
    glass of water);
  • Attach to the wound a piece of moistened sugar.

Neutralize the remaining poison

  • bee – by thoroughly washing the wound with alkaline
    soap;
  • waspid – by jet washing the bite area with a solution
    vinegar and water (1: 1).

Processing bite and cold

Disinfect the place of any antiseptic – hydrogen peroxide,
Chlorhexidine, solution of potassium permanganate. Attach cold to take off
edema.

Antihistamine and other drugs

  • Lubricate the skin with antihistamine ointment (see above) or special
    preparations after insect bites (Psilo-Balsam, DETA, Mosquitall
    balm-foam).
  • Take an antihistamine (see above). At the reception
    allergic reaction can be prescribed
    hormonal drug (Dexamethasone, Prednisone).

Removal of general intoxication

Remove general intoxication: drink plenty of fluids, take vitamin
C, more rest.

If the allergic status is burdened, exclude contact with any
allergens

Insect Bite Prevention

  • You can not provoke an insect – actively brush off, try
    slam and so on
  • Спокойно отойдите в сторону, если насекомое навязчиво years oldает
    beside.
  • If you eat sweets, fruits near habitats
    insects (glade, parks, forest), try not to leave leftovers and
    waste, collect them in a tight plastic bag.
  • Try not to wear bright clothes when visiting the forest.
  • Do not disturb the hives and nests of insects, whether domestic or
    wild bees – the reaction will follow immediately.
  • Do not walk barefoot in the glades with flowering plants.
  • You should use special repellents that scare
    insects (Aries, Etisso, Anti Wash).

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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