Hypotension – what is it, symptoms, causes, treatmentand prevention of hypotonic disease

Hypotension or, more correctly, hypotension is a condition where
blood pressure is constantly lower than
which are considered healthy, while developing a whole complex
various symptoms, a person is seriously unwell.
Hypotension may develop as an independent disease, may
result from other pathologies.

В статье рассмотрим: что это такое за заболевания, как
acute and chronic form, as well as methods
effective in treating.

What is hypotension?


Hypotension is a prolonged condition of the body,
characterized by low blood pressure and various
autonomic disorders: lower body temperature,
sweating feet and palms, pallor, etc.

According to statistics, women are more likely to suffer from hypotension than
men Often diagnosed to reduce blood pressure in
adolescence. In older people, it makes sense to talk about
atherosclerotic hypotension that occurs on the background of a lesion
vascular atherosclerosis and loss of vascular tone.

Who is hypotensive?

A hypotonic person is a person whose blood pressure is chronically low.
(90 to 60 and below).

While hypertension is primarily a disease of humans.
Mature age, hypotension – the problem of youth.

  • Congenital hypotension most often affects girls aged
    19 to 40 years. In older age, blood pressure usually rises due to
    beginning of the aging process.
  • Acquired hypotension is a frequent occurrence among athletes and

Hypotonics do not want to walk with their heads and necks open,
especially in the cold. Feet should be kept warm, and in no case
cool your hands. The heart has to try too hard to warm
limbs, and this is a big load.

As a rule, hypotonia does not tolerate stuffiness – in the summer
they prefer to go the right way on foot than to be stuffy
and close public transport. And with small physical
нагрузках могут появиться боли  (не интенсивные) в
areas of the heart, shortness of breath.

In the hot season, people with low blood pressure usually
experience many unpleasant symptoms: squeezing pain in
temples, “flies” before the eyes, dizziness.

What is important to know?

  1. Hypotonics can not stand in one place for a long time, it is easier for them
    walk because they need any muscle activity when
    which pressure rises. That is why they will not be long
    wait for public transport at the bus stop.
  2. To maintain your tone, you must keep an active image.
    life is not occasional, but constantly, regularly.
  3. The best weather conditions are frosty sunny days. Climate change
    patients suffer poorly, so doctors recommend hypotensive
    spend their holidays in the usual climate zone.
  4. Many hypotension can manifest itself only in the form
    increased fatigue and meteolability.

The reasons

The cause of primary arterial hypotension in 80% of cases is
cardiopsychoneurosis. According to modern theories,
primary hypotension is a particular form of neurosis
vasomotor centers of the brain, in the development of which
the leading role is given to stress and long-term psychotraumatic
situations. Immediate causes can

  • psychological trauma
  • chronic fatigue and lack of sleep,
  • depressed.

Much more common hypotension is secondary – arising in
result of other diseases. Hypotension may accompany
following diseases:

  • Эндокринные нарушения, в том числе сахарный диабет, а чаще
    all – violations of the adrenal glands;
  • Injuries to internal organs and especially to the brain;
  • Osteocondritis of the spine;
  • Heart failure;
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Hepatitis;
  • Peptic ulcer disease.

There is no point in treating secondary low pressure without treatment.
the underlying disease, the disposal of which will lead to
normalization of blood pressure.

Among other causes of hypotension should be noted:

  • anemia (blood viscosity decreases);
  • Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency), amyloidosis
    adrenal glands, their surgical removal (deficiency in the body
  • reduced thyroid function;
  • acute and chronic bleeding (decrease in bcc);
  • infectious diseases;
  • anaphylactic and other types of shock;
  • overdose of some medications (antihypertensives,
    diuretic, nitroglycerin).

Also found physiological hypotension, not accompanied by
no changes in the internal organs. Physiological
hypotension may develop:

  • The inhabitants of the subtropics and tropics (hot climatic
  • The workers of the hot Czechs in the factories (more often
  • The athletes and residents of the highlands.

Often, hypotension occurs in athletes with
excessive physical exertion – it is called so by doctors
�”Hypotension fitness.”

Symptoms of hypotension

The main symptoms of hypotension are quite blurry, they can
talk about other diseases. Therefore, when they occur
necessarily need to consult a doctor. Usually on
The following signs indicate low blood pressure:

  • severe dizziness, headache, weakness;
  • sleep disturbances, constant fatigue, irritability;
  • skin is constantly white, fingertips may turn blue;
  • various disorders of the heart, shortness of breath, blackout in the eyes
    with sharp movements.

Often, patients with hypotension have signs such as
feeling of heaviness in the epigastrium, bitter taste in the mouth, a decrease
appetite, belching, heartburn, flatulence, constipation.

Symptoms of acute hypotension

The acute form of arterial hypotension occurs with a pronounced
oxygen starvation of brain tissue, in connection with which
symptoms such as:

  • dizziness
  • short-term visual impairment,
  • shaky gait,
  • paleness of the skin,
  • fainting.

Symptoms of the chronic form

With chronic secondary hypotension to the fore
there are symptoms of the underlying disease. In addition, in patients

  • weakness,
  • apathy,
  • drowsiness,
  • increased fatigue
  • headaches,
  • emotional lability
  • memory impairment
  • Thermoregulation disorders
  • sweating feet and palms,
  • tachycardia.

The prolonged course of arterial hypotension causes disorders
menstrual cycle in women and potency in men.

Orthostatic hypotension

Very often orthostatic hypotension occurs – sharp
decrease in blood pressure when you change the position of the body. it
quite common condition among teenagers when
growing body requires more vascular intensive work.

  • When standing up or in an upright position for
    a long time, blood can flow to the brain in
    insufficient quantity.
  • As a result, the pressure drops, dizziness occurs,
    eyes darken, fainting can happen.

In people with hypotension, with increased physical exertion increases
heartbeat and pulse, shortness of breath and discomfort may occur
sensations in the region of the heart. The most frequent deterioration of health in
hypotension observed after infectious diseases
and colds, as well as in the spring and summer periods of the year

First aid

First aid при гипотонии сводится к выполнению следующих

  • It is necessary to lay the patient on a comfortable surface, placing
    roll under the feet;
  • You can seat the patient so that they lowered their heads
    below the knees;
  • It is important to help the person to follow the breath. It should be
    even, but not deep;
  • If a person loses consciousness, you can offer him a sniff.
    cotton pad moistened with ammonia;
  • When the patient’s condition improves, you need to give him a cup
    sweet tea or coffee. The drink should not be very hot.


It is not difficult to diagnose hypotonia, it is enough
descriptions of the clinical picture and simple pressure measurement.
It is significantly more difficult to determine the cause of the reduced pressure.
It is necessary to find out whether the condition is primary or secondary.

Secondary hypotension is treated more closely by doctors,
since many common

  • First, exclude diseases of the cardiovascular system
    then nervous.
  • In addition, secondary hypotension may be a sign of multiple
    diseases, from chronic tonsillitis to renal pathology,
    therefore diagnostics may require fairly extensive

The relationship of poor health hypotonic with environmental conditions
environment is important in diagnosis. If symptoms recur, fainting
become frequent, a person loses the ability to perform work.
It is important that manifestations of hypotension are detected with changes in

  • high humidity
  • stuffy room
  • loud music
  • Riding in a crowded transport.

For diagnosis, the doctor is guided not by one, but by
complex of symptoms. It is necessary to examine the patient and exclude
possible causes of hypotension.

To do this, conduct:

  • general blood and urine analysis;
  • examine the sugar curve;
  • check hormonal balance;
  • liver biochemical samples and residual nitrogen;
  • ECG in the dynamics;
  • Ultrasound of the heart;
  • USDG of vessels of the neck and brain.

Treatment of hypotension in adults

The doctor should select a method of treatment after a general examination.
the patient’s body. Independently draw conclusions and use
medication is not worth it. Otherwise, you can not only
get rid of hypotension, but also worsen their own health.

A specific drug is prescribed by a doctor, but as an example
bring the following medication:

  • for pains (headaches, menstrual), citramon is used;
  • with high fatigue, IRR, in women in the period of PMS –
  • tonic effect is characterized by Saparal, it can be
    assigned as a prophylactic against mental and
    physical fatigue, with asthenia, depressive states,
  • with dizziness, impaired concentration,
    stabilization needs of intellectual and emotional
    processes can be assigned to Nootropil;
  • glycine is used to improve metabolic processes in
    brain tissue helps fight depression, sleep disorders,


Recommended physiotherapy procedures that have
general tonic action and train the vessels:

  • electrophoresis with a solution of calcium chloride, caffeine,
  • galvanic collar according to Scherbak;
  • diadynamic therapy of the cervical sympathetic ganglia;
  • douche and other water procedures;
  • general ultraviolet irradiation;
  • massage and reflexology;
  • darsonvalization of the scalp.

General recommendations:

  1. It is necessary to limit alcohol intake, as well as avoid
    prolonged exposure to elevated temperature (because
    dilation of skin vessels contributes to the reduction of arterial
  2. It is necessary to cancel all drugs that can cause
  3. Rational organization of work and rest, night sleep at least 10
    h., full and varied 4-fold food.
  4. Sleep preferably with a raised foot end of the bed (for
    reduce nighttime diuresis).
  5. Increased consumption of salt (tolerability).
  6. monitor the duration of the night’s sleep – it should not be shorter
    8 ocloc’k;
  7. it is better to get out of bed without sudden movements, gradually, so
    as with a quick transition to a vertical position, the blood drains from
    heads and you can faint;
  8. take a contrast shower in the morning – alternating hot and
    cool water for 5 minutes causes vessels to tone and
    normalizes blood pressure;
  9. exercise complex is also capable
    �“Wake up” sluggish vessels;
  10. завтрак — necessarilyе условие нормального самочувствия днем,
    it must contain a caffeinated drink — coffee or green
    tea, cheese sandwich.

Folk remedies

Перед применением, necessarily проконсультируйтесь с лечащим
a doctor.

  • When hypotension is very useful to use 1 glass
    pomegranate juice per day – it is better to cook it yourself from
    ripe fruit. But keep in mind that in its pure form this drink
    can not be used – pomegranate juice is diluted with water in
    proportions 1: 1. This is due to the fact that the acid in
    the composition of pomegranate juice, detrimental effect on dental
  • Take one tablespoon of Hypericum, pour a glass of boiling water,
    hold in a water bath for 15 minutes, then remove from heat and strain.
    Ready broth to dilute with a glass of cold water. Solution needed
    drink a third of a glass in the morning.
  • Rhodiola rosea extract (the drug is sold in pharmacies in the form of
    tinctures, take the drug should be five drops before taking
    food, but not more than three times a day, the course of treatment is made in
    an average of two weeks);
  • Coffee blend (mix ground and roasted coffee beans with honey
    and lemon juice, the mixture should be taken once a day for tea
    spoon between meals, but not more than two times a day, the general course
    treatment is approximately two weeks);
  • Carrots and spinach. Spinach juice and carrots are mixed, while
    1: 2 ratio must be observed – carrot juice should be
    more. Take a mixture of juices 3 times a day before meals, 200 ml per
    throughout the week.
  • Lemongrass extract. Take this folk remedy drop by drop
    every day for quite a long time. The number of drops should
    match age and individual needs. Very important
    Prevent overdose.


Effective prevention methods:

  1. The best way to prevent hypotension is considered to be
    healthy lifestyle.
  2. To persons at risk for this disease,
    need to eat right, regularly experience non-intrusive
    exercise, fully relax and maintain
    vascular tone.
  3. In addition, hypotensives are strongly advised to avoid
    stressful situations: negative emotions often become
    factor causing a marked decrease in pressure.
  4. You need to try to lead not only physically, but also emotionally.
    active life, meet people, be interested in happening
    events, to participate in public life – vitality
    supported by emotions.

In most cases, hypotension goes away with age because
with the natural aging of the human body, blood pressure most often
increases. Based on this very reason, hypotonicus should
regularly undergo examination by a cardiologist and periodically
control your pressure.

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