Update: October 2018
Each of us has ever been bitten by an insect. Bites
these little representatives of the fauna are fraught with unpleasant
the consequences. In this article we will look at how the bites look.
different insects, what symptoms occur and how to help in such
The most active representative of “biting” insects is a mosquito.
Insect activity falls on May-September. Bite only
female mosquitoes – for them the blood of warm-blooded animals and humans
is the only way to extend your offspring. Insect
can actively attack at night, depriving a person of normal
For a healthy adult, a mosquito bite is not
any danger, except perhaps an unpleasant sensation. But
people with allergies, small children, they can deliver a lot
troubles in the form of a serious inflammatory reaction
Interesting facts about mosquitoes
Писк, сопровождающий поyears old комара – это колебания его крыльев с
up to 600 per second. The mosquito feels the smell of food for 50
метров, а в поисках пропитания насекомое может преодоyears oldь до 64
Dangerous mosquito species
We all know about the malaria mosquitoes that inhabit the tropics and
about 3 million people are “killed” annually. In terms of our latitudes all
malaria cases are imported, i.e. a person becomes infected at the moment
stay in the endemic area of the disease. Mosquitoes of the species Aedes
tolerate dangerous yellow fever, hepatitis and encephalitis. Virus
tropical fever is also tolerated by mosquitoes.
Who is most at risk
- small children (thin skin and accelerated exchange
- people with excessive sweating;
- rural residents;
- people visiting forests and swamps (natural habitat
Symptoms укуса комара
- unpleasant, stabbing sensation at the moment of bite;
- зуд skin;
AT более heavy случаях и у детей может наблюдаться сильная
inflammatory response in the form of:
- hemorrhages at the point of entry;
- puffiness up to edema of the limb, face (bite zone);
- allergic rash near;
- temperature rise;
- sleep disturbance, anxiety, loss of appetite;
- enlarged regional lymph nodes;
- infection: the accession of a secondary bacterial infection,
which is considered a complication.
Spots like mosquito bites
It is sometimes difficult to identify a mosquito bite from a different rash,
This is especially true of children. A mosquito bite always has a point in
center of the outbreak, but an allergic rash that may appear
after a while, is no different from any
A rash on a child’s skin may be allergic, and
infectious nature. If you can still handle the first
independently by taking antihistamine drugs, then the second
may indicate the development of the disease. What can it
- bite of another insect (bug, midge);
- allergic reaction to a specific irritant;
- disease, one of the symptoms of which is rash
(dermatitis, roseola, etc).
Allergy to mosquito bites
Bites комаров у детей – особая тема. Lately
there is an increase in the number of children giving serious allergic
reaction to this, which develops pretty quickly. At the time of the bite
the insect injects a special anticoagulant poison into the skin, which reduces pain,
inhibits blood clotting and softens the vascular wall.
The immune system instantly reacts to such penetration.
inflammatory reaction in the form of a small swelling and redness – so
occurs in healthy adults. In children, with
imperfect immunity and adults with allergies who have failures in
work of immunity, hyperreaction of the immune system is formed on
protein components of insect venom.
According to the severity of allergies to insect bites
is divided into:
- Local – swelling at the bite to 10 cm, which holds more
- General mild to moderate severity – severe itching,
allergic rash (urticaria), angioedema, increased
- General severe – nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, vascular
collapse right down to anaphylactic shock. It is extremely
First aid and treatment of allergic reactions after mosquitoes
With the development of a general reaction of any severity should
visit the doctor and as soon as possible. First Aid and Action
with the development of only a local reaction, the following:
- Тщательно промыть место укуса холодной водой и с soap;
- Treat the area with any antiseptic (hydrogen peroxide,
Furacilin, Chlorhexidine, Dekasan);
- To exclude combing of the wound;
This is enough for a healthy adult to
in half an hour to forget about the bite, i.e. Without
local inflammatory reaction there is no need to apply
- Cool this place to reduce swelling – attach a special
cooling pad, pieces of ice wrapped in cloth.
- Lubricate with antihistamine ointment (Fenistil, Soventol). AT heavy
cases and in the absence of other means can be put in place
bite ointment with hydrocortisone. However, this is an extreme measure, the reaction
a hormonal drug can be very serious
especially in children. If you already had to use this ointment, better
use the drug with the lowest concentration of hormone (0.25
- In the absence of antihistamine ointments, you can attach a lotion with
soda solution (1 tsp. soda in a glass of water) and stand 15-20
minutes (until the swelling is reduced);
- Take an oral antihistamine (Fencarol, Loratadine,
Suprastin) and continue to receive it according to the instructions for 3-5
Common events include
- prevent insects from entering the premises (use
home-made or industrial mosquito nets on the windows,
special ultrasonic repelling systems or fumigators –
- the destruction of insects caught in the room (use
plates and liquids from mosquitoes, which are also available for
applications in children’s rooms – Raptor, Mosquitall, Fumitoks),
Personal prevention includes
- Wearing closed clothes when visiting the forest, park, walks
- The use of special protective nets for children
- The use of repellent emulsions, patches, pencils
aerosols and creams to be applied to exposed areas
skin. It is preferable to use creams and emulsions since they are
create a uniform film on the skin. Aerosols are difficult to dose, to
besides, they can get into the respiratory system. Pencils often create
sticky film that quickly collapses when touched.
- If you do not want to use chemicals, you can
use natural repellents (essential oils of cloves,
geraniums, eucalyptus, lavender) – put on a drop of oil on clothes,
baby carriage), but only in the absence of allergy to the data
- Soaking clothes with special repellents (Gardeks, Det,
Off, Medilis), wearing mosquito anti-mosquito bracelets (Bugs
Do not forget that any repellent applied to the skin or
clothes, has a specific time of action, after which the application
drug should be repeated! And yet – do not seek to buy
the agent with the longest protection – the longer it is, the stronger and
toxic substance at the base of the repellent, but the presence of a prolongator
in its composition is a plus, it allows you to extend the action without
increasing the concentration of the toxic component.
The most effective repellents for children
|MOSQUITUSH, organic oil, suitable for children from birth,
approximate price of 700 rubles.
|OUR MOTHER: cream and emulsion from 18 months, 150 rub.||OFF cream with 3 years||MOSKITOL: Baby Protection Line (cream, milk, gel) with 1
years, the line “Gentle protection” (220 rubles, gel, spray, napkins) from 3
|МАГИКОПЛАСТ пластырь с 2 years old (только на одежду!) 150 руб.||TAIGA carnation spray for children from birth|
|Reftamid Repellent (Reftamide)||ГАРДЕКС: спреи с 1 года, карандаш с 2 years old, крем-гель и аэрозоль
с 12 years old
|ДЭТА: крем и молочко с 2 years old|
The midge, a millimeter insect, is almost common
all over the globe. There are many insect subspecies, but all
they attack a person for one purpose – to get food. Saliva
midges contain toxic substances for which one or another
reaction of the human body responds. The midge is most active in
жаркие месяцы years oldа, основной ареал обитания – леса и растительность
along the reservoirs.
They do not have night activity, they attack in the morning and in the afternoon.
time. Most often the midges attack en masse, i.e. there are always a lot of bites
but single individuals are also actively seeking food. In view of its
размера, насекомое подyears oldает и садится на человека незаметно,
favorite places – hands and feet. Selectivity to the victims not
possesses, equally attacks both adults and children.
This pain and burning at the time of the bite. This symptom is always
differs in intensity depending on saliva toxicity
midges – the more toxic it is, the greater the pain. When attacking midge
gnaws the top layer of the epithelium, actively lubricating the wound
surface saliva containing anesthetic. This is why pain can and
not to be, or it begins to be felt after an insect
left the place of the meal.
- strong and persistent itching that forces a person to comb
- swelling of varying severity;
- allergic rash;
- further infection of the affected skin due to
Midge bite allergy
Hemolyzing and allergenic substances saliva midges often cause
аллергическую реакцию, especially in children. Allergic response
the human body can be in the form of a local or general reaction:
|Redness of the skin, rash of a different nature (spots, papules,
blisters), prolonged itching and pain in the bite, swelling
|Hyperthermia up to 39 C, tachycardia, decrease in pressure,
soreness and an increase in regional lymph nodes,
anaphylactic shock (extremely rare).
First Aid and Allergy Treatment
Bite action algorithm midges exactly the same as when
mosquito. Overall реакция всегда требует врачебного вмешательства,
as well as multiple bites of children regardless of development
- It is necessary to take into account one peculiarity: always
very itchy. If an adult can still control
yourself and not combing the skin, then the child is difficult to do.
- After treatment, the affected skin can be applied.
aseptic dry dressing or wet dressing with furatsilinom or
half-alcohol solution, for adults it is possible to use 0.5%
solution of novocaine.
- For the prevention of infection should handle the site of the bite.
salicylic zinc paste or Zindol, which is also removed
Protection against blackflies
Blackfly bite protection is no different.
for protection against mosquitoes. Almost all modern repellents
act equally against mosquitoes and against black flies.
Bites wasps, bees, hornets
The bites of bees, wasps and hornets often lead to development.
severe allergic reaction. The sad statistic is that
from the attack of bees die 3 times more people than from poisonous
snakes – about 500 insect bites are deadly for
and some people who are allergic to bees have enough
one or two.
These representatives of insects “bite” in a special way, thrusting the sting with
poison into human skin. Hymenoptera poisons possess much
greater toxicity than the poisons of black flies and mosquitoes, the response
always develops, but for each person it has a different degree
Comparative characteristics of insects
|Sting||With notches (remains in the skin)||Smooth, does not remain in the skin||Smooth, does not remain in the skin|
|Poison action||Destroys red blood cells, stimulates nerve structures, increases
motor activity and vascular permeability, causes swelling,
redness, pain and inflammation
|Dilates blood vessels, causes pain and inflammation, redness
promotes hemolysis of erythrocytes, reduces smooth muscles
|Peculiarity of the insect||Dies after being bitten||Can bite repeatedly, do not die after being bitten|
|Cause of human death||Stop the respiratory center||Heart failure, asphyxiation|
|LOCAL REACTION (usually 1-2 bites)||GENERAL REACTION (multiple bites)||FEATURES OF THE FACE AND HEAD BIT|
Allergic reaction to bee stings, wasps, hornet
Allergy to bite in the form of a hyper-response of the immune system to
components of insect venom can even develop into a single
insect bite, reaction rate – 0.5-2% of cases.
If you once had a bee sting allergy – with
each subsequent bite the body’s allergic response will
stronger! Be carefull!
Variants of the immune response:
- Urticaria: severe and persistent itching, pale pink blisters,
which localization is different.
- Quincke’s edema: an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the deep layers of the skin,
more often on the face, neck, upper respiratory tract. Extremely dangerous
laryngeal edema that can lead to suffocation: hoarseness,
difficulty breathing, turning blue, then pallor of the face, loss
- Anaphylactic shock – extreme allergic reaction,
occurs immediately after the bite. The earlier the shock developed, the harder
Symptoms анафилактического шока по возрастанию: покраснение
skin, swelling of the face, rash and itching of the whole body, chills, nausea, difficulty
and increased breathing, decreased pressure, dizziness, tachycardia,
потеря of consciousness. Forms of anaphylactic shock:
|Rash (urticaria) and bleeding||Heart failure, coronary spasms, angina,
|Bronchospasm, bronchitis||Cerebral edema, convulsions, coma||Acute renal failure|
First aid for bee sting, wasp
When to call an ambulance / see a doctor:
- Multiple bites are dangerous due to the large
the amount of poison in the body;
- Bites to the head, face – can end in suffocation.
- With a known allergy to insect bites.
- With the development of symptoms of an allergic reaction (see above).
What not to do:
- Tighten with the removal of the sting from the skin, since, remaining there,
it continues to secrete poison.
- Take alcohol – speeds up circulation and absorption
- Apply to the wound lotions with water from the reservoir, puddles,
cooling the skin with earth is fraught with infection.
- Rubbing or pinching a bite – promotes
- Kill a stinged bee, because the smell that gives off
насекомое при ранении, сyears oldаются другие пчелы.
Step-by-Step First Aid Algorithm
Remove sting from skin
- If it is seen, you can gently pick it up with tweezers or
with a fingernail, trying not to press on the bag of the sting because it is there
- If the sting is under the skin, you can pick it up with sterile
needle from a syringe. Squeeze the sting is not worth unskillful actions
You can drive it even deeper.
Pull out the skin poison
- apply a soda lotion to the wound for 20 minutes (1 tsp of soda on
glass of water);
- Attach to the wound a piece of moistened sugar.
Neutralize the remaining poison
- bee – by thoroughly washing the wound with alkaline
- waspid – by jet washing the bite area with a solution
vinegar and water (1: 1).
Processing bite and cold
Disinfect the place of any antiseptic – hydrogen peroxide,
Chlorhexidine, solution of potassium permanganate. Attach cold to take off
Antihistamine and other drugs
- Lubricate the skin with antihistamine ointment (see above) or special
preparations after insect bites (Psilo-Balsam, DETA, Mosquitall
- Take an antihistamine (see above). At the reception
allergic reaction can be prescribed
hormonal drug (Dexamethasone, Prednisone).
Removal of general intoxication
Remove general intoxication: drink plenty of fluids, take vitamin
C, more rest.
If the allergic status is burdened, exclude contact with any
Insect Bite Prevention
- You can not provoke an insect – actively brush off, try
slam and so on
- Спокойно отойдите в сторону, если насекомое навязчиво years oldает
- If you eat sweets, fruits near habitats
insects (glade, parks, forest), try not to leave leftovers and
waste, collect them in a tight plastic bag.
- Try not to wear bright clothes when visiting the forest.
- Do not disturb the hives and nests of insects, whether domestic or
wild bees – the reaction will follow immediately.
- Do not walk barefoot in the glades with flowering plants.
- You should use special repellents that scare
insects (Aries, Etisso, Anti Wash).
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог