Update: October 2018
Electrophoresis refers to physiotherapeutic procedures and
more other methods are practiced for various diseases in
adults and children. During the procedure on the human body
electric pulses are applied (direct current),
generated by a special apparatus and providing therapeutic
effect on general and local levels. Simultaneously carried out
administering medication through the skin or
A tour of the history of electrophoresis
Leading physiotherapy would not be possible without a generator
continuous current, which was created by a physicist from Italy A. Volta
The first talk about the electromotive, which is a movement
solutions through the capillaries when exposed to an electric field,
took place in 1809. It was then that the scientist from Germany Ferdinand
Reis first mentioned electrophoresis. However mass
his research did not spread.
In 1926, Arne Tiselius, a Swedish biochemist, was described
The first tube required for the procedure. The first device for
Electrical procedures were invented in 1936 – previously proposed
tubes were transformed into more efficient narrow cells, and a little
later replaced by a section of glass. Years of research
conducted on horse serum, allowed to reveal the mechanism
electrophoresis: molecules with an electric charge, under
the influence of electric current in a liquid medium is moved to the opposite
charged electrode zone.
Apparatus for the procedure
Electrophoresis is performed using different devices, but
the most famous is the “stream”, which has been used for over 50 years
in physiotherapy. The structure of the device is simple: holes for
electrodes marked with + and -, buttons for defining
procedure time and current regulator.
The devices of the new model are equipped with digital indicators and
display (“Elfor”, “Elfor Prof”, etc.)
The overall positive effect of the procedure on the body
- Reducing the severity of the inflammatory process;
- Elimination of edema;
- Reduction of pain;
- Stimulation of the production of substances with biological activity;
- Muscle relaxation with the elimination of increased tone;
- Sedative effect on the central nervous system;
- Improving blood microcirculation;
- Acceleration of tissue regeneration;
- Activation of protective forces.
The mechanism of therapeutic action
The action of electric current leads to the fact that the medicinal
the drug is converted into electrically charged ions, which
and penetrate the skin. It is in the skin that the main part remains.
drug, a little smaller part through the lymph and blood is transported
throughout the body.
Ions with different charges act differently on the body. So,
negatively charged ions have:
- secretion, i.e. affect the production of substances with
biological activity and their entry into the bloodstream;
- relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue;
- vasodilator effect;
- normalizing effect on metabolism.
Ions with a positive charge have a decongestant,
anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect.
Skin areas involved in drug transportation:
- excretory ducts of sweaty and sebaceous glands;
- intercellular regions;
- hair follicles.
The effectiveness of eletrophoresis depends on completeness.
- age of the person;
- power supplied current;
- properties of the solvent in which the drug is dissolved;
- concentration and dose of the drug;
- ion size and charge;
- place of setting electrodes;
- the duration of the procedure;
- individual body characteristics such as tolerance and
susceptibility of the procedure.
How is the procedure
Electrophoresis is carried out in a physiotherapy room,
a medical professional. There are devices for home
applications, for each of which the instruction is developed,
which should be strictly followed.
Classic transcutaneous method. Nurse examines sites
bodies on which electrodes will be placed – the skin must be
healthy, without moles, injuries and inflammatory elements. On
one pad, which is a sterile gauze,
pre-prepared main drug is applied on
the second, similar, cause other medicine, most often 2%
aminophylline, which improves blood circulation, relaxes smooth
muscle and has a slight analgesic effect. First laying
connects to a plus, and the second to a minus.
After preparation, the gaskets are applied to the skin, attached to them.
electrodes and fix the load or elastic bandages, after which
Current strength and time of the procedure are selected individually. Nurse
gradually adds current during the procedure and asks how
the patient feels. Normal sensations are easy.
tingling in the place of attachment of the electrodes. But the burning, itching and pain
are a signal for immediate termination of the procedure.
The average procedure time is 10-15 minutes. Smaller
Duration differ procedures for young children.
Course duration – 10-20 procedures that are carried out daily.
or every other day.
Other methods of electrophoresis
- Tray. The drug and solution is poured into
bath with built-in electrodes. After preparing the patient
immerses in the bath the affected part of the body.
- Cavity. The solution with the drug is introduced into the cavity (vagina,
the rectum) and one of the electrodes is fed into the same cavity.
The second electrode is attached to the skin. Applied with diseases of fat
intestine and pelvic organs.
- Interstitial. The drug is administered in the traditional way,
for example, intravenously or orally, and electrodes are placed on
projection of the affected organ. Such an introduction is especially effective.
pathologies of the respiratory system (bronchitis, tracheitis).
Advantages and disadvantages of drug administration with
- The introduction is not accompanied by pain;
- Low concentration of drug in solution (up to 10
%), which is enough to provide a high therapeutic
- The introduction of the drug directly into the focus of inflammation;
- Minimum adverse and allergic reactions;
- Long therapeutic effect of the administered drug (up to 20
- The classic way of passing drugs through the gastrointestinal tract when
oral administration, which means that bioavailability increases
- Not all drugs can be introduced into the body with
- The procedure itself has a number of strict contraindications.
Drugs used in electrophoresis
Depending on the charge, the drug is injected through a positive
or negative pole. During the procedure is permissible
use only those drugs that penetrate the skin.
Each medicine has its own indications and has a certain
therapeutic effect. Consider the main drugs used
|Onзвание препарата||Indications||Therapeutic effect|
Preparations administered through the positive pole
||Gland secretion decreases and smooth muscle tone decreases.
tissue. Pain is eliminated.
Calcium chloride electrophoresis is prescribed in violation of
|Antiallergic, hemostatic and
anti-inflammatory effect. Fill the gap
|Euphyllin||Electrophoresis with aminophylline is indicated for:
||Decreased smooth muscle spasm, decreased arterial
pressure, improve blood circulation and eliminate bronchospasm.
Elimination of pain.
||Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-allergic
Effect. Normalization of metabolism and the work of these organs and
||Softening of the cartilage of intervertebral discs. Scarring
damaged collagen fibers and restore their elasticity.
||Soothing, sleeping pills, pain reliever and
antiallergic action. Relaxation smooth
|Lidaza||Electrophoresis with lidazy carried out at:
||Cleavage of hyaluronic acid, which is involved in
scar formation. Reduced tissue swelling and slowdown
mechanism for the formation of contractures.
||Normalization of heart rhythm, nervous system and
||Over 80 biologically active substances render complex
effects on the body, including regenerating,
|Papaverine||Conditions that are accompanied by cramps (urinary spasm
ways, bronchospasm, etc.).
|Elimination of muscle spasm, smooth muscle tone
internal organs. Vasodilator Effect. Reduction
||Acceleration of tissue regeneration processes. Immunity stimulation
at the local level. Выраженный противовоспалительный Effect.
|Novocaine||Pain syndrome accompanying the disease.||Local anesthetic effect.|
The drugs entered through a negative pole
||Противовоспалительный Effect. Pathogen growth inhibition
bacteria. Reduction уровня холестерина.
||Bactericidal effect on a wide range of infectious
|A nicotinic acid||
||Vasodilator Effect. Improving blood circulation. Reductions
blood cholesterol levels.
||Inhibition of the growth of pathogenic flora.|
||Blood thinning. Anti-inflammatory and anti-edema
act. Improved microcirculation.
||Выраженное адаптогенное act. Противовоспалите
analgesic effects. Increased nonspecific resistance
The following drugs can be administered both from the anode and from
- trypsin and other.
Indications для электрофореза
It is easier to list contraindications to treatment, because
The procedure is indicated for most common diseases.
практически всех органов и systems. However, the lack of mass
application of the available procedure and patient interest is explained
- Doctors do not always offer this method to patients.
- since the procedures are carried out in a physiotherapy room,
then the treatment is burdensome for some
- not all people trust such procedures and treat them with
Indications для процедуры у маленьких детей до 1 года:
- hyper or hypotonic muscle;
- minor neurological disorders
- diseases of the musculoskeletal system (including dysplasia and
immaturity of the hip joints);
- diseases of upper respiratory tract.
Contraindications for electrophoresis are absolute and
As for any other physiotherapy, for electrophoresis
characteristic indications and contraindications. Contraindications share
на абсолютные, при которых процедура запрещена, и relative,
in which the decision about the possibility of physiotherapy is taken by the doctor.
Electrophoresis is not carried out in the acute stage of the disease or when
exacerbation of chronic pathologies is an absolute contraindication
for all patients.
Even in the absence of direct contraindications to the procedure, the doctor
always weighs the pros and cons, assesses the general condition
physical and mental health before assigning
Side Effects of Electrophoresis
If the procedure technique is fully complied with, no
no side effects occur. The development of allergic
reactions to the drug used to treat. Often in place
laying strip remains hyperemia, which quickly passes
после снятия electrodes.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог