Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland: signs,treatment

Update: October 2018

Thyroid hypoplasia is a rare pathological
a condition characterized by an underdeveloped gland accompanied by
violation of the production of hormones and the slow growth of organ tissues.
The disease can be observed in the form of a diffuse reduction in size.
glands or uneven developmental disorders of an organ
For example, hypoplasia of the left lobe of the thyroid gland.

The disease may not have characteristic clinical manifestations and
do not cause any functional defects (1: 2000 schoolchildren
in regions with insufficient iodine intake with food
products). In the United States, hypoplasia of the thyroid gland was detected only in
200 thousand inhabitants. Occurrence frequency – 1 case per 3000 – 4000
live born children.

As a rule, hypoplasia develops even in utero, and
symptoms of the disease can be noticed immediately after birth.

The reasons

The cause of thyroid hypoplasia is a gene mutation,
occurring in the fetus during pregnancy under the influence
various factors:

  • Hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, iodine deficiency in
    the body of a pregnant woman
  • Hereditary factor (there are several observations
    demonstrating hereditary predisposition to this
    disease, but data to confirm this
    not enough)
  • Hormonal drugs
  • Radiation exposure, chemicals

Symptoms

Symptoms characteristic of thyroid hypoplasia
observed in children aged 2 – 3 months. Occurrence
Symptoms due to insufficient hormone production
triiodothyronine and thyroxine.

Гипоплазия щитовидной железы у детей имеет следующие
manifestations:

  • Drowsiness, apathy, lethargy Гипоплазия щитовидной железы: причины, симптомы, treatment
  • Deterioration in appetite, weight loss
  • Inhibited reaction or its complete absence to stimuli
    (sound, light)
  • Hoarseness
  • Frequent constipation (see constipation in infants – what to do)
  • Persistent jaundice
  • Lag in psychomotor development (violation of pronunciation,
    violation of attention, delayed physical development. Is becoming
    noticeable from 4-6 months).

If late detection and treatment of hormone deficiency
thyroid leads to severe complications
hypoplasia – cretinism. This disease is characterized by deep
mental retardation and serious neurological
frustration

Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in women

Hypoplasia leads to dysfunction of the organs of the reproductive system
and is the cause of infertility. Signs of cretinism are:

  • Disproportionate physique, short stature (squint,
    excessively large head, depressed nose bridge)
  • Abdominal protrusion, low navel
  • Thick skin, brittle hair, thin nails (exfoliate, crumble,
    break down)
  • Underdevelopment of the genitals
  • Hoarseness (due to swelling of the vocal cords)
  • Loss of coordination, clumsy gait
  • Speech impairment

In the later stages, myxedema edema appears,
characterized by the accumulation of viscous mucus fluid in
body cavities of the patient. Marked by:

  • Smoothed facial contours, swollen eyelids
  • Respiratory failure due to swelling of the nasal mucosa
  • Hearing impairment (middle ear edema)
  • Bradycardia, signs of heart failure (cold
    limbs, pale skin)

Diffuse hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in an adult is
cause cardiac arrest and leads to a gradual
increase in the size of the heart, accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in
pericardial cavity. Heart failure is the cause
chronic renal failure as well as disruption
digestive system.

Diagnostics

The basic principle is timely prevention. For early
Detecting hypoplasia requires an annual visit to an endocrinologist.
If the doctor suspected hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, then for
confirmation of the diagnosis is assigned ultrasound and
determination of the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood
the patient. Currently perinatal is widely used.
screening. Thyroid hormone levels are determined in all
newborns, which allows to reveal hypoplasia immediately after
of birth.

Treatment

Treatment гипоплазии щитовидной железы осуществляется с помощью
replacement therapy. This method assumes constant reception
hormonal drugs that compensate for the lack of thyroid
hormones. Hormone therapy is carried out throughout life.
больного под регулярным контролем уровня hormones. Early start
treatment prevents disease progression and development
the above complications. Maximum efficiency can
добиться, начав treatment с первых месяцев жизни больного
baby

With a later start of treatment, all developed disorders
will be irreversible, but the further course of the disease
is terminated.

The prognosis of treatment depends on the time of detection.
diseases. With early treatment of irreversible disorders, you can
to avoid. The development of severe hormonal deficiency and
lack of treatment lead to irreversible disturbances in body and
may cause the death of the patient.

Автор: Коробов Никита Александрович врач-анестезиолог

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