Update: October 2018
Human salivary glands are not so little. Two parotid (by
one at each ear), two submandibular (on each side below the lower
краем челюсти) и две подъязычных Помимо этого много разных
small glands in the sky, cheeks, tongue, lips, mucous and
submucosa of the mouth.
And each of these salivary glands in one far from beautiful day
may be inflamed, bringing its owner a lot of trouble.
This condition will be called sialadenitis. And a special case
inflammation of the parotid salivary gland is called parotitis. ABOUT
inflammation of the salivary glands, symptoms and treatment of sialadenitis we
tell you next.
Why are they inflamed
The culprits of inflammatory changes are most often:
- стрептококки и коринобактерии полости рта,
- Staphylococcus aureus,
- E. coli and other anaerobes,
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
- causative agents of syphilis.
- Actinomycetes – bacteria that are at a certain stage
branch like a fungal mycelium.
- Viruses (Mumps, Epstein-Barr,
When an infectious agent enters the mucous membrane of the salivary gland
swelling, narrowing of the salivary duct occurs, in it
transparent or purulent fluid accumulates, becomes difficult
salivation. With the continued existence of such a situation
gland gradually atrophy or cicatrization, ceasing
produce and secrete a sufficient amount of saliva.
Infection most often penetrates through the mouth of the duct, less often with current
- against the background of respiratory infections of the pharynx, trachea, periodontitis,
- or by contact from adjacent areas (for purulent
spilled inflammation of soft tissue).
ABOUTсновные the reasons:
- Causes of inflammation of the salivary glands in 30% of cases
— вирусы паротита (или Piggy).
- In addition to the infectious process, damage to the glands may occur in
rheumatic disease program (Sjogren syndrome)
- and radiation damage.
- Up to 40% of all inflammations are accounted for by dentistry.
ABOUTстрый сиаладенит чаще инфекционный.
Chronic inflammation involves the gland tissue itself.
(parenchymal), its connective capsule (interstitial) or
duct. In this case, the disease lasts more than 3 months with periods of
the height and decline of inflammation.
What can be noticed
ABOUTстрый процесс характеризуется следующими проявлениями:
- At the location of the inflamed gland appears swelling,
- ABOUTна при нажатии болезненная и плотная.
- If you massage the gland, from its duct can stand out
- It dries in the mouth due to the small amount of saliva or vice versa, saliva
flows all the time.
- The temperature may rise.
The pains that the patient feels are located in the projection
affected glands, can give in the ear, neck, lower jaw,
oral cavity (damage to the submandibular salivary glands). ABOUTни носят
oppressive, arching character.
Factors contributing to sialadenitis:
- high blood calcium (stones can form
ducts of glands, clogging them).
The chronic form of the disease often leads to scarring and
atrophy of glandular tissue, which significantly decreases production
saliva, difficulty swallowing and speaking.
- Interstitial sialadenitis is characterized by a painless
gland swelling. They are more often ill people older than 40 with errors
immunity (diabetes, hypothyroidism). At the beginning of the process
(often symmetric process) tightly elastic glands, then they
compacted. Dry mouth may appear, drop
performance. In exacerbation, pains are aggravated by
- Parenchymal variant is more often congenital. There is also
periodic swelling, salivation mixed with pus, with
gradual drop in saliva production.
- The ductal variant develops as a congenital background
wide duct, and due to acquired its expansion (in
blowers, glassblowers) usually in old age. Do not shed
accounts and foreign bodies in the duct, which often give symptoms
inflammation of the submandibular salivary gland. ABOUTбычно заболевание
begins suddenly with arching pain and its increase, more often after
food. When pressed, it secretes a secret. When joining
bacterial flora temperature rises, swelling increases,
The most terrible complication of this pathology is abscess formation.
(formation of a limited abscess in place of the gland) and sepsis.
Under this mental name, acute inflammation occurs.
parotid gland (parotitis). The disease causes a virus
airborne from a person who is contagious
up to the ninth day from the onset of the disease. Most children are ill and not vaccinated
at one time adults. Since the virus has affinity for glandular
tissues, other salivary glands may be affected as well.
pancreas and testicles in men or boys, ovaries in women.
The virus does not tolerate the environment, is sensitive to antiseptics
and ultraviolet, but tolerates low temperatures and freezing.
After introducing its RNA into infected cells prior to development
Clinic passes about 18 days
Симптомы одностороннего воспаления слюнной железы: отек,
ear pain, drooling, muscle and headache, lifting
With complaints to children cause pediatrician, adults come themselves to
to the therapist, infectious disease specialist, dentist, less often – to the surgeon or
to the venereologist.
Diagnosis suspected on the basis of complaints, inspection, feeling
- Ultrasound and radiography – gland imaging techniques.
- To clarify the nature of inflammation, perform serological
blood samples (for suspected viral infection): looking for
immunoglobulins against virus antigens. For example, with parrot, in
the period of incubation of immunoglobulins may not yet exist or their titer
low (repeat analysis after a couple of days). Since its inception
symptoms in the blood there are immunoglobulins M, with a developed disease –
M and G. After its permission – G (they also provide immunity after
- For bacterial and viral infections in a universal way.
diagnostics with maximum sensitivity remains polymerase
chain reaction (for blood or a detachable gland). ABOUTна же может
used as a rapid diagnosis.
- Bacterial agents allow you to perform and more complex and
long-running culture seeding of the detached gland with
the growth of bacterial colonies and the determination of their sensitivity to
- Biopsy may be required in cases of suspected
autoimmune process or for differential diagnosis.
How to treat
The patient is selected protective mode. Treatment of inflammation
salivary glands in the initial stage of outpatient. Shown
milk and vegetable diet, heavy drinking, mouth rinsing
acidified (with lemon juice) solutions or Caphosol.
- Topical treatment options:
- With parotitis – warming compresses on the parotid
area, blue lamp (Solux), in the conditions of the polyclinic – UHF,
- When inflammation of the glands of the mouth – rinsing with antiseptics
(Miramistin, Furacillin solution: 2 tablets per glass of water),
baking soda solutions: a teaspoon in a glass of water.
- With parotitis – warming compresses on the parotid
- Antiviral drugs are used more often with parotiditis, but
their effectiveness today is poorly proven.
- If antibiotic treatment is carried out, which antibiotics
choose? The selection is based on the high stability of the flora.
ротовой полости к antibiotics. First-line drugs are
Амоксициллин (ABOUTспамокс, Амосин) и Амоксициллина клавуланат
(Amoxiclav, Flemoklav, Augmentin), the second – Cefixime (Zinnat,
Suprax) or Josamycin (Vilprafen).
- To reduce pain, intoxication and fever can
apply Paracetamol, Ibuprofen (up to three times per day).
- The chronic process in the acute stage requires antimicrobial
therapy, pain relief. In remission stage – absorbable therapy
or replacement of saliva deficiency (rinsing with Caphosol). Same tactics
adhere to Sjogren syndrome and radiation injuries
- A surgical stage may be required for suppuration of the glands,
stones of the duct. Stones can be removed when ducting,
For mumps – vaccinations in childhood, non-specific
quarantine activities in children’s groups during epidemics,
sanitation of premises, individual protection measures for non
sick adults caring for the sick (masks, washing hands).
It is also worth paying attention to the state of the immune response.
(eat well, correct hormonal pathologies, do not
take uncontrolled immunosuppressive drugs, guard against
Paradoxically, from the specific inflammation of the salivary glands
against the background of genital infections protects measures of barrier contraception
(condoms, latex wipes).
Timely and preventive visits to the dentist,
adequate dental and oral care prevents development